Cetacean Nonfiction Bibliography

Last update: July 1, 2005

Note: This bibliography contains descriptive, natural history, and popular works (including New Age mythology) either wholly or partially about cetaceans, as well as all major scientific texts and a selection of other scientific texts, articles, and graduate theses (on topics such as chemical and noise pollution, whale watching, swim-with programs, rehabilitation and release of captive cetaceans, strandings, etc.).

At the end of the main bibliography is a list of cetacean-related journals, followed by a short bibliography of literature on recent developments in global whaling (including some relevant, though not necessarily recent, anthropological works on indigenous whaling). The whaling bibliography was originally compiled by Rich Wallace in 1996 and has subsequently been appended to by me, in particular with articles on the unethical nature of whaling. There are also various books in the main bibliography that may contain chapters on the whaling industry, and I have also included all full-length works opposing whaling of which I am aware, as well as an account of the sinking of the whaling ship Essex by a sperm whale. For more information on full-length works on whaling, see The Whale, edited by L. H. Matthews, and Richard Ellis's Men and Whales, or visit the online bookstore Moby Dick: Specialists in Books on Nature.

Annotation of this bibliography is in progress, and if any reader would like to contribute a brief description of, or commentary on, any of the titles, or recommend additional titles, input will be gratefully received by Trisha Lamb Feuerstein, dolphintlf@aol.com.

Very special thanks to Jaap van der Toorn and Scott Taylor for their many contributions.


Ackerman, Diane. The Moon by Whale Light, And other Adventures Among Bats, Penguins, Crocodilians, and Whales. New York: Random House, 1991. (essays)

Acosta, Adriana. Amazon river dolphin research. The author may be contacted via Cetacean Society International, rossiter@csiwhalesalive.org.

From Whales Alive!, January 2003: "Adriana studied the effects of boats on freshwater dolphins, the Boto Inia geoffrensis and Tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis, during the low water period at Puerto Narino, a town at the confluence of rivers on the Colombian Amazon. She also evaluated dolphin responses to eco-tourism boats, and worked with boat drivers and tourist guides on a Conservation and Management Strategy, including guidelines for responsible eco-tourism in the area . . . Adriana's research quantifed dolphin reactions to the three types of boats, canoes, 'peque-peque' (canoes with outboards), and larger outboard motor boats . . . While canoes had little effect, boats with motors usually caused the dolphins to evade by congregating in deeper water, with changes in surface activity. Most events displaced the dolphins from feeding, and perhaps from significant nursing and resting . . ."

Agarkov, G. B. Morphology of Dolphins. 1974. In Russian. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Aguilar, Alex, and Assumpcí Borrell. Marine Mammals and Pollutants: An Annotated Bibliography. 1996. Available from Terra-Fundací pel Desenvolupament Sostenible, P.O. Box 94141, 08080 Barcelona, Spain, fax: +34-3-319 89 59, e-mail: alexa@porthos.bio.ub.es. In Spanish and English.

"The scientific production describing the incidence of pollutants in marine mammals has increased exponentially in recent years, and a considerable body of data has been built up on the incidence, metabolic pathways, physiological response, and effects of pollutants on [this], quite often threatened, group of mammals. This volume presents an annotated bibliography compiling over 500 references on the subject. It is expected to assist senior students, researchers, disseminators of science, or environmentally oriented managers in future studies.

"The book is organized into three main parts: an introductory chapter describing the past, current and future trends in this field, an annotated list of references, and a series of indices which provide access to references on particular taxonomic species, geographical regions, or topics through the use of keywords. Keywords were extracted not only from the title, abstract or keywords given by the authors, but also directly from the contents; the level of detail reached in the descriptive notations is therefore much higher than is usual in common bibliographic retrieval systems. The introductory chapters and the indices are presented in Spanish and English."

Contents include: Introduction; Thirty years of research on pollutants in marine mammals (1966-1995); List of citations (with authors, publication reference, taxonomic list of species covered, geographical scope of the citation, and keywords of contents in English and Spanish); Author index; Taxonomic index; Geographical index; Subject index in English; Subject index in Spanish.

Ainley, D. G., et al. Beached Marine Birds and Mammals of the North American West Coast: A Revised Guide to Their Census and Identification, with Supplemental Keys to Beach Sea Turtles and Sharks. San Francisco, California: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, 1993.

"[This] publication grew from a beach survey organized by PRBO International Biological Research (also known as Point Reyes Bird Observatory) in California and which eventually ran for 14 years: the participating volunteers needed a better means to identify beach-cast organisms than was available to them in popular field guides. The first edition proved its value to these persons as well as to others responding to oil spills, marine mammal strandings and similar incidents . . . Presented here is information to identify specimens of marine birds, mammals, sea turtles and sharks (including rays) that have washed onto beaches, including identification keys supplemented by illustrations, glossaries of terms and narrative accounts of species' occurrence patterns. Instructions are included for the conduct of beach surveys.

"This guide includes most species of marine birds, mammals, sea turtles, sharks and rays known to occur or likely to occur as carcasses on beaches from the Bering Strait, Alaska and along the North American Coast south to Cabo San Lucas at the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. The coast of mainland Mexico, which is also part of North America, is not covered per se but virtually all the bird, mammal and turtle species that might occur on those beaches are treated in this guide. Sharks were included in the revised guide mainly because they are of similar size and gross morphology to most of the smaller cetaceans, with which they are often confused when washed onto a beach in a decomposed condition."

Alaniz, Yolanda, Lic. Hugo Castello, and Cecilia Vega. "Los Definiarios en México -- Un Informe Critico" (Dolphinaria in Mexico -- A Critical Report). Produced with the support of Animal Welfare Institute, Cetacean Society International, Conservacíon de Mamiféros Marinos de México, A.C., Earth Island Institute, Humane Society International, Mac Hawley, Swiss Working Group for the Protection of Marine Mammals, and the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. Available in Spanish and in English from Cetacean Society International (click on the link above).

"'Dolphinaria in Mexico - A Critical Report' reveals for the first time Mexico's inhumane exploitation of bottlenose dolphins for one of the world's fastest growing yet unregulated marine mammal captivity industries . . .

"Written by Latin American experts, with the support of eight international environmental organizations, the report provides a first-ever critical review of 19 of Mexico's dolphinaria and swim-with-the-dolphin programs. It documents how dolphins in Mexico are cruelly captured from the wild to suffer short lives in unnatural and unhealthy captive environments; trained even by starvation to perform and interact with tourists.

"The report exposes the high death rate among the captives, the commercial exploitation of these animals by their display in amusement parks and extreme sports facilities, and the bribery and corruption involved in the import and export of dolphins into and out of Mexico. It also reveals the extent of Mexico's involvement in the international trade in these animals with Latin America, Russia and the European Union.

"As you will read in the report some examples of extreme cruelty in the Mexican dolphinarium industry include: dolphins held in an overheated pool on an Acapulco beach, beneath a bungee-jump tower from which tourists leap, dunking their heads in the dolphins' pool; belugas held in an very noisy pool beneath a roller coaster, next to a busy highway in Mexico; captive dolphins inhumanely displayed in circuses travelling around Mexico and Latin America, risking the lives of these animals with dangerous transportation, inadequate holding facilities and the lack of veterinary assistance.

"Mexico is experiencing an unregulated growth in swim-with-the-dolphins facilities directed at international tourists. These interactive programs raise many concerns for the welfare of both dolphins and people, from the potential for injury and stress from irresponsible human behaviour, the risk of dolphin aggression towards people, and the potential for disease transmission between humans and dolphins.

"The report calls for urgent action to be taken by the Mexican government to regulate dolphin captures and displays, and to enforce legislation to regulate the nearly uncontrolled trade in captive marine mammals for commercial profit. It marks the beginning of a major campaign by Mexican environmentalists, supported by international organizations, to bring change and accountability to this exploitive and inhumane industry."

Alaska Whales and Whaling. Volume 5, Number 4 of Alaska Geographic. Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Geographic Society, 1978.

Chapters include: Introduction to Alaska's Whales (by Victor Scheffer), History of Commercial Whaling in Arctic Alaska, The Arctic Whaling Disaster of 1897, Modern Shored-based Whaling, Early Native Whaling in Alaska, Alaska's Whales: A Closer Look, Humpback Whales in Southeastern Alaska, The Study of Whales (includes sections on Whales in Captivity, Whale Watching, and Whale Sounds), Modern Eskimo Whaling.

Alpers, Anthony. Dolphins: The Myth and the Mammal. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1961.

Trisha: A good overview of the biology of dolphins [as known through 1960] and of Greek, Roman, and Polynesian dolphin mythology. Also includes substantive discussions of the lone dolphins Pelorus Jack and Opo. A unique and valuable feature of this work is a "delphinology," a chronological list of the main contributions to our understanding of the dolphin, from Aesop through 1961.

___________. A Book of Dolphins. London: John Murray, 1960.

Amante-Helweg, Verna Lynn Uakinimakalehua. Cultural Perspectives of Dolphins by Ecotourists Participating in a "Swim with Wild Dolphins" Programme in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. Master's thesis available from the University of Auckland, New Zealand; e-mail: vhelweg@psych.auckland.ac.nz.

Explores "the relationships among beliefs, knowledge, demographic characteristics, and personal values of 306 tourists who participated in a 'Swim with Dolphins' program in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, using a novel questionnaire distributed on shore after excursions. Most respondents interpreted dolphin behavior anthropomorphically, and perceived the dolphins' social structure as being sociocentric, regardless of the degree of sociocentrism attributed to the respondents' own culture. Principal Components Analysis revealed attributions of spirituality, altruism, interspecies sociability and dolphin society. Females, residents of Asia, New Zealand, and Australia, non-Christians, and those with secondary education only were most likely to make positive spiritual attributions. Middle-aged people were more likely to agree with altruistic attributions than were younger or older people. The more religious the respondent, the more willing they were to accept their role in culture, the more important the role of preserving the group's image, and the less important deadlines, the more likely he/she would agree with attributions of dolphin spirituality. As the importance of honoring of parents and elders and loyalty to friends increased, the more likely the respondents' were to believe that dolphins seek and enjoy human interaction. The ecotourists who formed this sample were unacquainted with scientific knowledge related to cetaceans, and therefore were not likely to understand most of the philosophical, educational, economic, or ecological values of wildlife. Thus, they would benefit from interpretative centers."

___________. "Ecotourists' Beliefs and Knowledge about Dolphins and the Development of Cetacean Ecotourism." Aquatic Mammals (1996) 22:131-140.

Amazonskii del'fin (Amazonian Dolphin), editor unknown. Russia: Nauka, 1996. In Russian, with short English summaries at the end of each paper.

Contents include: The Amazonian Dolphin (A Survey); Morphological Characteristics of the Skin of the Amazonian Dolphin; Specific Features of the Structure of the Epidermis in the Amazonian Dolphin; On the Investigation of the Vertebral Column of the Amazonian Dolphin; Comparative Anatomy of the Supracranial Nasal Ducts in the Amazonian Dolphins and Bottlenose Dolphins; Macro- and Microscopic Investigation of the Cortex in the Amazonian Dolphin; Visual Activity and Topographical Organization of the Retina in the Amazonian Dolphin; Peculiarities of the Audial Perception of the Amazonian Dolphin; Respiration and Cardiac Activity of the Amazonian Dolphin; Peculiarities of the Slow Wave Sleep in the Amazonian Dolphin; Rest and Active States in the Amazonian Dolphin; Estral Cycle of a Female Amazonian Dolphin Maintained in Captivity; Visual Discrimination Capabilities of the Amazonian Dolphin; Distribution, Population Density and Some Behavioral Peculiarities of the Amazonian Dolphin

Ambassador College. A Whale of a Tale, or the Dilemma of Dolphins and Duckbills!. Pasadena, California: Ambassador College Press, 1968, 1970.

A brief exclamation-point-laden attempt by creationists to disprove evolution based on the unusual characteristics of cetaceans and platypuses.

American Cetacean Society. Dolphin Fact Pack and Whale Fact Pack. American Cetacean Society, P.O. Box 2639, San Pedro, California 90731, USA. (310) 548-6279.

The fact packs contain general information on cetaceans, fact sheets on each species, instructions on how to draw different species, and a bibliography.

Ames, Lee J., and Warren Budd. Draw 50 Endangered Animals: The Step-by-Step Way to Draw Humpback Whales, Giant Pandas, Gorillas, and More Friends We May Lose. Main Street Books, 1993.

Amos, Stephen H. Familiar Marine Mammals: North America. An Audubon Society Pocket Guide. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990, 1992.

Contents include: Identifying Marine Mammals; Finding Marine Mammals; Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises; Rare Whales; Marine Mammal Behavior; Guide to Groups; Parts of Whales; and Whale Diving Sequences. Also contains a glossary and an index.

Andersen, Harald. T., ed. The Biology of Marine Mammals. New York: Academic Press, 1969. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Anderson, G. R. V. National Contingency Plan for Cetacean Strandings. Occasional Paper No. 6, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra, 1982.

Anderson, Robert. Guide to Florida Whales and Their Relatives. Altamonte Springs, Florida: Winner Enterprises/Erwin Lampert, 1989.

Chapters include: Whale Facts--Answers to Most Asked Questions; Life History, Past and Present; Whale Hunting, Past and Present; Habitats and Habitat Distribution; and Reproduction.

Ariel, Aurora Juliana, and Jack Canfield. Dolphin Magic: Extraordinary Encounters With Dolphins. Book and film. Forthcoming.(New Age)

] From the authors: "This book . . . speaks to [a] . . . worldwide phenomenon where dolphins are facilitating an awakening in the consciousness of humanity. Touching people from every walk of life all over the world, countless individuals have now experienced healings, visions, miracles, blessings, telepathic communications, powerful life changes, and personal transformations.

"Please add your stories to this . . . collection . . . and let us know of any cetacean organizations that you feel should be included in a share of the profits from this book. There will be a resource directory in the back of the book showcasing the work of all contributing authors, which is [a] . . . way to network dolphin books, films, art, societies, and other projects."

Email stories to: aurora@sacredalchemy.com.

Armour, Michael C. Orca Song. Illustrated by Katie Lee. Soundprint, 1994.

Synopsis: Orca Pup is trapped in an abandoned net and separated from his family until he hears the song that they sing while looking for him.

Atkinson, Tania. Pelorus Jack: The Story of New Zealand's Famous Dolphin. Auckland, New Zealand: Collins, 1984.

Atlas, Michael. The Way of the Dolphin. Forthcoming. (New Age)

From the website: "The Way of the Dolphin will be structured around stories that demonstrate the profound and startling nature of dolphin being and Dolphinism. These tales will illustrate specific messages about the natural way to breathe, to move, to feed, to learn, to play, to communicate, to relate, to rest . . . descriptions of a simple and essential art form that most of us have lost. This will then develop into practical instructions on how to use the flow of physical energy to maintain the right level of awareness and consciousness in our various daily activities. As readers begin to rediscover the lost bond, they will be led to a new way of relating to themselves, their loved ones and the universe. The Way of the Dolphin will bring home . . . a better understanding of the sacred nature of our animal soul and the way to realize our true potential for spiritual bliss and happiness."

Au, Whitlow W. L. The Sonar of Dolphins. New York/Berlin/Heidelbery: Springer-Verlag, 1993.

Standard work on acoustic signals of various dolphin species, including sound production, hearing system, and a review of the results of many studies done by the author.
___________, Arthur N. Popper, and Richard R. Fay, eds. Hearing by Whales and Dolphins. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research series, no. 12. New York: Springer Verlag, 2000. Reviewed by M. Vieregg, Aquatic Mammals, 2001, 27(2):196-198.
From the publisher: "Cetaceans inhabit oceans, seas, and even some rivers throughout the world. Hearing and sound production are thought to serve crucial functions in the behavior, natural history, or life cycle of all of these animals. Although difficulties in studying large aquatic animals have limited experimental auditory research on many species, knowledge about the acoustic behavior of these animals has been increasing dramatically. In this volume, experts in different areas of the field provide an overview of the bioacoustics of whales and dolphins as well as a thorough introduction to the subject for investigators of hearing in other animals. Topics covered include the structure and function of cetacean auditory systems, the unique sound production system of odontocetes, acoustic communication, psychoacoustics, echolocation, and models of sound propagation."

Contents: Hearing in Whales and Dolphins: An Overview, Cetacean Ears, In Search of Impulse Sound Sources in Odontocetes, Communication and Acoustic Behavior of Dolphins and Whales, Acoustics and Social Behavior of Wild Dolphins: Implications for a Sound Society, The Auditory Central Nervous System of Dolphins, Electrophysiological Measures of Auditory Processing in Odontocetes, Psychoacoustic Studies of Dolphin and Whale Hearing, Echolocation in Dolphins, Acoustic Models of Sound Production and Propagation

Auguee, M. L., ed. Marine Mammals of Australasia: Field Biology and Captive Management. 1988.

Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. Whales and Whale-Watching in Australia. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. See also the companion CD-ROM Whales and Whale Watching [in Australia] in the Cetacean Videography.

"This comprehensive field guide has been produced for the growing number of people who are watching whales from headlands, boats and aircraft. It describes when and where to see whales and includes a set of whale-watching guidelines that aim to ensure that whales are protected from undue disturbances. Coastal locations where whales can readily be seen are listed and there is concise information on whale biology, history, strandings and conservation. Superb illustrations identify the 23 most commonly sighted species of dolphins and whales in Australian waters."

Australian Parliament Senate Select Committee on Animal Welfare. Dolphins and Whales in Captivity: Report by the Senate Select Committee on Animal Welfare. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Office, 1985.

Bailey, Jill. SOS: Whales. New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1991.

Bain, David E. An Evaluation of Evolutionary Processes: Studies of Natural Selection, Dispersal, and Cultural Evolution in Killer Whales (Orcinus Orca). Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1989.

___________, Will Anderson, Fred Felleman, Michael Harris, and Patrick Higgins. Orca Recovery Conference Report. Conference held at the University of Washington, Seattle, 31 May - 2 June, 2002.

From the Executive Summary: "In April 2000, a workshop was held to discuss the status of Southern Resident killer whales. The workshop concluded that the population was in trouble, and that a number of factors were likely to be responsible. Subsequent to the workshop, the Center for Biological Diversity and co-petitioners petitioned NMFS to list Southern Residents under the Endangered Species Act. In 2002, Earth Island Institute, Orca Conservancy, the University of Washington, and the Canadian Consulate General, Seattle, collaborated to organize a discussion of the framework for a Recovery Plan for the population and to identify data gaps that would need to be filled before a final plan could be completed. Development of a Recovery Plan is required under the Endangered Species Act.

"The conference was composed of four main tracks. Invited speakers presented current information on the status of Southern Residents, their environment, and how natural and human factors may be impacting the population. The second track was a discussion among scientists of the data presented and additional work that needed to be done. The third track was a discussion among government and non-government agencies of what actions could be taken immediately to conserve Southern Residents based on existing data. The fourth track was discussions between the two working groups.

"The conference was organized into five subject areas. The conference began with presentations providing an overview of the current status of the population, its habitat, and projections for its future survival under a variety of scenarios. The conference then focused in turn on prey availability, toxins and disease, whale watching and vessel traffic, and other factors that may be affecting Southern Residents.

"This report presents a summary of the information presented, and highlights recommendations of the working groups. There were not extensive efforts to determine how widely held the views expressed here are, nor to prioritize the action items identified in the discussion. This report is intended to reflect all views presented at the conference, so points of view reflected here do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizers, hosts, participating organizations, or even a large number of individuals, unless otherwise indicated."

Major problems indentifed: Prey availability, toxins (primarily PCBs), whale watching (seen as part of the problem and part of the solution), and catastrophic oil spills

Baird, Robin. Killer Whales of the World: Natural History and Conservation. Worldlife Discovery Guides series. Voyageur Press, 2002.

From the publisher: "Killer Whales of the World [provides] an in-depth introduction to a ubiquitous, easily recognized, and popular species of marine mammal. Those interested in marine biology, marine animals, and coastal conservation issues as well as animal lovers in general are sure to appreciate this book. This comprehensive and highly informative book explains the origin of the name Killer Whale, where they can be found, their traveling behaviors and feeding habits, and some of the threats they face as a species. It also examines this well-known whale's place in popular culture."

Baker, Alan N. Whales & Dolphins of New Zealand and Australia: An Identification Guide. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press, 1983, 1990.

Standard reference to Australasian cetaceans. A comprehensive and authoritative guide.

Chapters include: Classification of Whales and Dolphins, Whaling, Natural History Notes, First Aid for Stranded Marine Mammals, Identification of Whales and Dolphins, Species Directory, Species Accounts, and Stranding Contact Organizations. Also contains a bibliography and an index.

Baker, Byrd. The Whales and I. Mendocino, Calif.: Mendocino Whale War, 1976.

Excerpt: "Before you die, you will have achieved a certain amount of fame and acclaim and a fortune of whatever size. But when you die, you will leave it here. But if you help save God's whales, that will go to heaven with you."

Baker, C. Scott, and Louis M. Herman. Behavioral Responses of Summering Humpback Whales to Vessel Traffic: Experimental and Opportunistic Observations. Anchorage, Alaska: National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office, 1989. Technical Report/National Park Service NPS-NR-TRS-89-01. Stock no. PB90-198409 NTIS.

Baker, Mary L. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the World. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1987.

"After more than a decade of research, Mary Baker has produced the definitive illustrated guide to the seventy-five species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

"Every cetacean known to naturalists is depicted here, each drawing accompanied by a complete anatomical description. Range and habitat, feeding and breeding habits, migration routes, and social behavior are discussed in detail, all with the most up-to-date information available . . .

"Baker's illustrations are not only beautiful, but also precise. Even species easily confused--the melon-headed whale and the pygmy killer whale, for example--are easily distinguished with Baker's fine line and strict attention to detail."

Balaskas, Janet, and Yehudi Gordon. Water Birth. London: Unwin Hyman, Ltds., 1990.

Balcomb, Kenneth, III. "Cetacean Releases: A List of Examples". Friday Harbor, Washington: Center for Whale Research, 1995.

Contains circa 100 examples of cetacean reintroductions, primarily for Tursiops sp., but for several other species as well, and concludes with a section on considerations for future releases and research on reintroduction.

Balcomb, Kenneth, III, Larry Foster, and Stanley M. Minasian. The Whales of Hawaii: Including All Species of Marine Mammals in Hawaiian and Adjacent Waters. San Francisco: Marine Mammal Fund, 1987, 1991.

Field guide to the Hawaiian whales, dolphins, and monk seal. Includes more than 100 color photographs.

Baldwin, Robert, and Rod Salm. Whales and Dolphins Along the Coast of Oman. Robert Baldwin and Sultanate of Oman, 1994. NHBS Mailorder Book Store is the international distributor for this title.

The first book to be published on the whales and dolphins of Oman and the Arabian region in general. It provides introductory chapters on general cetacean biology, and where to watch whales and dolphins in Omani waters, followed by descriptions of sixteen species illustrated with color photographs and plates. Final chapters discuss threats and conservation, and recording of cetacean sightings.

Ballance, L. T., and R. L. Pitman. "Cetaceans of the Western Tropical Indian Ocean: Distribution, Relative Abundance, and Comparisons with Cetaceans Communities of Two Other Tropical Ecosystems," Marine Mammal Science (1998) 14(3): 429-459. Ecology Program, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 8604 La Jolla Shores Dr., La Jolla, California 92037, USA, e-mail: lisa@caliban.ucsd.edu.

Abstract: "We conducted a cetacean survey in the pelagic western tropical Indian Ocean (WTIO) aboard an 85-m research vessel from March to July 1995, covering 9,784 linear km. Using 25X binoculars and line-transect methods, we recorded 589 sightings of 21 species. Stenella longirostris was the most abundant cetacean, in terms of number of individuals sighted, by an order of magnitude above any other species, while Physeter macrocephalus was the most frequently sighted, in terms of numbers of schools. Twelve species were wide-spread, seven were rare, and two were localized; our sightings include new distributional records for 12 species. Significant observations included the following: (1) Delphinus cf. tropicalis was abundant off the coast of Oman (16 sightings) and readily distinguishable in the field from D. delphis and D. capensis, (2) Balaenoptera musculus was fairly common and localized in the area of the Maldives (17 sightings), and (3) three sightings were made of an unidentified bottlenose whale tentatively referred to as Indopacetus (i.e., Mesoplodon) pacificus. We recorded 26 mixed-species cetacean schools, 43 schools with which seabirds associated, and 17 schools associated with tuna. Notable among these were mixed aggregations of Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris, yellowfin tuna, and seabirds.

The cetacean community of the WTIO was similar to that of the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and the Gulf of Mexico (GM) in several respects. First, differences in abundance rank of individual species were small, with the result that common species were common and rare species were rare, regardless of ocean. Second, these differences in abundance were due primarily to differences in encounter rate, which varied with ocean by as much as 3,000%, and less so to school size, which generally varied less than 100%. Third, regardless of ocean, three species comprised the majority of cetaceans in the community, Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris,, and S. coeruleoalba, representing 62%-82% of all individuals for all species. However, the rank order of abundance for these three species differed with ocean. Most notably, S. attenuata was abundant in the EP and GM (abundance rank = 2 and 1, respectively) but much less common in the WTIO (abundance rank = 6). Although habitat preferences for S. attenuata appear to overlap considerably with those of S. longirostris between these two species. Detailed analysis of oceanographic correlates of distribution will be necessary in order to understand fully the habitat requirements of these pelagic dolphins, often the most conspicuous elements of tropical cetacean communities around the world.

Bannister, J. L. Western Australian Humpback and Right Whales: An Increasing Success Story. Western Australian Museum, 1994.

Barbour, John A. In the Wake of the Whale. Toronto: Crowell-Collier Press, 1969.

Describes the habits and characteristics of the blue whale, as well as how whaling over the years nearly destroyed the species.

Barglow, Raymond. The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins, and Dreams. London: Routledge, 1994.

Barlow, Jay, Steven L. Swartz, Thomas C. Eagle, and Paul R. Wade. U.S. Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: Guidelines for Preparation, Background, and a Summary of the 1995 Assessments. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum. NMFS-OPR-6. September 1995.

Barnard, K. H. A Guide Book to South African Whales and Dolphins. Cape Town: South African Museum, Guide No. 4., 1954.

Barstow, Robbins. Meet the Great Whales: An Illustrated Introduction to the Marvels of Cetaceans. 2d ed. East Orleans, Massachusetts: Parnassus Imprints in cooperation with Cetacean Society International, 1993.

Introductory chapters include: The Uniqueness of Cetaceans, Kinds of Cetaceans, Marine Mammals, The "Great Whales," Breathing, Moving, and Feeding, followed by several chapters on the various baleen whales, the sperm whale, other toothed whales, and dolphins and porpoises. The book concludes with three chapters on whales and humans entitled: Killing vs. Saving, A New Era, and Mutual Enrichment. Also contains appendices on classification, recommended resource materials, and Cetacean Society International.

___________. Whales Alive: Report of Global Conference on the Non-Consumptive Utilisation of Cetacean Resources. New England Aquarium, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, June 7-11, 1983. Wethersfield, Connecticut: Cetacean Society International, Inc./Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1983.

Includes sections on: Legal Aspects, Benign Research, Value of Protected Areas, Ecological Value of Cetaceans, Recreational Whale-Watching, Cetaceans in Captivity, Educational and Cultural Uses and Values, Conflicts of Use, and Some Moral Questions.

Baryshnikov, N. S. Silence - Dolphins!. In Russian.

Basham, S. E., and K. M. Karmon. Marine Mammals: A Selected Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Marine Mammal Commission, 1995.

Bashomatu, Tomoko. Let's Swim with Dolphins: The Complete "DOS" Manual for All the Dolphin-Lovers. Tokyo, Japan: Fuso Publishing, Inc., 6 Ichigayadamachi, Shinjuku-ki, Tokyo 162, voice: 03 3226 6030, fax: 03 3226 0119. In Japanese. Foreword in English.

This is one of the first manuals published on swimming with dolphins. It contains a list of sites around the world where dolphin swims take place. The word "DOS" in the title refers to "dolphin ocean swim."

From the foreword by Tomoko Bashomatu: "This book contains information, know-how and advice for those who love dolphins and are interested in DOSing. It also contains the words of many DOSers, such as tour organizers and researchers. Through my interviews with them, I found that they are very aware that DOSing can lead to 'dolphin harassment' if not properly done. They all care about dolphins as they would their own families and are sincerely looking for the best way to live in harmony with them. This holds the hope for me that Japanese people, who seemed to have forgotten how to live with nature in their search for economic gain, are finally remembering to respect it."

Bassos, Mary Kimbrough. A Behavioral Assessment of the Reintroduction of Two Bottlenose Dolphins. Master's thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1993.

Batteau, Dwight W., And Peter R. Markey. Man/Dolphin Communication, Final Report: 15 December 1966-13 December 1967. Prepared for U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, California, Contract No. N00123-67-C-1103. Arlington, Massachusetts: Listening, Incorporated, 1967. Appendix A, Technical Manual MSA-2. Appendix B, Technical Manual MDT-5

Beale, T. The Natural History of the Sperm Whale. London: John Van Voorst, 1839. London: Holland Press, 1973 (reprint).

Beale was a whaling-ship surgeon, and the information for this book was gathered on his voyages.

Beamish, Peter. Dancing with Whales: An Adventure Story Reveals New Concepts of Time. St. John's, Newfoundland: Creative Publishers, 1993.

Beamish presents his theory along with supportive data that whales communicate using both signal-based and rhythm-based communication, the latter allowing for time compression and time expansion. Also includes appendices on A Philosophy of Recreation and Being a Whale or Animal Guide, and a postscript entitled Step to Scientific Sign of Deity (Scientific Fiction Derived From 'Message Time-Expansion'). Trisha: One of the more interesting books in this bibliography.

Beatty, Tim. Whales of the Bay of Fundy. St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada: Sunbury Shores Arts and Nature Centre, Inc., 1989/Nimbus Publishing, 1997.

Beaty, John Yocum. The Baby Whale, Sharp Ears. New York: J. P. Lippincott Company, 1938.

Beaubrun, P. C. Atlas Préliminaire de Distribution des Cétacés de Méditerranée. Monaco: Musée Oceanographique, 1995.vIn French.

Becker, Paul R., Dean Wilkinson, and Ted I Lillestolen. Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program: Program Development Plan. Silver Spring, Maryland: National Marine Fisheries Service. Available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, (301) 713-2322.

"The components of this program [which includes marine mammal species from all marine waters of the United States] are: The National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank (NMMTB), the Stranding Network, Monitoring, and Quality Assurance. The NMMTB was established to provide a resource of research materials for future retrospective analyses. The NMMTB provides for the long-term cryogenic preservation of tissues using standard protocols for collection and archival. The Stranding Network consists of regional teams that respond to the stranding of marine mammals and are equipped to collect biological information and samples that can be used to understand the health, population dynamics, and life histories of marine mammals. The Monitoring Component conducts routine analysis of tissues in order to determine the baseline concentrations of chemical contaminants, biochemical components, and biotoxins in marine mammals. The Quality Assurance Component is a program that insures accuracy, precision, level of detection, and inter-comparability of data resulting from chemical analyses of marine mammal tissues. This program consists of interlaboratory comparison exercises and the production and distribution of control and standard reference materials for chemical analysis."

Beddard, Frank E. A Book of Whales. London: John Murray/New York: G. P. Putnam, 1900.

According to the book The Whale, edited by L. H. Matthews, this work "was almost the only book solely about whales published up to the end of the nineteenth century. F. E. Beddard was for thirty years prosector to the Zoological Society of London, and was a zoologist of wide interests; his book of whales admirably summarized what was known about the anatomy, physiology, general biology and systematics of whales in 1900 . . . He derived much of his information from the work of other zoologists that had been published during the preceding century in the journals of the learned societies."

Contents: The External Form of Whales, Some Internal Structures, A Comparison of Whales with other Aquatic Mammals, The Position of Whales in the System and their Classification, The Hunting of Whales, The Right Whales, The Rorquals, The Toothed Whales or Odontoceti, Beaked Whales, The Dolphins, Anomalous Dolphins, Zeuglodonts and their Allies

Beddington, J. R., R. J. H. Beverton, and D. M. Lavigne. Marine Mammals and Fisheries. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Jaap: Overview and case studies of marine mammal-fisheries interactions. Covers bycatches as well as competition issues. Case studies include several seal and dolphin species.

Behrmann, Günther. Additional Contributions to the Anatomy of Toothed Whales (Odontoceti) (Ergdnzende Beitrdge zur Anatomie der Zahnwale [Odontoceti]). Bremerhaven: Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, 1994.

___________. Anatomy of the Toothed Whale Head I (Anatomie des Zahnwalkopfes I ). Bremerhaven: Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, 1993.

Beilenson, Nick. Celebrating Whales: An Introduction to Cetaceans. White Plains, New York: Peter Pauper Press, Inc., 1989.

A small book describing most of the great whales, with short sections on military use, conservation, whaling, etc. (Thanks to Julia/Nai'a for providing this information.)

Bejder, L., and A. Samuels. Evaluating impacts of nature-based tourism on cetaceans. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell, and R. Kirkwood, eds. Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues. CSIRO Publishing, 2003, pp. 229-256.

___________, S. Dawson, and J. Harraway. Responses by Hector's dolphins to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science, 1999, 15(3): 738-750.

Abstract: Theodolite tracking (61 days; 251 hours) was used to quantify dolphin reactions to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand, in the austral summers of 1995/96 and 1996/97. Dolphins were accompanied by swimmers (within 200m) for 11.2% of the total observation time, whereas boats accounted for an additional 12.4%. Dolphins were not displaced by either of these activities. Swimmers caused only weak, non-significant effects, perhaps because dolphins could very easily avoid them. Reactions to the dolphin watching boat were stronger. Analyses of relative orientation indicate that dolphins tended to approach the vessel in the initial stages of an encounter, but became less interested as the encounter progressed. By 70 minutes into an encounter dolphins were either actively avoiding the boat or equivocal towards it, approaching significantly less often than would be expected by chance. Analyses of group dispersion indicate that dolphins were significantly more tightly bunched when a boat was in the bay.

Bekierz, Franz W. Cetacea: Bibliographie uber Wal-Bibliographien. (Cetacea: Bibliography on Whale-Bibliographies). Frankfurt: Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, 1986.

Bekoff, Marc, ed. The Smile of a Dolphin: Remarkable Accounts of Animal Emotions. Discovery Channel, 2000.

From the dust jacket: "Longtime mates Turbo and Kachina get agitated whenever the other is even briefly out of sight. Kanzi, jealous of his younger sister, throws temper tantrums when she outperforms him. Tulip giggles when she's tickled and loves to play games. And Ake gets angry when scolded; she once hurled a plastic pipe at her teacher when the instructor rebuked her for failing a task.

"Turbo and Kachina, Kanzi, Tulip, and Ake are, respectively, a pair of Arabian horses, a bonobo, a rat, and a dolphin. In each case their devotion, jealousy, playfulness, and anger, their display of emotion, was observed and reported by a scientist-an expert in animal behavior whose formal training has discouraged either anthropomorphic thinking or jumping to conclusions. In this unforgettable collection of stories, more than fifty experts on animals ranging from great apes to guppies present compelling evidence that, when faced with such circumstances as losing a child; confronting an enemy; choosing a mate; or being tricked, chastised, challenged, played with, or picked on; many animals do seem to have an emotional response, one whose underpinnings may be strikingly similar to our own. What's more, these familiar feelings occur even in such 'unlikely' animals as birds, reptiles, and fish.

"Harvard paleobiologist Stephen Jay Gould writes in his foreword: 'The authors of this book pursue a . . . lover's quarrel with scientific convention. They write these case studies from their own experiences-not the luck of casual and fortuitous moments, but the distillation of a best and most revealing particular from a lifetime of expertise. . . ."

Béland, Pierre. Beluga: A Farewell to Whales. Lyons & Burford, 1996.

From Science News: "An inhabitant of the Saint Lawrence River in northern North America since the last glacial melt some 10,000 years ago, the beluga whale is one of the most intriguing and perceptive animals on the planet, says Béland. But mass harvesting wiped out much of the species and by 1979 belugas were classified as endangered. Now, a new plague--toxins, which are evident in their blubber--has reduced their numbers to only a few hundred. Filled with anecdotes and facts about the beluga, such as the modeling of echolocation systems for U.S. Navy submarines on these whales, this celebration of their life may also serve as their epitaph."

From the dust jacket: "The whales are dying of pollution," Béland writes. "I realize how strong this last statement is--'far too strong for a scientist,' many of my colleagues would say. . . . But in fact, I am simply echoing the conclusion that any careful observer of our work has come to. It is very plain."

Belda, Daniel Lluch, Lowell Adams, and S. G. Losocki. Dos Mamiferos Marinos de Baja California. Mexico: Instituto Mexicano de Recuros Naturales Renovables, 1969. In Spanish.

Bel'kovitch, V. M. Povedenie i bioakustika kitoobraznykh. Moskva: In-t okeanologii im. P. P. Shirshova AN SSSR, 1987. Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin, beluga whale.

___________, ed. Behavior and Bioacoustics of Dolphins. Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, 1978. In Russian. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Bel'kovitch, V. M., S. Kleinenberg, and A. Yablokov. Nash drug - del'fin. Moscow: Molodia Gvardiia, 1967.

___________. Zagadka okeana. Moscow: Molodaia Gvardiia, 1965.

Bel'kovitch, V. M., and M. N. Sh'ekotov. The Belukha Whale - Belukha: Natural Behavior and Bioacoustics - Povedenie i Bioakustika v Prirode. Moskva: Akademiia nauk SSSR, In't okeanologii im. P. P. Shirshova, 1990. Translated into English by Marina A. Svanidze. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1993.

Beluga whale.

Bell, Thomas. A History of British Quadrupeds, Including the Cetacea. London: J. Van Voorst, 1837.

Bellerive Symposium Report on Whales and Dolphins in Captivity. Geneva, Switzerland, July 9-10, 1990.

Bender, Lionel. Whales and Dolphins. New York: Gloucester Press, 1988.

Beneden, Pierre Joseph van. Histoire naturelle des cétacés vivants et fossiles des mers d'Europe. Brussels, 1889.

___________. Recherches sur les squaladons. Memoires de l'Academie Royal de Belgique Series. Bruxelles: M. Hayez, 1865.

Beneden, Pierre Joseph van, and P. Gervais. Ostéographie des cétacés vivants et fossiles. Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1868-1880.

Bennett, Ben. The Oceanic Society Field Guide to the Gray Whale. San Francisco: Legacy Publishing Company, 1983; Seattle, Washington: Sasquatch Books, 1989.

Chapters in this field guide include: Whale Evolution, Gray Whale Facts, Gray Whale Life Cycle, Whaling & Whale Conservation, Tips on Whalewatching (from land and by boat), Guide to Listings, Whale Sighting Log, Whalewatching Sites (Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Northern California, Southern California, and Baja California). Also includes a list of suggested readings and information sources.

Benyus, Janine M. Beastly Behaviors: A Zoo Lover's Companion: What Makes Whales Whistle, Cranes Dance, Pandas Turn Somersaults, and Crocodiles Roar: A Watcher's Guide. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

A field guide to the behavior and body language of zoo animals.

Bergerac, Olivia De. The Dolphin Within: Awakening Human Potential. Australia: Simon & Schuster Australia, 1998.

This book tells how Olivia De Bergerac and William McDougal started the Dolphin Society, and about how they applied what they learned from the dolphins in personal development, therapy, and business consulting. Click on the title above to read the preface.

Berkovitch, Pascale Noa. Das Läaut;cheln des Delphins: Die Geschichte einer wunderbaren Freundschaft. Berlin: Ullstein, 2000. [In German.]

"Der Beduinenjunge Abid'allah ist fünf Jahre alt, als er bei einem Sturz sein Gehöaut;r fast vollstäaut;ndig verliert. Er bleibt taubstumm und zieht sich zurüaut;ck. Sein einziger Freund ist ein Delphin. Beim täaut;glichen Spiel mit dem freundlichen Tier findet Abid'allah zunäaut;chst seine Sprache, dann sein Gehöaut;r wieder. Pascale Noa Bercovitch erzäaut;hlt die wahre Geschichte einer wunderbaren Freundschaft."

___________. The Dolphin's Boy: A Story of Courage and Friendship. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 2000.

The story of "how a dolphin changed the life of Abid'allah, a Bedouin boy, who had been deaf since the age of five. He became a mute loner, spending time swimming in the Red Sea. There he struck up a relationship with a lone dolphin and began to talk."

Berman, Mark. Interview with Mark Berman on Live! With Derek McGinty January 4, 1996. Discovery Communications, Inc.

McGinty interviews Mark Berman of Earth Island Institute about Keiko and about marine mammals in captivity in general.

Bernard, Hannah J., and Michele Morris. The Oceanic Society Field Guide to the Humpback Whale. Seattle, Washington: Sasquatch Books, 1993.

Chapters in this field guide include: A Word About Whales, Humpback Whale Facts, Diet and Feeding, Vocalizations, Humpback Behavior, Annual Life Cycle of the Humpback Whale, Hunting the Humpback Whale, Saving Humpbacks, Whalewatching from Shore, Whalewatching by Boat, Photographing Humpbacks, Whalewatching Guide, Sites (Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, Mexico, and Hawaii), Whale-Sighting Logs. Also includes a list of suggested readings and information sources.

Berry, Adrian. Galileo and the Dolphins: Amazing but True Stories from Science. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

From the publisher: "What did the persecution of Galileo have to do with dolphins? Who was the famous astronomer accused of piracy? Who made a car with an engine the size of a grain of rice? . . . Discover the true stories behind these and other fascinating questions in this thought-provoking and captivating collection of tales from popular science . . . Galileo and the Dolphins even includes a section of brainteasing, fact- and fun-filled quizzes to test your own knowledge of science.

pwgarbini@compuserve.com comments on Amazon.com: "I picked out this book as one that might be fun for reading at the beach. It's easy to pick up (a series of very short essays) and, unfortunately, equally easy to put down. I would categorize it as scientific mind candy."

Berta, Annalisa, and T. Demer, eds. Contributions in Marine Mammal Paleontology Honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr.. San Diego, California: Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History, [1996].

Berta, Annalisa, and James L. Sumich. Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology. London/San Diego: Academic Press, 1998. (800) 321-5068. Reviewed by B. P. Kelly and E.A. Mathews in Marine Mammal Science, 2001, 17(1).

From the publisher: "This book, by two leading marine mammalogists, is a succinct yet comprehensive text devoted to the systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behavior of marine mammals. With chapters on the evolutionary history of the principle lineages, major organ systems, diving physiology, diet, sound production and echolocation, reproductive behavior, and conservation biology, this book will be required reading for all marine biologists concerned with marine mammals."

Key features: Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the biology of all marine mammals, provides a phylogenetic framework that integrates phylogeny with behavior and ecology, features chapter summaries, further readings, an appendix, glossary, extensive bibliography, many figures and photos, and and index

Contents include: Introduction; Part I: Evolutionary History; Systematics and Classification; Pinniped Evolution and Systematics; Cetacean Evolution and Systematics; Sirenians and Other Marine Mammals: Evolution and Systematics; Evolutionary Biogeography; Part II: Evolutionary Biology, Ecology, and Behavior; Integumentary, Sensory, and Urinary Systems; Musculoskeletal System; Respiration, Diving, and Breathhold Physiology; Sound Production for Communication and Echolocation; Diet, Foraging Structures, and Strategies; Mating, Breeding, and Social Organization; Reproductive Structures, Strategies, and Patterns; Population Structure and Population Dynamics; Exploitation and Conservation

Berzin, Al'fred Antonovich. The Sperm Whale. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations/Philadelphia: Coronet Books, 1972.

___________. Kashalot. Pod red. d-ra biol. nauk A. V. IAblokova. Moskva: "Pischchevaia prom-st'," 1971.

Best, Peter B. Whale Watching in South Africa: The Southern Right Whale. Pretoria, South Africa: Marine Mammal Research Institute, 1995. Address: University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa, (012) 420-2066.

Chapters include: Facts and Figures, Fellow-Travellers, Making the Right Match, The Annual Cycle, The Mating Game, Behavioural Patterns, Hunting the Right Whale, Saving the Right Whale, Legislation, Whale-Watching Trips, and Whale-Watching Maps. Also includes suggestions for further reading and a field identification table.

Biedermann, Paul. Der Delphin in der dichtenden und bildenden Phantasie der Griechen und Roemer (The Dolphin in the Poetic and Architectural Imagination of the Greeks and Romans). Halle, 1881. In German.

Bigg, Michael A., Graeme M. Ellis, John K. B. Ford, and Kenneth C. Balcomb. Killer Whales: A Study of Their Identification, Genealogy and Natural History in British Columbia and Washington State. Nanaimo, British Columbia: Phantom Press & Publishers Inc., 1987.

Contents include: An Encounter, Development of [the] Study, Resident vs. Transient [Pods], General Facts about Killer Whales, Whale Identification, Maternal Genealogies, Watching Killer Whales, How to Behave around Killer Whales, How to Photograph Killer Whales, Identification Photographs [of all known individual killer whales found along the coast of British Columbia and Washington State as of 1987], a table of information about each whale shown in the photographic collection, a glossary, a bibliography of photo-identification studies, and additional recommended reading.

The Big Whale. In Japanese. c. 1990.

Billinghurst, Jane, ed. The Spirit of the Whale: Legend, History, Conservation. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 2000.

"The whales of myth are godlike creatures with formidable powers. The whales of the whalers promise wealth and adventure. The whales of whale watchers and scientists provide a bridge between the known and the unknown and invite reflection on the human condition. Whales fascinate us and inspire us. This collection of images, legends, stories, and first-hand accounts explores the unique and ever-changing relationship we have with these awe-inspiring creatures. Starting with myths and legends, the text explores how different cultures have viewed and treated whales through the ages. Whaling narratives describe the rush to exploit whales as commercial resources. Poems, short stories, and accounts of personal encounters with whales illustrate how we are creating new relationships with these marvelous creatures. Together with the text, the remarkable four-color images of whales, black-and-white historical photographs, multicultural artifacts, and artwork truly capture the spirit of the whale."

BioSciences Division, Code 51, Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center; Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Division, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Annotated Bibliography of Publications from the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program. NRaD Technical Document 627, Revision C. Update February 1992. San Diego, California: Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center; Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Division, 1992. Available upon request from: Department of the Navy, Commanding Officer, Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, RFT&E Division, Code D003, San Diego, CA 92152-5000. To request via e-mail, write to Tom LaPuzza, Public Affairs Officer, at lapuzza@nosc.mil. (A new edition is scheduled to be released "in a few months" on CD and electronically.)

Contains a brief history of the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program and research citations broken down into the following categories: Sound/Sonar/ Communications, Physiology/Anatomy/Growth and Aging, Health Care/Nutrition/ Pathology, Breeding, Behavior/Psychophysics, Open Sea Release, Tagging/ Telemetry/Surveys, Hydrodynamics, and Miscellaneous.

Bird, Jonathan. Beneath the North Atlantic. East Hartford, Connecticut: Tide-mark Press, (800) 338-2508. See also the television documentary of the same name in the Cetacean Videography.

From the publisher: " . . . Beneath the North Atlantic takes the reader on a journey to the depths of the North Atlantic as no other book has. A combination of science and adventure, [this work] offers something for everyone. The book includes the first ever underwater images of Northern Right Whales, the most endangered whales on Earth, as well as seals, sharks, fish, mating squid, and many colorful invertebrates like nudibranchs, anemones, sponges, sea squirts, and much more . . . "

Birdsall, John. Whales & Dolphins. Bristol, Great Britain: Parragon, 1997.

Contents: Introduction, The Whale's Tale, The Hunters and the Hunted, Sense and Sensibility, Social Behaviour, The Cycle of Life, Masters of the Ocean, Cetaceans and Humans

Biscay Dolphin Research Programme. Safari in the Bay of Biscay. Romford, Essex, England: TSG Publishing, 1999. Email: Andy.Williams@Biscay-Dolphin.org.uk.

"A guide to the identification of whales dolphins and some birds seen during years of surveying by the Biscay Dolphin Research Programme. It is a descriptive account of the area and 17 of the 20 species recorded so far. (It was written before the other 3 species were recorded). It is 40 pages with 32 colour plates."

Bjorge, A., and G. P. Donovan, eds. Biology of the Phocoenids. Reports of the Internal Whaling Commission, Special Issue 16. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1995.

". . . The Phocoenids are subject to harvest by coastal communities in many areas and are particularly vulnerable to incidental mortality in coastal fishing operations. In addition, human activities impose indirect threats particularly to the coastal porpoises through the detrimental impact on their environment. This includes habitat degradation from pollution, disturbance by ship traffic and boats, noise, physical changes to the habitat and depletion of important prey species by overfishing.

"Although the offshore porpoises may face less [fewer] environmental threats, they have suffered large scale incidental mortality in fishing gear. The Dall's porpoise has recently been subject to directed fisheries and harvested at unsustainable levels in some areas.

"The IWC Scientific Committee has reviewed the biology and status of the porpoises and monitored the threats to these small cetaceans. Recommendations for management and research are made as appropriate by the Committee and its sub-committee on small cetaceans and these are discussed in the introductory remarks for each of the species sections . . .

"Inevitably, perhaps, the majority of papers concern the best studied of the Phocoenid populations, the harbour porpoises in the North Atlantic and the eastern North Pacific. Much of the impetus for these studies has come from the identification of potentially serious levels of incidental fishery mortality in developed nations in Europe and North America. There are papers covering a wide range of topics ranging from abundance estimation through to pollution and energetics.

"One species which has attracted widespread interest and concern within the Scientific Committee in recent years is the vaquita. This species has the smallest range of any marine cetacean and numbering only a few hundred is seriously threatened with extinction. The papers in this volume review the limited available biological information and consider the problems of continuing incidental captures despite many attempts at giving complete protection.

"The Section on Dall's porpoises is relatively short as much of the work on this species has been carried out in connection with the Japanese salmon driftnet fishery. Much of the information on these porpoises has been published in the IWC Annual Reports, Special Issue 15 and in a series of papers published by the International North Pacific Fisheries Commission.

"It is particularly edifying to be able to include a number of papers addressing the relatively little studied Burmeister's and spectacled porpoises. This reflects the major increase in studies in South American waters, particularly in response to concerns about their status as a result of both direct and indirect captures.

"Sadly, despite evidence of direct and indirect captures around the world, there are no papers on the finless porpoise in this volume, reflecting the absence of research on this species in all but a few areas. A brief summary of the species is included.

"The final section of the book includes the report of a workshop held on the age determination of harbour porpoises. Although not an IWC workshop, the report has been presented to IWC Scientific Committee and it is included here as the results are of importance to studies of many aspects of Phocoenid biology."

Blair, May. Once upon the Lagan: The Story of the Lagan Canal. Wolfeboro, New Hampshire: Longwood Publishing Group, 1981.

Blanchard, Ken. Whale Done! The Power of Positive Relationships. Free Press, 2002.

"Shows you how to supercharge your effectiveness at work and home using the positive trust-building techniques learned from training killer whales at Sea World."

Blaylock, R., et al. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments. 1995. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Center, Miami Laboratory, 75 Virginia Beach Drive, Miami, Florida 33149-1003, USA.

Bloas, Renee le. Dauphin, prince des vagues (The Dolphin, Prince of the Waves). Watertown, Massachusetts: Charlesbridge Pub. ,1997. In French and English.

Blond, Georges. Great Story of Whales. Hanover House, 1955.

Blood, Donald A. Birds and Marine Mammals: The Beaufort Sea and the Search for Oil. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Dept. of Fisheries/Environment, 1977.

Bonner, Nigel. Whales. London: Butter and Tanner Ltd., 1980. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

___________. Whales of the World. London: Blandford Press, 1993; New York: Facts on File, 1989.

Boenninghaus, G. Das Ohr des Zahnwales, zugleich Beitrag zur Theorie der Schalleitung. Jena, 1903.

Bonanno, Alessandro, and Douglas Constance. Caught in the Net: The Global Tuna Industry, Environmentalists, and the State. University Press of Kansas, 1996.

Contents include: Introduction; The Debate on the Transition from Fordism to Global Post-Fordism; Global Post-Fordism and Transformations of the State; The Tuna Fishing Industry in the Fordist Period; The Restructuring of the Global Tuna Industry; Lawsuits, Compromises, and Embargoes; and Global Post-Fordism: Restructuring and the Conditions of Solidarity. Also includes a bibliography and an index.

Boone, W. W. Whales. Blandford, Poole, 1980.

Born, E. W., R. Dietz, and R. R. Reeves, eds. Studies of White Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Greenland and Adjacent Waters. Meddr Gronland, Bioscience 39, [1995].

Boschung, H. T., Jr., et al. The National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Fishes, Whales and Dolphins. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983, 1993.

Bova, Ben, and Byron Preiss, eds. First Contact: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. New York: New American Library, 1990.

See pages 31-40, "The Dolphins: An Alien Intelligence," by D. Reiss.

Bowers, C. A., and R. S. Henderson. Project Deep Ops: Deep Object Recovery with Pilot and Killer Whales. San Diego, California: Naval Undersea Center, 1972.

Boyd, I. L., ed. Marine Mammals: Advances in Behavioural and Population Biology. The Proceedings of a Symposium held at The Zoological Society of London on 9th and 10th April 1992. Zoological Society of London Symposia 66. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

See sections on cetaceans for detailed technical information on behavior, physiology, and population biology.

Bransby, Lawrence. Remember the Whales. Symbol Books.

Bravo, Ramon. Buceando entre las Orcas (Diving among the Orcas). Mexico: Editorial Diana, 1982.

Breton, Mimi. Guide to Watching Whales in Canada/Guide d'Observation des baleines au Canada. Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans, Information and Publications Branch, 1986. Gov't Doc. No. DSS Cat. no. Fs23-78/1986E. English and French editions. Available from Director-General, Communications Directorate, Fisheries and Oceans, 240 Spark Street, Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0E6, voice: (613) 993-0989, fax: (613) 990-1866.

Breton-Provencher, Mimi. White Whales of the St. Lawrence River. Saint-Foy: Societe linneene du Quebec, 1982.

Bridgewater, Alan and Gill. Carving Totem Poles & Masks. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1991.

This book on carving totem poles and masks of northwest Pacific Indians includes chapters on tools, techniques, and materials, a whale-eagle dish, and other projects.

Bright, Michael. Humpback Whales. Franklin Watts, 1989.

___________. There Are Giants in the Sea: Monsters and Mysteries of the Depths Explored. London: Robson Books, 1989. ___________. Dolphins. New York: Gallery Books, 1985.

___________. Whales. New York: Gallery Books, 1985.

Describes physical characteristics, feeding habits, migration routes, and vulnerability to hunters. Also discusses efforts by such groups as Greepeace to preserve them.

Brighton Aquarium. St. Ives: Photo Precision, 1972.

Brill, R. L., and W. A. Friedl. Reintroduction to the Wild as an Option for Managing Navy Marine Mammals. Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDT&E Division, San Diego, California, USA, Technical Report 1549, October 1993.

Brooks, Barbara. The Whole Whale Catalog. Waukegan, Illinois: Greatlakes Living Press, 1978.

"A comprehensive collection of fact, folklore and fiction about whales and whaling, from the art of scrimshaw to the legend of Moby Dick. Featuring essays, historical and literary references, industrial and commercial uses, photographs, drawings and etchings." Also includes a list of projects and organizations devoted to saving the whales and an index.

Brower, Kenneth, and William R. Curtsinger. Wake of the Whale . New York/London/Paris: Hutchinson/Friends of the Earth, 1979.

Beautiful oversize book about Bill Curtsinger's ten years of undersea photography. The book "immerses the readers, surrounds them, with the world he saw and photographed, or which escaped his lens but Kenneth Brower remembered. It tells of the great difficulty of getting where you must be to photograph a whale--an animal not likely to come back and pose for you again if you miss the picture the first time, but willing to lift a fluke to avoid harming you in passing by . . . Kenneth Brower has remarkably portrayed the unassuming man who slipped below the junction of sea and sky, and kept swimming there until his senses could tell ours of wonders we had not dreamed of."

Brown, Larry N. Mammals of Florida. Windward Publishing, 1997.

From the publisher: ". . . From the golden mouse and manatee to the Florida panther and bottle-nosed dolphin, Mammals of Florida portrays all 96 mammal species known to inhabit the region with up-to-date information on their life history and distribution . . . "

___________. Sea Mammals: Atlantic, Gulf and Caribbean. Miami, Florida: Windward Publishing, 1991.

Contains information on cetacea, pinnipedia, and sirenia.

___________. Dolphins and Whales, Including Other Sea Mammals and the Manatee.

Brown, Robin. The Lure of the Dolphin. New York: Avon Books, 1979.

Trisha: IMO, one of the best popular works about dolphins. Combines scientific knowledge (through 1978) with mythology, popular perceptions, and speculations.

Brown, S. R. "Ethical Considerations in Marine Mammal Management." Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association, 1999, 214(8):1175-1177.

Brown, Vinson. Sea Mammals and Reptiles of the Pacific Coast. New York and London: Macmillan, 1976.

Browne, Derek. Do dolphins know their own minds? Biology and Philosophy, 2004, 19(4):633-653.

Abstract Knowledge of one's own states of mind is one of the varieties of self-knowledge. Do any nonhuman animals have the capacity for this variety of self-knowledge? The question is open to empirical inquiry, which is most often conducted with primate subjects. Research with a bottlenose dolphin gives some evidence for the capacity in a nonprimate taxon. I describe the research and evaluate the metacognitive interpretation of the dolphin's behaviour. The research exhibits some of the difficulties attached to the task of eliciting behaviour that both attracts a higher-order interpretation while also resisting deflationary, lower-order interpretations. Lloyd Morgan's Canon, which prohibits inflationary interpretations of animal behaviour, has influenced many animal psychologists. There is one defensible version of the Canon, the version that warns specifically against unnecessary intentional ascent. The Canon on this interpretation seems at first to tell against a metacognitive interpretation of the data collected in the dolphin study. However, the model of metacognition that is in play in the dolphin studies is a functional model, one that does not implicate intentional ascent. I explore some interpretations of the dolphin's behaviour as metacognitive, in this sense. While this species of metacognitive interpretation breaks the connection with the more familiar theory of mind research using animal subjects, the interpretation also points in an interesting way towards issues concerning consciousness in dolphins.

Brownell, R. L., Jr., P. B. Best, and J. H. Prescott. Right Whales: Past and Present Status. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 10. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1986.

"Right whales were the first whales to be taken by a regular, organised whaling industry (the Basques in the 12th century), the first to be brought close to extinction by man's activities and the first to be protected by international agreement. The North Atlantic right whale is probably the most endangered species of large whale in the world today. However in contrast to its Northern Hemisphere counterparts, Southern Hemisphere right whales are now showing positive signs of recovery in several areas, notably Argentina, South Africa and Australia. The 24 papers in this volume cover many aspects of right whale biology and conservation. They are grouped under four headings: North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, Southern Hemisphere, Historic Whaling."

Brownell, Robert L., Jr., and Gregory P. Donovan, eds. The Biology of the Genus Cephalorhynchus. Cambridge: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 9. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1988.

"The four species of the genus Cephalorhynchus are among the least known of the dolphins. This volume draws together current knowledge on the biology these small, strikingly patterned dolphins."

Species include: C. commersonii (Commerson's dolphin), C. eutropia (black dolphin), C. heavisidii (Heaviside's dolphin), and C. hectori (Hector's dolphin).

Bruemmer, Fred. The Narwhal: Unicorn of the Sea. Shrewsbury, England: Swan Hill Press, no date.

"In stunning photographs and an intriguing text, Fred Bruemmer explores the unicorn myth and natural history of the narwhal. Interesting information about migration patterns, physiology, hunting methods, predators, breeding and young reveal the narwhal's world for the first time in book form. The author's own experiences with scientists studying the narwhal and with the Inuit of Greenland and Canada who hunt it add a personal note to this story of one of the world's most mysterious creatures." Includes a bibliography and an index.

Trisha: Beautifully produced, oversize book.

Brunke, Dawn Baumann. Animal Voices: Telepathic Communication in the Web of Life. Bear & Company, 2002. (New Age)

Trisha: Dolphins on cover of book, contents unknown, but looks like standard New Age.

Bryant, Laurel. Report to Congress on Results of Feeding Wild Dolphins: 1989-1994. Silver Spring, Maryland: National Marine Fisheries Service, 1994. Available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, (301) 713-2322.

Reports on "a study in the eastern Gulf of Mexico on the effects of feeding non-captive (wild) dolphins by human beings."

Bryden, Michael, Helene Marsh, and Peter Shaughnessy. Dugongs, Whales, Dolphins and Seals: A Guide to the Sea Mammals of Australasia. Allen & Unwin, 1999.

Bryden, M. M., and R. Harrison, eds. Research on Dolphins. Oxford: Clarendon Press/New York: Oxford, 1986.


ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY: The Epidermis of Odontocetes: A View from Within; Characteristics of the Skin of Neophocaena phocaenoides from the Changjiang (Yangtse River), China; Diving Dolphins; Dolphin Brain Size; Evolutionary Aspects of Cortical Organization in the Dolphin Brain; Ultrastructure of Encapsulated Mechanoreceptor Organs in the Region of the Nares; Bronchial Morphometry of the Upper Conductive Zones of Four Odontocete Cetaceans; Kidney and Water Metabolism; Gonads and Reproduction

DOLPHINS IN CAPTIVITY: From the Ocean to the Pool; Husbandry and Training of Captive Dolphins; Water Management

DOLPHINS IN THE OCEANS: Age and Growth; Observations on Small Cetaceans in the North-east Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea: 1978-1982; Line Transect Sampling of Dolphin Populations; Cephalopods in the Diet of Odontocetes; Pathology of Small Cetaceans Stranded along Southern California Beaches; The Acoustic Faculty of Dolphins; The Cetacean Magnetic Sense--Evidence from Strandings; The Behaviour of Lipotes vexillifer and Neophocaena phocaenoides in the Changjiang River and in Captivity in China; Geographical Variation and Biology of the Pacific White-sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, in the North-Eastern Pacific

Trisha: Index is somewhat useful, but should be at least double its present length.

Bryld, Mette. "The Days of Dogs and Dolphins: Aesopian Metaphors of Soviet Science (I. P. Pavlov and A. Yablokov)." In Soviet Civilization Between Past and Present, Mette Bryld and Erik Kulavig, eds. Odense, Denmark: Odense University Press, forthcoming 1997. The author may be contacted at met@litcul.ou.dk.

Trisha: This provocative essay compares the patriarchal Pavlovian paradigm, which insists that Man is superior (the "grandfatherification of Soviet civilization"), with the matriarchal humanized dolphin/noble savage counterculture paradigm (the "grandmotherification").

___________. "Dialogues with Dolphins and Other Extraterrestrials: Displacements in Gendered Space." In Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist Confrontations with Science, Medicine and Cyberspace, Nina Lykke and Rosi Braidotti, eds. London/New Jersey: ZED Books, 1996, pp. 47-71. The author may be contacted at met@litcul.ou.dk.

Trisha: An excellent cultural study of the various human fascinations with dolphins.

Bryld, Mette, and Nina Lykke. Cosmodolphins: Feminist Cultural Studies of Technology, Animals and the Sacred. London/New York: Zed Books, 2000.

From the back cover: "Applying recent thinking on gender and the environment to original research in science and technology, this unique book explores postcolonial relationships with 'the wild' using the U.S. and Russia as examples. The authors analyze contemporary categorizations of 'human self' versus 'wild other' through three twentieth century icons that best illustrate ambivalent ideas about self and other: spaceships, horoscopes and dolphins.

"The book includes interviews with astrologers, wilderness guides, dolphin trainers and academic staff of space agencies from Russia and the U.S. The interviews highlight some interesting differences between these two cultures in ideas both about gender and about self/other boundaries. The authors also look at representations of the space race in film and science fiction in both cultures, as well as New Age and other texts on dolphins, astrology and space travel.

"Cosmodolphins shows how all three icons partly reproduce and partly alter the earlier, colonial self/other dichotomy of woman, native and nature against the 'civilized' technologically masterful male self. We see how a particular icon of the wild -- the dolphin -- is elevated to mythological status, how a secularized society looks for spiritual fulfillment in the 'beyond' -- astrology -- and in its own technological advances -- space travel."

About the authors: Mette Bryld is in the Department of Russian and East European Studies, University of Southern Denmark. Nina Lykke is at the University of Southern Denmark and Linkoping University, Sweden.

Trisha: Cogent analysis of the modern mythologization of dolphins.

___________, and Nina Lykke. "Delfinprinsesser og ædle vilde" (Dolphin Princesses and Noble Savages). In Kvinder, Køn & Forskning (Women, Gender and Research) 2, 1995, pp. 51-63. In Danish. A revised edition of this article entitled "Woman, Nature and Noble Savages: Netscapes of Post-Modernity" will be published in English in an anthology on Women and Nature by the University of Trento, Italy.

Subtitle: Should "Nature" Be Integrated in the Extended Framework of Feminist Cultural Analysis?

Summary: The article argues for the inclusion of "nature" as category in the extended framework of feminist cultural analysis. This is done through a discussion of metonymical displacements within the network gender-race-nature and their actual enactment with the dolphin as icon. It is pointed out how today the dolphin is constructed as cult-animal by a broad international public, inspired by New Age philosophy, eco-activism, etc. It is suggested that the dolphin-icon metonymically is connected to romantic notions such as the Woman and the Noble Savage and perhaps is taking over the "burden" of representing the Other, which the modern subject needs in order to keep up its privileged subject position.

Buckstaff, Kara C. Effects of watercraft noise on the acoustic behavior of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Marine Mammal Science, 2004, 20(4):709-725. Author email: kara@mote.org.

Abstract: Watercraft may provide the greatest source of anthropogenic noise for bottlenose dolphins living in coastal waters. A resident community of about 140 individuals near Sarasota, Florida are exposed to a vessel passing within 100 m approximately every six minutes during daylight hours. I investigated the circumstances under which watercraft traffic may impact the acoustic behavior of this community, specifically looking for short-term changes in whistle frequency range, duration, and rate of production. To analyze whistles and received watercraft noise levels, acoustic recordings were made using two hydrophones towed from an observation vessel during focal animal follows of 14 individual dolphins. The duration and frequency range of signature whistles did not change significantly relative to vessel approaches. However, dolphins whistled significantly more often at the onset of approaches compared to during and after vessel approaches. Whistle rate was also significantly greater at the onset of a vessel approach than when no vessels were present. Increased whistle repetition as watercraft approach may simply reflect heightened arousal, an increased motivation for animals to come closer together, with whistles functioning to promote reunions. It may also be an effective way to compensate for signal masking, maintaining communication in a noisy environment.

Buff, Sheila. Dolphins. Nature's Window series. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews and McMeel, 1997.

Bullen, Frank T. Whales and Other Sea Creatures. Boy's Own Paper Office, [n.d.].

Bulloch, David K. The Whalewatcher's Handbook: A Field Guide to the Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of North America. New York: Lyons & Burford, 1993.

Describes sixteen whale species, ten dolphins species, and two porpoise species, and includes appendixes on: Where to See Whales; Keeping a Log; Information on Local Whalewatching Activities; Species List of Whales, Dolphin, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic and the Eastern North Pacific Waters; and Institutions that have Scientific Concerns About Whales. Also contains a select bibliography and an index. Black-and-white photos and illustrations.

Bunting, Eve. The Sea World Book of Whales. San Diego, California/London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.

An introduction to whales with chapters entitled: When Whales Walked the Land, A Whale Is a What?, A Sea Full of Whales (describes various species), A Family Affair, Fin Out in the Water! (describes whaling), The Killer Kiss, and Getting to Know Them (describes research). Also includes a bibliography and an index.

Burger, Joanna, ed. Seabirds and Other Marine Vertebrates. 1988.

Discusses seabird-whale interactions.

Burnes, R. H. Handbook of R. H. Burnes' Cetacean Dissections. Woodland Hills, California: Rudolph William Sabbot Natural History Books, 1952.

Burns, John J., J. Jerome Montague, and Cleveland J. Cowles, eds. The Bowhead Whale. Society for Marine Mammalogy special publication no. 2. Lawrence, Kansas: Society for Marine Mammalogy, 1993.

The definitive work on the bowhead whale.

Quote by Victor B. Scheffer from the back cover: "Through abusive whaling, the world population of bowheads was reduced from about 57,000 in the early 17th century to 8,000 now. Concern for the species quickened in 1972 with the first drilling for oil in the Beaufort Sea. To date, over 56 million dollars have been invested in bowhead research, while the number of publications on bowheads has risen to more than 700. Researchers are handicapped by the great size of the whale, its forbidding environment, its rarity, and its protected status.

"The Bowhead Whale is the product of balanced and effective coordination among 14 sponsors, 38 authors, three book editors and the series editor. It has reached the goal of providing an 'authoritative reference on the bowhead whale that serves the information needs of scientists, managers, and natural resource policy makers responsible for the welfare of the species and its habitat.'"

Table of contents: Introduction: Influence of Man, History of Conservation and Management Policies, Research Programs, Physical Environment of the Bering Sea Population, Evolutionary Relationship and Classification, Anatomy and Physiology, Behavior (including acoustic behavior), Foods and Feeding Ecology, Reproduction, Morbidity and Mortality, Distribution and Movement, Population Sizes Prior to Commercial Whaling, Current Population Size and Dynamics, Feeding and Growth as Indicated by Stable Isotopes, Commercial Whaling in the North Atlantic Sector, Commercial Whaling in the North Pacific Sector, Subsistence Whaling; Man-Made Noise and Behavioral Response: Industrial Noise, Underwater Sound Transmission, Hearing by Baleen Whales, Short-term Disturbance Reactions, Zones of Noise Influence; Presence and Potential Effects of Contaminants, Epilogue

Burns, Natalia. Lore of the Dolphin: Tales of Our Connection Through the Ages. Beyond Words, 2002.

From the publisher: "Why are humans so fascinated by dolphins? World cultures log hundreds of stories from the mythical to the personal that exalt this aquatic creature’s intelligence, playfulness, and tolerance for humans. Lore of the Dolphin gathers the best of those stories from ancient times to the present. Among the true-life accounts is the dolphin who tossed her own calf’s favorite toy into the lap of a boy with cerebral palsy, when the boy didn’t respond during a therapy session; a dolphin who was caught in a bait net and rescued by a boater -- and visited the boater’s family for days afterward bearing gifts from the sea. Other tales of wonder will appeal to wildlife and dolphin lovers, as well as those interested in interspecies communication.

More from the publisher: "Honored around the world and since the beginning of civilization for their intelligence, beauty, playfulness, and flattering tolerance for humans, dolphins fascinate us. Why are we so drawn to them? Perhaps it's because of the mystery that surrounds dolphins. We feel a deep connection to them, yet we cannot be physically with them as easily as we can with our best friend, the dog. Those who have had the good fortune of being around dolphins say that it was an experience that changed their lives. With Lore of the Dolphin, you can now get close to dolphins in the comfort of your armchair and be transformed as well.

"World cultures log hundreds of stories and personal accounts of how our human realm overlaps with the dolphin world. In Lore of the Dolphin you'll read stories of how people were created from dolphins, how dolphins were created from people, how dolphins have saved people's lives at sea, how they've saved people from emotional and physical isolation, how they've helped people around the world fish, even how people have worshipped dolphins. There are true accounts of pink dolphins, dolphins 'walking' among treetops, dolphins in the desert, even stories of dolphins who live in their own underwater cities."

Burns, William C. G. "From the Harpoon to the Heat: Climate Change and the International Whaling Commission in the 21st Century." XIII(2) Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 2001, 13(2):335-359. Reprints available from the author at American Society of International Law - Wildlife Interest Group, 1210 Floribunda Ave. #7, Burlingame, California 94010, USA, voice: 650-703-3280, fax: 801-838-4710, email: ASILWildlife@pacbell.net, URL: http://www.eelink.net/~asilwildlife.

" Projected climate change over the next two centuries may have profound and adverse ramifications on many stocks of cetaceans. This article examines these potential impacts and the role of the International Whaling Commission in addressing this issue, as well as other regimes that may be germane to protecting cetaceans from environmental change."

Burton, Robert. The Life and Death of Whales. 2d ed. New York: Universe Books, 1980.

Part I, the Life of Whales, contains the following chapters: Whales Defined and Described, The Study of Whales, Life at Sea, Submarine Senses, Sieving Shrimp and Catching Squid, Behavior: Routine and Incredible, Birth and Death. Part II is about whaling.

Busch, Robert. Gray Whales: Wandering Giants. Custer, Washington/Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Orca Book Publishers, 1998.

Complete natural history of the gray whale, including details of the life history (evolution, intelligence, social behavior, relationship with other species, etc.), exploitation by humans, comeback from the brink of extinction, and current and future management issues.

Bush, Robert H. Gray Whales, Wandering Giants. Custer, Washington: Orca Book Publishers, 1998.

Busnel, Rene-Guy, and James F. Fish, eds. Animal Sonar Systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1980.

Contains several papers on dolphin echolocation.

Buyer, Robert L. Bottlenose Dolphin. Carving Sea Life Series. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1995.

___________. Killer Whale and Pilot Whales. Carving Sea Life Series. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1995.

___________. Sperm Whale. Carving Sea Life Series. Mechanicsbury, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1995.

Cafiero, Gaetano, and Maddalena Jahoda. Whales and Dolphins. Translated by Anthony Shuggar. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1996. Italian edition: Vercelli, Italy: White Start S.r.l., 1994.

From the dust jacket: "With full-color photographs by world-renowned photographers Bill Curtsinger and Flip Nicklin and a fascinating text by diver Gaetano Cafiero and naturalist Maddalena Jahoda, Whales and Dolphins tells the story of these magnificent animals and traces the history of their uneasy coexistence with mankind.

"In sections devoted to baleen and toothed whales, orcas (killer whales), and dolphins, the authors chronicle the legends mankind has woven around these creatures and share the latest research on cetacean behavior. A special reference section highlights the distinguishing characteristics of various whale and dolphin species and charts their evolution, migration routes, and present-day distribution."

Contents: Preface, Whales and Man (Cafiero), Cetacean Life (Jahoda)

Trisha: Beautiful photographs and illustrations in this oversize, coffee-table-style book, although the print quality of the photos is not uniformly good (many are too dark).

___________. Giants of the Sea: Whales, Dolphins, and Their Habits. Translated by Anthony Shuggar. Charlottesville, Virginia: Thomasson-Grant, 1993/Swan Hill Press, 1994.

Cahill, Tim. Dolphins. National Geographic Books, 2000.

From the website: "Dolphins [a companion book to the IMAX film of the same name] . . . is an oversize, lavishly illustrated book with over 125 photographs, including many images from the film. With Cahill's characteristic wit and humor, Dolphins leads readers on a lively adventure into the lives and careers of three marine scientists featured in the film-Dr. Kathleen Dudzinski, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutierrez, and Bernd Wursig. Over twenty marine biologists have contributed fascinating essays on all aspects of dolphin life, from anatomy and intelligence, to communication and environmental threats."

Cajander, Veli-Risto, and Tiu Simila. Suurvalaat ja delfiinit--Merten viisaat valtiaat. Helsinki: Otava, 1987. In Finnish.

Jaap: Natural history, ecology, and conservation of whales and dolphins.

Calambokidis, John, and Gretchen Steiger. Blue Whales. WorldLife series. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1997.

Beautiful photographs and information on the blue whale's origins, history, habitats, behaviors, movements, and future.

Caldwell, David K. and Melba C. Caldwell. The World of the Bottlenosed Dolphin. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1972; St. Augustine, Florida: Biological Systems, Inc., 1986.

Campbell, Kamala Hope. Dolphin Dreaming: An Interspecies Communication. Unpublished manuscript. I.C.E.R.C., P.O. Box 110, Nambucca N.W.W., Australia 2448. 1987. (New Age)

"Through co-creating with the dolphins and whales, Kamala deeply believes that they are a vital key to our evolution, and the next step for us is to learn from them how to communicate beyond language."

Capra, Henri, and Jon Kershaw. Rendez-vouz chez les Dauphins. Grenoble: Editions Glenat.

Carlson, Carole. "Whalewatching and its Effects on the Whales." Whalewatcher (1996) 30(1):8-10.

Carlson, Carole, Phil Clapham, David Matilla, and Charles Mayo. Humpback Whales of the Southern Gulf of Maine. Provincetown, Massachusetts: Center for Coastal Studies, 1985.

Carpino, Elizabeth A. River Dolphins: Can They Be Saved?. Berkeley, CA: International Rivers Network, 1994. International Rivers Network working paper.

Carwardine, Mark. Whales and Dolphins. Collins Gem series. New York: HarperCollins, 1998.

Covers over fifty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Each is illustrated with a photograph, and the text includes information on evolution, identification, biology, feeding habits, and predators.

___________. The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society: The World's Most Active Charity Dedicated to the Conservation, Welfare and Appreciation of All Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1997. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

This booklet provides an introduction to WDCS's work around the world and was published to mark the Society's tenth anniversary.

___________. The Book of Dolphins. Berkeley, California: The Nature Company, 1996.

Contents include: The Dolphin Family, Dolphin Design, Sensing the Environment, A Day in the Life of a Dolphin, Dolphin Research, Dolphin Mysteries, Dolphins and People, Dolphin Watching, and Save the Dolphin. Also contains a species identification chart, how you can help, and further reading.

___________. Whales, Porpoises & Dolphins: The Visual Guide to All the World's Cetaceans. Eyewitness Handbook Series. London/New York: Dorling Kindersby, 1995. Also published in French as L' oeil nature: Baleines, dauphines et marsouins, Bordas.

"Authoritative text, detailed illustrations, and a systematic approach make this the most comprehensive pocket guide to cetaceans of the world. Packed with more than 900 illustrations, [this guide] is designed to enable you to recognize each species quickly and easily.

"Expertly written and thoroughly revised, each entry combines a precise description with annotated illustrations to highlight the chief characteristics and distinguishing features of each whale, dolphin, and porpoise. Additional illustrations show the animals 'in action' and depict other forms and color variations. Maps show the distribution of every species, while color-coded band provides at-a-glance facts.

"For beginners and established enthusiasts alike, this handbook explains where in the world to look for cetaceans, how to find them, how to tell one species from another, and how to interpret their different forms of behavior. A visual color key at the front of the book aids immediate identification in the wild, then guides you to the detailed species entry."

Trisha: An excellent visual reference work. I use it often.

___________. On the Trail of the Whale. United Kingdom: Thunder Bay Publishing Co., 1994.

___________, Paul Harrison, and Michael Bryden, eds. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. 2d ed. Checkmark, 1999.

From Book News, Inc., 1999: "This highly-illustrated book's subjects range form evolution, biology, and behavior to the history of commercial whaling and legends of whales and dolphins. Chapters discuss whale watching, conservation, anatomy, the origin of the whale, social behavior and intelligence, whales in art and literature, strandings, and the potential for communication between humans and whales. -- Copyright (c) 1999 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR. All rights reserved.

___________, Erich Hoyt, R. Ewan Fordyce, and Peter Gill. Whales, Dolphins & Porpoises. The Nature Company Guides series. New York: Time Life Books, 1998.

Trisha: I haven't had a chance to do anything other than thumb through this work, but I can say that it is beautifully produced, packed with photos and illustrations, and the authors' comments on captivity are right on the mark. After debunking the common justifications for holding cetaceans captive, they write: "At the end of the day, it is not essential to see whales and dolphins in real life to understand and appreciate them. After all, it is possible to learn about the Moon without actually standing on it. So while a live animal is more likely to trigger the emotions than words, photographs, or films, these could all be used as strong second bests. Meanwhile, there are some exciting possibilities for the future, including computer technology that could simulate virtual reality encounters with whales and dolphins where they really belong--in the oceans, wild and free."

Caskin, D. E. The New Zealand Cetacea. Fisheries Research Bulletin No. 1., 1968.

Castro, Cristina. "The Conservation Status of Cetaceans in Ecuador." The author may be contacted via Cetacean Society International, rossiter@csiwhalesalive.org.

From Whales Alive!, January 2003: This paper "gives a sophisticated national history and update, including whaling, whale watching, and many conservation issues and solutions."

Catton, Chris. Dolphins. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995; Great Britain: Boxtree Limited, 1995.

This book is tied to the U.S. Public Broadcasting System special and explores dolphin intelligence and society and the human-dolphin relationship. Chapters include: Dolphins in Ancient Mythology, Modern Encounters, What is a Dolphin?, Senses, The Hunter and the Hunted, Living in Groups, Rearing the Young and Sexual Relations, Interpreting Information, Communication and Language, Dolphins in Captivity, Meeting Dolphins for Ourselves, and The Survival of the Species. A selected bibliography, classification of dolphins, and an index also are included. Bern Wursig serves as scientific consultant.

Scott: Beautifully illustrated, it is yet another in the current series of books that tells the story of mythology, communication, intelligence, captivity, and interaction. Very pretty, but not too deep. [Trisha: I concur.]

The Center for Action on Endangered Species, Inc. The Whalebook: A Conservation Manual, Source Book, Teaching Tool. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Whale Protection Fund/The Center for Environmental Education, Inc., 1978,

Contains an overview of the whaling industry, alternatives to whale products, statistics on whale kills, IWC info, an action guide, and a good bibliography, audiography, and videography.

___________. The Sperm Whale. Ayer, Massachusetts: Center for Action on Endangered Species.

Center for Marine Conservation. Proceedings of the Workshop to Review and Evaluate Whale-Watching Programs and Management Needs, November 14-16, 1988, Monterey, California. Cosponsored by Center for Marine Conservation and the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Chapin, Henry. The Remarkable Dolphin and What Makes Him So. New York: W. R. Scott, 1962.

Chapskii, K. K., and V. E. Sokolov, eds. Morphology and Ecology of Marine Mammals (Morfologiia i ekologiia morskikh mlekopitaiushchikh). Translated from Russian by H. Mills. New York/London: Wiley/Jerusalem/London: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1973.

Charnas, Suzy McKee. Strange Sea. Available as a publish on demand book at http://www.hidden-knowledge.com.

From a review by Jim Nollman in the Fall 2001 issue of The Interspecies Newsletter: "Approach this book with an open mind and be rewarded with a provocative exploration of the human/whale interface. The author, an award-winning fiction writer, takes us on a journey through channeling, trance states, past lives, and personal soul searching to discover why she feels a profound connection to whales. It's a risky book, because Charnas dares to explore and articulate ideas many of us have had about cetacean souls, intelligence, sexuality, linguistics. This is not fiction, but it reads with the pace of a mystery story. Charnas is no fuzzy bunny New Ager, but a woman in search of wisdom, skeptical, but with an overwhelming needs to know. What she finds may surprise you."

Chase, Owen, Thomas Chappel, and George Pollard. Narratives of the Wreck of the Whale-Ship Essex of Nantucket: Which Was Destroyed by a Whale in the Pacific Ocean in the Year 1819. London: The Golden Cockerel Press, 1935. (See also entry below for Nickerson, Thomas.)

Cherfas, Jeremy. The Hunting of the Whale: A Tragedy That Must End. London: The Bodley Head, 1988/New York: Penguin Books, 1989.

"This is the story of declining profits and mounting pig-headedness . . . The pig-headedness of Norwegians determined to kill 400 minke whales in 1986 and being unable to find them; of Icelanders catching 4,000 tons of whalemeat for 'local consumption' and being unable to eat [it]; of Americans enacting protection laws and being unable to use them; and of the Japanese, vehemently committed to an industry they are unable to justify . . . It involves a catalogue of crass carelessness--the killing, for instance, of 10 million dolphins as a waste-product of the post-war tuna fishery--and at the heart of the story, of course, are the whales themselves . . . Jeremy Cherfas brings a fresh eye to [his] material--one unclouded by sentiment, as alert, for example, to the minor chicaneries of Greenpeace as to the major misdeeds of the Japanese. ". [The Times Literary Supplement]

Ching, G. W., and H. O. Porter. Project Deep Ops Equipment Development. San Diego, California: Naval Undersea center, 1972.

Chino, Bun'ichirou. Together with Whales on Earth. Japan: The Plaza. In Japanese. A Japanese/English version of this booklet is available for $1.00 from Animal Welfare Institute, P. O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

From a review in the Spring 1994 issue of AWI Quarterly: This booklet, "tells of the complete change in one Japanese person's view of whales, brought about by the sincere sorrow expressed by a young American graduate of Oberlin College over the fact that many Japanese continue to eat whale meat.

"The author takes us on a journey of conscience, with subheads ranging from 'We Want to Eat Whales' through 'Cultural Heritage of the Earth,' summing up her transformation:

"'A great chorus of 'We want to eat whales' must be thought shameful in this age. On the earth, many people are wishing to become friends with whales. As a king of creatures on the land, mankind may have something to learn to live with other lives from a king of creatures in the sea, the whale. Is it not smart that kings of both the land and the sea are friendly? Let us live together with whales on the earth!'"

Ciampi, Elgin. Those Other People, the Porpoises. Grosset & Dunlap.

Clapham, Phil. Whales of the World. Worldlife Library series. Grantown on Spey, Great Britain: Colin Baxter Photography, 1997/Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 2001.

A well-illustrated and authoritative work on the great whales of the world. The author, who is recognized as one of the world's leading experts on large whales, describes the biology and behavior of the rorquals (humpback, blue, fin, minke, sei, Bryde's), the balaenids (right and bowhead), the gray whale, the sperm whale, and the orca. The origins, whaling, and future (conservation and research) of blue whales is also discussed. Includes a cetacean classification table, recommended reading, and an index.

From a review by William Rossiter, Cetacean Society International, in Whales Alive!, July 2001, p. 12: "In Whales of the World, Clapham gently lays out so many facts with such style that any reader will enjoy filling up. With the authority of an established expert, the humility of a man in awe of the creatures he studies, and a hint of the cryptic British humor that made the underground journal 'Cete Scat' so infamous, Clapham writes so that the reader thinks. I suddenly realized that the relatively tiny throat of baleen whales is a necessity, to keep out sea gulls, logs, garbage bags, sharks and whatever else might also be with the mouthful of prey they must swallow. He even explains away why the book had to ignore beaked whales and the pygmy right whale. All other species are treated royally."

___________. Humpback Whales. Worldlife Library series. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press/Grantown on Spey, Great Britain: Colin Baxter Photography, 1996.

From the back cover: "Humpback Whales introduces the general reader to the life history, the many fascinating traits, and the environmental and human threats to this massive sea mammal. From their gigantic fins to the their elaborate song patterns, Phil Clapham highlights the unique characteristics that set humpbacks apart from other whales.

"Clapham, who has been studying humpbacks for over 15 years, also introduces readers to a whale named Salt, and tracks her activities as she travels from the Gulf of Maine to the Caribbean and back to Maine again. He details the incredible range of humpbacks, which inhabit all the world's oceans, along with their extensive seasonal migrations." Includes over 50 color photographs.

From a review in the October 1996 issue of Whales Alive!: This book is written by "Dr. Philip Clapham, who's been studying [humpback whales] lovingly at least fifteen years. Phil put his heart into a flowing, evocative, and thorough narrative of current scientific knowledge on this well-studied species from the perspective of a world authority, personalizing it with his experiences with Salt, Thalassa, and others. His book is designed to reach people who hate to read science, and Phil will show you almost all that we know about humpbacks, and why we should care to know more . . . over fifty incredible photos by many famous friends."

Contents: Humpback Whales, Cetaceans, Winged Whale, Nomads of the Sea, Summer, Winter, One Whale's Life, Conservation, Humpback Whale Facts

___________. Right Whales: Natural History and Conservation. Stillwater, Minn.: Voyageur Press/U.K.: Colin Baxter Photography, 2004. http://www.voyageurpress.com/showbook.cfm?isbn=0-89658-657-X
From the publisher: "Right Whales covers the characteristics (life history, group life, reproduction, mortality) and ecology of these creatures. Phil Clapham also discusses the serious threats that right whales face, and informs readers about what can be done to protect them."

Clark, R. B. Marine Pollution. 4th ed. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Reviewed by Ian Stirling, Canadian Wildlife Service, in the December 1997 issue of Marine Mammal Society Newsletter, the newsletter of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, and reprinted here with permission: "The value of this book is that it provides a broad, objective, and clearly written overview of anthropogenic factors that have the potential to influence the ecology of the world's marine areas. Two facets seem to me to be of particular importance to all of us and maybe especially to students: 1) an emphasis on the need to determine cause and effect on the basis of objective data and application of scientific method, and 2) the addition of a chapter on methodology which includes toxicity testing and statistical approaches to analysis. Earlier editions of this book have had a largely European focus but in this edition new information has been included from other parts of the world to keep the volume relevant to the rapidly changing world. For example, some observations from events familiar to North American and European biologists, the wrecks of the Exxon Valdez and the Braer, have been included. Individual chapters deal specifically with a wide range of topics including oxygen-demanding wastes, oil pollution, metals, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity, and industrial wastes. From the perspective of marine mammalogists, the book is not very informative. Specific references to seals or whales are few and not very detailed where they occur. Clearly, the principal value of the book is as a good quality introductory text and, as such, it deserves a place in any university or research lab where student teaching or studies are involved."

Clayton, Patti H. Connection on the Ice: Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practice. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press, 1998.

Cleave, Andrew. Whales & Dolphins: A Portrait of the Animal World. Leicester, England: Magna Books, 1993/New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1995..

"Whales & Dolphins provides a richly illustrated and thoroughly researched celebration of the best loved, and most misunderstood, mammal on our planet."

Chapters include Classification of Whales and Dolphins, Life in the Water, Whale Senses and Communication, Courtship and Mating, Feeding, and Conservation. No index.

Cochrane, Amanda, and Karena Callen. Dolphins and Their Power to Heal. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press/London: Bloomsbury Pub., 1992.

"For centuries, myths and legends from the world over have attested to the healing influence that dolphins have on humans. Numerous recent case studies, described here by Cochrane and Callen, emphatically confirm that close contact with these graceful mammals can trigger our inherent healing powers, enhance the learning abilities of the mentally handicapped, bring relief to the emotionally disturbed, and encourage recovery from life-threatening illness. In a rich and detailed study, the authors explore the dolphins' life cycle, behavioral patterns, and methods of communication . . . This book gives careful consideration to the well-being of the dolphins themselves, emphasizing that our encounters with them should, whenever possible, occur in their natural habitat and on their terms. Only in this way can we participate in a genuinely empathetic relationship that honors the exhilarating freedom of dolphin life.

"[The authors'] quest to fathom and elucidate the healing power of the dolphins has taken them to Africa, Bali, the Bahamas, the Florida Keys, the Turks and Caicos islands, Greece, Ireland, and Northumbria. In their travels, they have encountered pods of wild dolphins, lone friendly dolphins, and dolphins in captivity. Both authors live in London, where they are active in the field of alternative healing."

Chapters include: The Power to Heal?, Dolphin Midwives, Dolphin Teachers, The Evolutionary and Mythological Evidence, The Life of a Dolphin, Dolphin Intelligence, Dolphin Communication, Friendly Dolphins, Captivity, The Dolphins of War, Conservation, and Dolphin Information and Welfare Organizations, plus a bibliography and a brief index.

Trisha: An excellent general introduction to all aspects of the current "dolphin phenomenon."

Scott: A broad-based look at the current state of dolphin/human interaction relative to healing. A very good Who's Who of both people and dolphins. Recommended, however slight factual deviance from other sources makes one suspect of some stories.

Coerr, Eleanor, and William E. Evans. Gigi: A Baby Whale Borrowed for Science and Returned to the Sea. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1980.

Coffey, D. J. Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: An Encyclopedia of Sea Mammals. New York: Collier Books, 1977.

Describes in alphabetical order more than 120 species and sub-species of sea mammals (including pinnipedia, sirenia, and the sea otter). Every aspect of their anatomy, behavior, evolution, reproduction, and conservation is covered in detail. Also describes what scientists know about sea mammals' intelligence, complex social orders, methods of communication, and rearing of their young. Also includes a brief chapter on the dangers of pollution, and an index.

Collet, Anne. Swimming with Giants: My Encounters with Whales, Dolphins, and Seals. Translated by Gayle Wurst. Milkweed Editions, 2000.

From the publisher: "Anne Collet has ridden the tail of a white whale -- for ten seconds off the coast of Argentina. She has taken children diving in the Azores to see dolphins and led teenagers on ocean voyages. And she has heard the song of beluga whales in the Arctic Ocean. In Swimming with Giants, Collet describes the power and majesty of being close to some of nature's most magnificent creatures. Combining science with a sense of adventure, she conveys the sheer excitement of her work with marine mammals, from the sublime gaze of a whale's eye to the race to save animals harmed by pelagic drift nets or toxic spills. A contemporary eco-hero in the tradition of Jacques Cousteau, Collet is an inspiration not only for the many who have accompanied her on her research trips, but also for those who will see in her journey a call to follow their own dreams."

From a review by Nancy Bent in Booklist: "Whale lovers rejoice--here is a marvelous new book that blends scientific fact with the wonder of gazing into a whale's eye. Collet, a French marine biologist, has been studying whales, dolphins, and seals since the 1970s. In the best tradition of popular science writing, Collet blends stories of her personal odyssey in choosing to study cetaceans with the scientific facts about these animals. A discussion of the natural history of the southern right whale blends seamlessly into the author's narrative of a week spent studying these highly endangered whales on the breeding grounds off the coast of Patagonia. Diving with the whales led to the author's most astonishing encounter--she was approached by a curious female right whale who then deliberately swam by Collet and carried her off on the edge of her tail. The book is not all mystical encounters with whales; the less enchanting side of marine mammal research is thoroughly explored. The love of research and of finding the right career comes through vividly in a book that will be eagerly read." Copyright (c) American Library Association. All rights reserved.

Trisha: Interesting anecdotes combined with factual information about cetaceans. Strongly debunks the New Age mythologization of dolphins and whales.

___________, and R. Duguy. Les dauphins, historique et biologie: Science et découvertes. Paris: Ed. du Rocher, 1987.

Committee to Review Results of ATOC's Marine Mammal Research Program, Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound: Progress Since 1994. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

Contents: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, INTRODUCTION: The ATOC Concept, Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Vertebrates, Origin of Study, EVALUATION OF THE MARINE MAMMAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: Description of MMRP Results (California ATOC Source, Hawaii ATOC Source), Comparison of the Recommendations of NRC (1996) and MMRP Responses (Maintenance of the Shore Station and Playback Equipment, Need for Prompt Data Analysis, Ensonified Species Other than Marine Mammals), Significance of the MMRP to Research Uses of Sound, ASSESSMENT OF CONTINUING RESEARCH NEEDS: Behavior of Marine Mammals in the Wild, Structure and Function of Marine Mammal Auditory Systems, Effects of Low-Frequency Sounds on the Food Chain, Potential Nonauditory Acoustic Effects on Marine Animal Health, Long-Term Acoustic Monitoring of Critical Habitats, REGULATORY ISSUES: Acoustic Harassment (Definition of Level A Acoustic Harassment, Definition of Level B Acoustic Harassment, Scientific Research Permits, Incidental Harassment Authorization), Cumulative Impacts, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Results of the MMRP, Future Research and Observations (Priority Studies, Response to Stranded Marine Mammals, Multiagency Research Support, Population-Level Audiograms, National Captive Marine Mammal Research Facility), Regulatory Reform, Comprehensive Monitoring and Regulation of Sound in the Ocean, REFERENCES, APPENDIXES: A - Committee Biographies, B - Summary from NRC (1994), C - Relevant U.S. Legislation and Regulations for Marine Mammals, D - OSHA Regulations, E - Glossary of Acronyms, F - Species Mentioned in This Report

Conlon, John. Razorback. 1998. Available from John C. Conlon, P.O. Box 1037, Wellfleet, Massachusetts 02667, USA.

From a review by William Rossiter in Whales Alive!, July 1998: "Razorback is a unique book about finback whales by a man who knows them well. John Conlon has been a naturalist aboard one of Provincetown's whale watch vessels for fifteen years, carefully observing finbacks, or razorbacks, that are commonly seen near there. He watches with the zeal of someone fascinated by the sheer majesty and awesome power of this fast, sleek, aloof whale species. He writes to tell us why. This book is more than a natural history of the species. While Conlon expertly blends in the facts from a full array of references his book is a work of love. As you read it you become a finback fan also, as you should be if you knew this whale as John does."

Connor, Richard C., and Dawn Micklethwaite Peterson. The Lives of Whales and Dolphins. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1994.

"Moving through a dark, cool, watery world of their own, whales and dolphins are ancient creatures that have kept humans lost in amazement for thousands of years. This lively, highly accessible, generously illustrated book--the second in a series on animal behavior produced with the American Museum of Natural History--takes readers on a richly detailed, awe-inspiring journey through the lives of these intelligent and versatile mammals.

"Beginning with birth, the book follows seventy-five species of whales and dolphins through all stages of their existence, exploring how they learn, play, communicate, reproduce, fight, and express their emotions in song and graceful movement. Led by Richard Connor, one of the world's leading cetologists, readers will be presented the very latest research in the field--traveling to the icy waters off southeast Alaska to watch the eating habits of humpbacks, to the Arctic circle to hear the vocal virtuosos of beluga whales . . . and even to the Amazon to observe a pink river dolphin wind its way through a flooded tropical rain forest. Up-to-the-minute scientific information on orientation and navigation techniques, intelligence, and migration routes is offered, along with . . . details about social dynamics, from tender courting rituals to domestic squabbles to gang behavior. Readers will also discover how the world of whales and dolphins is profoundly linked to the human story and how deeply our own behavior affects their existence." Includes glossary and index.

From Kirkus Reviews 4/14/94: "An informative, nuts-and-bolts look at the compelling world of whales and dolphins from Connor, vice president of the Shark Bay Research Foundation, and Peterson, a freelance science writer . . . Connor and Peterson paint a broad canvas of the cetacean's natural history. Although advances in cetacean biology have proceeded by leaps and bounds over the last two decades, much about these creatures remains murky. Connor and Peterson, while thoroughly covering what is thought to be known, give plenty of ink to conjecture and theory. While the fact that whales may once have been footed land creatures is admittedly fascinating, the text really gets captivating when it describes cetacean social dynamics: from tender courting rituals to domestic tendings and squabble, from extraordinary displays of cooperation and affection to what can only be understood as gang behavior--hooligans looking for trouble. There are loners, too, as Connor and Peterson note, rebels among the compassionate midwives, protective circlers, and baby sitters. But this is also a hardheaded science text with comparative anatomy, orientation and navigation techniques, migration routes, foraging activities, and measures of intelligence prominently figuring in the text. And cetacean communication skills--those clusters of whistles, clicks, pops, growls, and moans now available on audio cassette--receive up-to-date ponderings. Connor and Peterson close with a chapter on the near-extinction of the Yangtze River baiji, a freshwater dolphin. It is a sorry tale of habitat destruction and that dubious testament to progress, the hydroelectric dam. A thorough and engaging overview of magnetic creatures that have kept humans lost in amazement for thousands of years." Copyright 1994, Kirkus Associates, LP. All rights reserved.

___________, J. Mann, P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead. "Social Evolution in Toothed Whales." Trends in Ecology and Evolution (1998) 13: 228-232.

Abstract: "Two contrasting results emerge from comparisons of the social systems of several odontocetes with terrestrial mammals. Researchers have identified remarkable convergence in prominent features of the social systems of odontocetes such as the sperm whale and bottlenose dolphin with a few well-known terrestrial mammals such as the elephant and chimpanzee. In contrast, studies on killer whales and Baird's beaked whale reveal novel social solutions to aquatic living. The combination of convergent and novel features in odontocete social systems promise a more general understanding of the ecological determinants of social systems in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats, as well as the relationship between relative brain size and social evolution.

Constant, Pierre. Marine Life of the Galapagos: A Diver's Guide to the Fishes, Whales, Dolphins and Other Marine Animals. Odyssey Guides series. Odyssey Publications, 2002.

Constantine, David. Watching for Dolphins. Chester Springs, Dufour Editions, 1983.

Constantine, Rochelle. Monitoring the Commercial Swim-With-Dolphin Operations with the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. Master's of Science Thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 1995.

___________, and C. Scott Baker. Monitoring the Commercial Swim-with-Dolphin Operations in the Bay of Islands. Science for Conservation series, No. 56. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation, 1997.

___________, D. H. Brunton, and T. Dennis. Dolphin-watching tour boats change bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Biological Conservation, 2004, 117:299-307.

Abstract: Over the last decade there has been considerable growth in marine mammal-watching tourism throughout the world. Due to the species use of coastal habitats, bottlenose dolphins are most frequently exposed to dolphin-watching tourism. We conducted boatbased focal follows of schools of bottlenose dolphins to determine the effect of boats on dolphin behaviour. A CATMOD analysis showed that behaviour differed by boat number, in particular, resting behaviour decreased as boat number increased. Dolphins rested less and engaged in more milling behaviour in the presence of permitted dolphin-watching boats compared to non-permitted boats. An increase from 49 to 70 permitted trips per week and a change in their departure times resulted in a further decrease in resting behaviour. Currently the effects of boats, in particular permitted boats, on dolphin resting behaviour whilst they are in the Bay of Islands, are substantial. In the light of these findings we suggest that current legislation in New Zealand is not affording this isolated population protection from disturbance.

Cook, Joseph J., and William L. Wisner. Blue Whale: Vanishing Leviathan. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1973.

___________. Warrior Whale. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1966.

Topics covered include the story of Jonah and its more modern counterpart (the tale of James Bartley from 1891), evolution of cetaceans, overview of sperm whale structure and behavior, collisions between sperm whales and ships, strandings, "rogue" whales, and history of slaughter.

Contents: The Remote Past, The Sperm Whale, Cachalot at Sea, Rogue Sperm Whales, Early History of Sperming, Sperm Whale and Man, Present Day Sperming [1960]

___________. Killer Whale! New York: Dodd, Mead, 1963.

"Here is a factual account of man's knowledge of the most savage of animals. The authors present the killer whale in attacks on fish, fellow mammals and man, tracing recorded onslaughts from the Roman historian Pliny to the present time.

"To ancient Indians this vicious toothed whale, cruising the oceans in search of food, was a god. To the men he attacked he was a devil.

"Their lifelong love of the sea led the authors to their investigations of this monster, whose Latin name, Orcinus orca, indicates he is of the 'kingdom of the dead.'"

Trisha: The authors' hyperbole in the above description gives you a feel for the skewed orientation of this book.

Corkeron, P. J. "Whale Watching, Iconography, and Marine Conservation." Conservation Biology, 204, 18(3):847-849.

Corrigan, Patricia. The Whale Watcher's Guide: Whale-Watching Trips in North America. Chester, Connecticut: Globe Pequot, 1991; Minocqua, Wisconsin: NorthWord Press, 1994, updated 1999. (A revised and expanded edition of Where the Whales Are: A Directory of Whale-Watching Trips in North America. Chester, Connecticut: The Globe Pequot Press, 1991.)

Trisha: You won't find a more thorough resource (and I don't accord this accolade readily!) on North-American whale-watching tours and related museums, aquariums, science centers, national parks, marine sanctuaries, and monuments. Also included are great tips on whale watching, as well as lists of whale conservation and research organizations, adopt-a-whale programs, and suggested reading.

Courbis, Sarah Shelby. Behavior of Hawai'ian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) in response to vessels/swimmers. Master's thesis, San Francisco State University, 2004. Author email: dolphinspice@hotmail.com.

From the author: "The study was conducted on the big island of Hawaii in Kealake'akua, Honaunau, and Kauhako Bays. If anyone is interested in receiving a copy of this thesis, I would be happy to forward it to you."

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of vessel/swimmer traffic on Hawai'ian spinner dolphin behavior; to determine daily behavior patterns of dolphins; to determine patterns of dolphin presence; to determine vessel/swimmer traffic patterns; to determine if any of the patterns observed differed from previously reported patterns; and to produce information for organizations that are in the process of designing regulations for dolphin tourism. My study was conducted in Hawai'i in Kealake'akua, Honaunau, and Kauhako Bays (the later two have not been previously studied) by recording behavior of dolphins and vessel/swimmer traffic from land-based stations. No significant correlations were found between frequency of dolphin aerial behavior and intensity of vessel/swimmer traffic. In Kealake'akua Bay, amounts of entry and exit behavior decreased and mid-day behavior increased since previous studies. However, mean dolphin entry, exit, and residence times did not differ from those reported in previous studies of this bay. Preferred location of dolphins in Kealake'akua Bay changed since previous studies. Changes in dolphin behavior may affect their ability to rest, breed, and socialize.

Cousteau, Jacques-Yves, and Philippe Diolé. Les Dauphins. Arthaud, 1994.

___________. Dolphins. New York: A & W Visual Publishers, 1975. Translation of Les dauphins et la liberté, Paris: Flammarion, 1975.

" . . . join Captain Cousteau and the crew of the Calypso for an intriguing look into their twenty-five years of encountering, following and observing dolphins in the open seas. With its playfulness, intelligence and uncanny goodwill toward human beings, the dolphin has made many an exciting adventure for Cousteau and his crew."

Chapters include First Encounters, The Dolphins of Monaco, The Laws of the Clan, The Story of Dolly, Life with Man, The Road to Freedom, A World of Sound, Thought in the Sea, The Education of Dolphins, The Fisherman's Friend, The Right to Respect, An Ancient Friendship, and The Promise of the Future. Also included are appendices on classification, fresh-water dolphins, protective legislation, and dolphins in the circus and in the laboratory, as well as an illustrated glossary, a bibliography, and an index.

___________. The Whale: Mighty Monarch of the Sea. Translated from French by J. F. Bernard. New York: A & W Visual Library, 1972/London: Cassell, 1972.

"Travel the seas with Jacques-Yves Cousteau and the Calypso, as they journey from the far reaches of the Pacific and Indian Oceans to the California coast, in search of [the whale]."

Chapters include: Meeting a Whale; Fragile Giants of the Sea; When Whales Travel; The Breath-Holding Champions of the World; They Talk, They Sing--And They Listen; The World's Greatest Flesh-Eaters; The Art of Love; The Nursery of the Leviathans; The Baby Whale Who Wanted to Live; The Strongest and Most Intelligent of All: The Killer Whale; and A Time for Respect. Also includes appendices on classification and whaling, plus a glossary and an index.

Cousteau, Jacques, and Yves Paccalet. Jacques Cousteau: Whales. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1986, 1988.

Beautiful, comprehensive, oversize book covering the evolution, behavior, social life, and complex "language" of the whale, the "relentless pursuit of these placid beasts for profit, using ever more deadly means in a greedy and senseless hunt," and the nature of human fascination with the whale. Also includes a bibliography and an index.

". . . whales have provided inspiration in nearly every sphere of creative and intellectual endeavor, from painting, poetry, and literature to philosophy and religion. From the story of Jonah to St. Brendan, from Norse legends to the folklore of Australian aborigines, whales have evoked curiosity, awe, and fear. Here, through ample quotations and illustrations, we see how the whale captivated the minds of Aristotle, Shakespeare, and Melville, and inspired such artists as Dürer, Hokusai, and Turner."

Cowan, James. The Story of Pelorus Jack: The White Dolphin of French Pass, New Zealand, with Maori Legends. 2d ed. Auckland, New Zealand: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1930. 1st ed. Christchurch, New Zealand, 1911. (35-page booklet with photos)

Trisha: This booklet, first published in 1911, and revised in 1930 by adding some additional facts and some Maori legends about Pelorus Jack (a Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus), describes the route of travel Jack kept both day and night for twenty years when accompanying coastal steamers and other vessels near French Pass, New Zealand. (Jack never actually entered French Pass, but always stopped just outside the entrance). The booklet includes maps and other illustrations and the Government Order-in-Council protecting all fish [sic] or mammals of Pelorus Jack's species in the waters of Cook Strait.

From the booklet: "Maori folk-lore abounds with references to taniwhas of the deep, sea-deities [who] were originally men, and [who] exercised "benevolent and maleficent powers over humans who ventured out upon the deep . . . Most famous of all these Maori taniwha-fish [sic] . . . was 'Kaikai-a-waro' [lit. 'Food of the Deep'], [who] the pakeha [the white race] called 'Pelorus Jack.' As Triton with his 'wreathed horn' preceded his ocean-riding father Poseidon, so the scythe-finned taniwha of the Maori seas escorted their chiefs' canoes; and so did 'Kaikai-a-waro,' playing swiftly around the bows of the Trans-Cook Strait fire-canoes, as if leading them on their way, a wonder and a delight to thousands of sea-travellers."

The last half of the booklet recounts stories about Kaikai-a-waro told to the author by Kipa Hemi Wharo, who claimed to be Jack's "chief," and who firmly believed that "'Jack' was the incarnation of his ancestors' sea-god." Kipa Hemi Wharo was regarded by all the Sounds Maoris as the leading authority on their ancestral history and whakapapa (genealogical recitals and traditions).

Cox, G. I. Whale Watch: A Guide to New Zealand's Whales and Dolphins. Auckland, New Zealand: Collins, 1990.

Cox, Victor. Whales and Dolphins. London: W. H. Smith Books/New York: Crescent Books, 1989.

Craft, Sarah S. Mother Beluga Whales and Their Babies. Rosen Group, 1998. (Nonfiction)

Synopsis: Describes the characteristics of beluga whales and how mother beluga whales living in aquariums are taught to care for their babies.

Crail, Ted. Apetalk & Whalespeak: The Quest for Interspecies Communication. Los Angeles/Boston: J. P. Tarcher/Houghton Mifflin, 1981.

This book addresses the questions: "What is the nature of animal consciousness? Can a gorilla tell us about its inner life? What can we learn from whalesong? Do dolphins have an ethical system superior to our own? Are we humans smart enough to communicate across species barriers?

"Apetalk & Whalespeak provides both a history and up-to-the-minute account of adventures into the mysterious realm of animal communication and inner space, including Penny Patterson's dramatic sign language work with gorillas Koko and Michael; John Lilly's language experiments with dolphins; the dolphin Peter's courtship of Margaret Howe during their live-in experiment in communication; musicologist Jim Nollman's music lessons with killer whales; Washoe's breakthrough into sign language; the story of Belle Benchley, the great innovator of the San Diego Zoo, and her discoveries about the mysterious nature of the gorilla; and more.

"The book also offers an unusual glimpse into the behind-the-scenes politics of scientific research and debate--the inside story of Stanford University's stonewalling of Penny Patterson and interference with a Jane Goodall experiment, the liberation of porpoises from Lou Hermann's Hawaiian lab, Columbia University psychologist Herbert Terrace's dramatic repudiation of his experiments in teaching sign language to a chimpanzee named Nim Chimsky," and more.

Cravalho, M. A. "Shameless Creatures: An Ethnozoology of the Amazon River Dolphin." Ethnology, Winter 1999, 38(1):47-58.

"The rural population of Brazilian Amazonia of mixed African, European, and indigenous ancestry possesses a rich corpus of beliefs and practices concerning the Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). Some of these dolphins are believed capable of transforming into human beings at night and causing harm to humans on land. In general, the beliefs about these animals are isomorphic with understandings about human conduct and express preoccupations of these people, as well as explain some episodes of illness. Dolphin narratives encountered in the village which was the focus of this study are more conservative than some in a larger-scale study by Slater (1994)."

Crespo, Enrique A., et al. "Direct and Indirect Effects of the Highseas Fisheries on the Marine Mammal Populations in the Northern and Central Patagonian Coast." Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science (1997) 22: 189-207.

Cressey, Jason. A Guide to Dolphin & Whale Encounters Around the World. Available from The Pod (People - Oceans - Dolphins), http://www.people-oceans-dolphins.com/Shop.

From the publisher: "This informative and clearly-written booklet gives clear instructions on how, where and when to see (and swim with) dolphins and whales around the world. It explains the importance of 'cetacean etiquette' to ensure that all encounters are safe and enjoyable for both people andcetaceans, and includes a 'top 20' list of the world's best places to encounter dolphins and whales. There are also sections on what to take with you on dolphin/whale excursions, what to ask when making bookings for dolphin-swim trips and whale-watch tours, and how to get the most out of your experience."

Cresswell, Graeme, and Dylan Walker. Whales and Dolphins of the European Atlantic. Devon, England: WildGuides Ltd., 2001. Available from WildGuides, email: sales@wildguides.co.uk, or NHBS Mailorder Bookstore, email: sales@nhbs.co.uk.

From the authors: ". . . the first comprehensive photographic guide to the cetaceans of the European Atlantic. There are over 80 color photographs/14 plates which depict typical views of cetaceans at sea. The color plates have been produced using the latest digital image technology. The text covers the key identification features of each species, emphasizing the differences between similar species and includes information on status, behavior, and distribution. Color distribution maps accompany the text for each species."

Culik, Boris M. Review on Small Cetaceans: Distribution, Behaviour, Migration and Threats. Compiled for the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). 2002.

From the preface: "This report summarises the available knowledge on odontocete (the toothed whales) distribution, behaviour, migration and threats and was compiled for the Bonn secretariat of CMS.

Curran, Sarah, Ben Wilson, and Paul Thompson. Recommendations for the Sustainable Management of the Bottlenose Dolphin Population in the Moray Firth. Perth: Scottish Natural Heritage, Publications Section, 1996.

Cuvier, F. De l'histoire naturelle des cétacé. Paris, 1836.

Czernohaus, Karola. Delphindarstellungen von der minoischen bis zur geometrischen Zeit. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology and Literature. Goteborg: P. Astroms forlag, 1988.

Dolphins in Greek and Minoan art.

Dale, Rodney. The Tumour in the Whale: A Collection of Modern Myth. London: Duckworth, 1978.

Dalton, T., and R. Isaacs. The Australian Guide to Whale Watching.

Reference manual and field guide to the identification of species, behavior, popular whale-watching spots, natural history, conservation, and research.

Darling, James. Gray Whales. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1999/Great Britain: Colin Baxter Photography, 1999.

"Known to whalers as the 'devil fish' because of the ferocity with which it resisted capture, the gray whale is an unusual animal in many ways. Alone in its taxonomic family, it's different from other baleen whales in its appearance and in some of its habits. With a dorsal hump rather than a fin, a large gray may also carry a load of up to half a ton of crustacean hitchhikers on its skin. In Gray Whales, Jim Darling describes the social organization and behavior, life history, distribution, and movement of this coastal species. He considers why gray whales may have disappeared from the North Atlantic and examines the remaining threats to what has been one of the great success stories of conservation.

___________. Wild Whales. Vancouver, British Columbia: SummerWild Productions for the West Coast Whale Research Foundation, 1987.

This primarily photographic (and beautifully so) work includes chapters on: Whale Basics, Killer Whales, Gray Whales, Humpback Whales, Whale Watchers' Questions Answered, plus sections on the researchers and photographers who contributed, The West Coast Whale Foundation, and a short bibliography.

___________. Migration, Abundance and Behavior of Hawaiian Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Ph.D. thesis. Santa Cruz, California: University of California Santa Cruz, 1983.

Darling, James, and Flip Nicklin. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises. New York: Random House, 1995.

__________. With the Whales. Minocqua, Wisconsin: NorthWord Press, Inc., 1990.

From the dust jacket: "For centuries whales have exerted a profound influence on the human psyche. The subjects of countless myths, legends and fables, whales have fascinated the writers, poets, artists and philosophers since the Greeks. Today whales still fire our imaginations and stab at our emotions. They continue to inspire our art, literature and music. As Jim Darling states in his opening chapter, 'the indescribable blend of grace, power and beauty of a whale as it glides underwater, leaps toward the sky, or simply lifts its flukes and slides into the sea symbolizes the vanishing poetry of the wild.'

"As Darling and photographer Flip Nicklin have discovered, some of the poetry remains . . . In word and image, Darling and Nicklin have captured the substance and symbols of these compelling creatures. Taken throughout the world's oceans, most of the 130 arresting photographs were taken by Nicklin free-swimming with the whales . . .

"In his preface [to the book], Dr. Kenneth Norris . . . summarized the impact of the book: 'Above all this is a true book about whales. You learn what we really know about whales. And then you see it, up close, and you too may feel the swish of the giant animal's flukes and wonder at the unknown that still surrounds us just beyond the land's edge.'"

Contents include: Portfolio, With the Whales, Origins, Cetacean Society, Feeding, Mating Rituals, The Maternal Mandate, An Oceanic Language, and The Whale Tomorrow?

Daugherty, Anita E. Marine Mammals of California. 2d ed. rev. Sacramento, California: State of California Department of Fish and Game, 1972.

The first edition, published in 1965, contains chapters on: Modification of Marine Mammals, Records of Marine Mammals, Cetacea, Marine Mammal Descriptions (25 species of cetaceans are described), Pinnipedia, The Sea Lion Controversy, Tooth Counts, Meanings of Scientific Names, Suggested Reading, and a Marine Mammal Checklist.

Dauphin, l'Autre d'indispensable infiuiment petit. Gerard Lippert.

Davies, John Lloyd. The Whales and Seals of Tasmania: Written and Illustrated for the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. Hobart: Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, 1963.

Davies, Nick, Alison M. Smith, Sean R. Whyte, Vanessa Williams, eds. Why Whales?. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1991. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

This special publication of WDCS includes chapters titled: A Personal Message (Her Highness The Begum Aga Khan), Whales are Uniquely Special (Dr. Robbins Barstow), The Un-Ethics of Whaling (Dr. Sidney Holt), Why Should We Care About Whales? (Dr. Victor Scheffer), Is Whaling Justifiable on Ethical and Moral Grounds? (Dr. Roger Payne).

Davis, Edward B. "A Whale of a Tale: Fundamentalist Fish Stories". Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 43 (1991): 224-237.

Trisha: An exceptionally detailed, painstakingly researched analysis of the credibility of turn-of-the-century reports about whalers being swallowed by whales.

Davis, Susan G. Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1997.

Publisher's annotation: " This is the story of Sea World, a theme park where the wonders of nature are performed, marketed, and sold. With its trademark star, Shamu the killer whale--as well as performing dolphins, pettable sting rays, and reproductions of pristine natural worlds--the park represents a careful coordination of shows, dioramas, rides, and concessions built around the theme of ocean life. Susan Davis analyzes the Sea World experience and the forces that produce it: the theme park industry; Southern California tourism; the privatization of urban space; and the increasing integration of advertising, entertainment, and education. The result is an engaging exploration of the role played by images of nature and animals in contemporary commercial culture, and a precise account of how Sea World and its parent corporation, Anheuser-Busch, succeed. Davis argues that Sea World builds its vision of nature around customers' worries and concerns about the environment, family relations, and education.

"While Davis shows the many ways that Sea World monitors its audience and manipulates animals and landscapes to manufacture pleasure, she also explains the contradictions facing the enterprise in its campaign for a positive public identity. Shifting popular attitudes, animal rights activists, and environmental laws all pose practical and public relations challenges to the theme park.

"Davis confronts the park's vast operations with impressive insight and originality, revealing Sea World as both an industrial product and a phenomenon typical of contemporary American culture."

Trisha: A thorough (based on many years of research and fieldwork), cogent, and revealing analysis of Sea World's and, by association, other theme parks' highly controlled and artificial presentation of nature, whose bottom-line purpose is the stimulation of consumption. If you harbor any thoughts about Sea World's purpose being to provide true education, environmental awareness, etc., I would recommend a careful consideration of this author's arguments.

___________. "Touch the Magic" in William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York/London: W. W. Norton and Co., 1995.

Covers the essential themes that are explored in detail in the author's book Spectacular Nature.

Dawbin, William Henry, Bruce Alexander Noble, and Francis Charles Fraser. Observations on the Electra Dolphin, Peponocephala electra. In Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology Series, Vol. 20, No. 6. London: British Museum (Natural History), 1970.

Daws, Gavan. Night of the Dolphins. HUW209 Nature and Human Nature course. Victoria, Australia: Deakin University, 1982.

Trisha: The title Night of the Dolphins refers to the evening in May 1977 when Ken LeVasseur and Steve Sipman removed the bottlenose dolphins Puka and Kea from Louis Herman's lab at Kewalo Basin Marine Vertebrate Laboratory in Honolulu, Hawai'i, and released them back into the wild.

It is this incident that serves as the running example for a consideration of the legal and natural rights of humans and other animals in this course in the Nature and Human Nature series, a second-level series of courses in the social studies of science major at Deakin University. This series examines "scientific ideas and practices, how they were shaped by their social context, and how they were used to further particular social and political ends."

Contents include: The Release of the Dolphins; Rights for Humans, Rights for Other Animals (subsections: The question of rights; The tactics of rights; The problems of personification; Who is a human?); The Uses of Other Animals; The Nature of Other Animals; Attitudes to Other Animals; Ethology and Attitudes to Other Animals; Species Boundaries and Moral Boundaries; The Marginal Case and Its Agonies; Mental States in Other Animals; Intelligence in Other Animals (subsection: The cetacean brain); Language and Other Animals (subsection: Dolphins and language); The Reaction to the Release of the Dolphins (subsection: The legal reaction); Aftermath; Universal Declaration of the Rights of Animals. Also includes Essential, Highly Recommended, and Recommended Reading.

Provides a thought-provoking introduction (with questions and exercises) to the consideration of rights and personhood for nonhumans, especially in the case of cetaceans, nonhuman primates, and a human/nonhuman primate hybrid.

Dawson, Stephen. The New Zealand Whale and Dolphin Digest: The Official Project Jonah Guidebook. Auckland, New Zealand: Brick Row Publishing Co. Ltd., 1985.

Includes chapters on: Whale and Dolphin Biology, Natural History, Strandings, and New Zealand Cetaceans, plus a bibliography and an index.

Dawson, Stephen, and Elisabeth Slooten. Down-under Dolphins: The Story of the Hector's Dolphin. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press, 1997.

Day, David. The Whale War. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1987.

"'The whale is at the heart of a guerilla war of resistance that has spread over all the world: it is the symbol of the ecology movement and emblematic of the fate of all species on the planet. The battle line has been drawn here. If this amazing animal, the largest ever to exist on the planet, cannot be saved from the ruthless exploitation of a handful of men, what chance of survival have other species?'

"David Day's frankly conservationist stance enriches this look at the single greatest victory of the ecological movement. Day treats the whale war as a military campaign, reporting on the manoeuvres and gains in the world's oceans and parliaments. He reviews the growth of public outcry and international pressure while killer-factory ships ply the oceans and Greenpeace's eco-guerillas wage a dangerous campaign against pirate whalers.

"He examines the history and politics of the International Whaling Commission, with its peculiar policy of protection under which more whales are killed than ever before; how the Japanese and Russians find legal loopholes to extend hunting quotas; and how negotiations stretch on while the incredible slaughter continues.

"A concise history of [human] relationship with the whale and a fascinating look at the whale's many mysteries enhance The Whale War. And in the voice of the truly concerned human, Day looks into the future and prays for the whale's survival in a world seemingly bent on universal destruction."

Deans, James. Legend of the Fin-back Whale Crest of the Haidas, Queen Charlotte's Island, B.C.. 1892?.

Dedina, Serge (serge@U.Arizona.edu). Saving the Gray Whale: People, Politics, and Conservation in Baja California. Phoenix, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 2000.

"Everyone who's ever patted a whale needs to read this . . . The gray whale is a symbol for one environmental success, but it may also symbolize the great perils of failure. Serge Dedina has written an excellent book, a must-read for all who think saving gray whales is a simple issue." -- Ann Zwinger, author of A Desert Country Near the Sea: A Natural History of the Cape Region of Baja California

"Serge Dedina threads the social and political labyrinths that surround gray whale conservation in Baja California as densely as mangroves surround the breeding lagoons. Dedina's book is required reading for anyone who would understand contemporary man's interaction with the gray whale." -- Bruce Berger, author of Almost an Island: Travels in Baja California

"Once hunted by whalers and now the darling of ecotourists, the gray whale has become part of the culture, history, politics, and geography of Mexico's most isolated region. After the harvesting of gray whales was banned by international law in 1946, their populations rebounded; but while they are no longer hunted for their oil, these creatures are now chased up and down the lagoons of southern Baja California by whalewatchers.

"This book uses the biology and politics associated with gray whales in Mexican waters to present an unusual case study in conservation and politics. It provides an inside look at how gray whale conservation decisions are made in Mexico City and examines how those policies and programs are carried out in the calving grounds of San Ignacio Lagoon and Magdalena Bay, where catering to ecotourists is now an integral part of the local economy.

"Saving the Gray Whale also explores the politics behind the battle over San Ignacio Lagoon--where Mitsubishi has proposed building the world's largest industrial salt facility.

"More than a study of conservation politics, Dedina's book puts a human face on wildlife conservation. The author lived for two years with residents of Baja communities to understand their attitudes about wildlife conservation and Mexican politics, and he accompanied many in daily activities to show the extent to which the local economy depends on whalewatching.

"'It is ironic,' observes Dedina, 'that residents of some of the most isolated fishing villages in North America are helping to redefine our relationship with wild animals. Americans and Europeans brought the gray whale population to the brink of extinction. The inhabitants of San Ignacio Lagoon and Magdalena Bay are helping us to celebrate the whales' survival.' By showing us how these animals have helped shape the lifeways of the people with whom they share the lagoons, Saving the Gray Whale demonstrates that gray whales represent both a destructive past and a future with hope."

___________, and Emily Young. Conservation and Development in the Gray Whale Lagoons of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Final Report to the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission, October 1995.

Identifies activities that could have a negative impact on the gray whale calving/breeding habitats of Laguna San Ignacio and Bahia Magdalena.

Deinse, A. B. van. Fossiele en recente cetacea van Nederland. Amsterdam, 1931.

Delorme, J., and C. Roux. Guide illustré de la faune aquatique dans l'art grec. A.P.D.C.A, Juan-les-Pins.

DeMares, Ryan. "Peak Experiences with Cetaceans: A Phenomenological Study." Doctoral dissertation. The Union Institute Graduate College, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1998. Dissertation Abstracts International catalogue no. 9908549. Author email: rdemares@cybermesa.com.

___________. Dolphins, Myths, and Transformations. Forthcoming 2002. Author email: rdemares@cybermesa.com.

From the author: This work "is not just about dolphins; it explores other kinds of myths that relate to my relationship with other species, such as my waking dream about the White Mare (White Goddess), and also language myths involving not just dolphins but other species like prairie dogs and chimps.

"Examples of chapter subjects: Hearing the call of the dolphins (how my relationship with dolphins came about, through dolphin-assisted-therapy-related research and other means); my cetacean peak experience research; the peak experience research with chimps being done by the only other scientist involved in this type of inquiry; dolphin basics like intelligence and perception; my take on the dolphins as healers, along with a story of relief from severe depression by a participant in one of my workshops a year ago who lives in Manhattan and feels the dolphins made it possible for her to fulfill her role in serving the community in the wake of 9-11; the myths surrounding Homo dolphinus; an after-death communication involving a message from the dolphins; a world vision about the cetacean nation, written by a participant in one of my wild swim workshops; and my own call for the transformation of Western science toward the acceptance of other kinds of knowing. There is a definite undercurrent of feminine principle, due in part to the White Mare (White Goddess) presence in my life, the feminine energy of the dolphins, which relates to your yin-yang material, and my presentation of feminine knowing along with the mystical and indigenous as valid avenues for acquiring knowledge."

Department of the Navy. An Investigation of Potential Uses of Animals in Coast Guard Operations. Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, 1981.

Kacey Komloski: Explains "how the dolphins are set up with minute sonar equipment to aid in the search for victims in shipping accidents, coastal war situations, and bomb detection . . . [S]ending a dolphin to do the military's dirty work sounds like animal cruelty and suicide runs to me [and] I did not agree with the view of this book."

Desmond, Jane C. Staging Tourism: Bodies on Display from Waikiki to Sea World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.

From the publisher: "From Shamu the dancing whale at Sea World to Hawaiian lu'au shows, Staging Tourism analyzes issues of performance in a wide range of tourist venues. Jane C. Desmond argues that the public display of bodies--how they look, what they do, where they do it, who watches, and under what conditions--is profoundly important in structuring identity categories of race, gender, and cultural affiliation. These fantastic spectacles of corporeality form the basis of hugely profitable tourist industries, which in turn form crucial arenas of public culture where embodied notions of identity are sold, enacted, and debated.

"Gathering together written accounts, postcards, photographs, advertisements, films, and oral histories as well as her own interpretations of these displays, Desmond gives us a vibrant account of U.S. tourism in Waikiki from 1900 to the present. She then juxtaposes cultural tourism with 'animal tourism' in the United States, which takes place at zoos, aquariums, and animal theme parks. In each case, Desmond argues, the relationship between the viewer and the viewed is ultimately based on concepts of physical difference harking back to the nineteenth century."

Cetacean/animal-related contents: Looking at Animals: The Consumption of Radical Bodily Difference, The Industries of Species Tourism, In/Out-of/In-Fake-Situ: Three Case Studies, Performing Nature: Shamu at Sea World, Bodies and Tourism

Devine, Eleanore, and Martha Clark. The Dolphin Smile: Twenty-nine Centuries of Dolphin Lore. New York: Macmillan, 1967. (Contains both fiction and nonfiction.)

Dewar, Shari "Star." Encounters with Hearts of the Sea. Available in full online: http://www.stardewar.com/Encounters.htm. (New Age)

Contents: Whispering Waters . . . An Introduction, The Silver Lei, Jupiter and the Dolphins, Unconditional Love from the Orcas, Night of the Orcas . . . a Poem, Soaring with Underwater Eagles, Hearts, and Symbols in the Sand

Dewhurst, Henry William. The Natural History of the Order Cetacea and the Oceanic Inhabitants of the Arctic Regions. London: Henry William Dewhurst, 1834. Illustrated with numerous lithographic and wood engravings of whales and some ocean life.

According to the book The Whales, this is not a particularly good book. "Dewhurst styled himself 'surgeon-accoucheur' and based his claim to speak with authority about whales on his voyage to the 'Greenland seas' as surgeon in the ship 'Neptune' of London in 1824--but his book is obviously much derived from the writings of William Scoresby, who included excellent scientific observations on whales in his Account of the Arctic Regions, with a History and Description of the Northern Whale-fishery, 1820. Dewhurst, who called himself 'professor', was more than a little of a charlatan . . . "

Dianthus. Union of Presence. An audio book. Available from Dianthus Books, 4306 Eagle Fork, Houston, Texas 77084-3514, (281) 550-4310. (New Age)

Includes the author's experiences "in swimming with wild dolphins and information about our oceans and whales gained through a scientist [she] met, . . . a whale, dolphin, and seal rescuer."

Dierauf, Leslie A. (LESAVE@newmexico.com), ed. CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine: Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1990. (New edition forthcoming 2000.)

Dietz, Tim. Whales and Man: Adventures with the Giants of the Deep. Dublin, New Hampshire: Yankee Books, 1987.

This book "examines the evolving relationship between whales and humans by telling the stories of those who meet whales at sea.

"You'll meet a man in Maine who risks his life to save whales trapped in fishermen's nets; witness a sperm whale giving birth in the middle of the Indian Ocean; and cheer as thousands of whales trapped in Artic pack ice are lured to freedom by the strains of classical music.

"As you share these adventures, you'll also learn the latest scientific theories about whales. . . The final section features a unique gallery of whale behavior, designed especially for whale watchers."

___________. Tales of the Sea. Guy Gannet Books, 1983.

___________. Tales of Whales. Guy Gannet Books, 1982.

Dixon, J. M., and L. Frigo. The Cetacean Collection of the Museum of Victoria: An Annotated Catalogue. Australia: Deer RF, 1994.

Dizon, Andrew, Scott Baker, Frank Cipriano, et al., eds. Molecular Genetic Identification of Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises: Proceedings of a Workshop on the Forensic Use of Molecular Techniques to Identify Wildlife Products in the Marketplace. La Jolla, California: 14-16 June 1999. U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-286. 2000.

___________, S. J. Chivers, and W. F. Perrin, eds. Molecular Genetics of Marine Mammals. Society for Marine Mammalogy special publication no. 3. Lawrence, Kansas: Society for Marine Mammalogy, 1997.

Doak, Wade. Friends in the Sea: Solo Dolphins in New Zealand and Australia. Aukland, New Zealand: Hodder Moa Beckett Publishers Limited, 1995.

___________. Swimming with Dolphins in New Zealand. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton, 1994.

"Presents the story behind Project Interlock, a global network set up by Wade and Jan Doak to learn about dolphins in the wild. Wade reveals a fascinating collection of encounters recorded between humans and dolphins in New Zealand. It seems that something magical has happened: dolphins are accepting visits from humans at locations all around the coast. Dolphin swimming is a rapidly growing form of ecotourism.

"In a tour of dolphin-swim locations around the country, this book provides insights into how to play with dolphins. From north to south, you can meet five different species of dolphins, at different times and locations, according to seasonal movements. You will find that swimming with dolphins can be an unforgettable experience."

___________. Encounters with Whales and Dolphins. Auckland: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988.

"In the waters of this planet dwell cetacean creatures with brains as large and as complex as our own. Yet the capacity of theirs remains one of the world's most elusive mysteries. Their immense power and benign attitude towards humans both intrigue and inspire. Deeper understanding of whales and dolphins can only be on their terms--more than any creature, they have the ability to avoid us, if perturbed. And they cannot be studied in captivity because mutual respect and openendedness are essential.

"For the past decade New Zealanders Wade and Jan Doak have devoted themselves to exploring the cetacean mind through the vehicle of communication. With mimetic use of the dolphin suit, music and creative play, they found that dolphins extend their signalling systems to humans. The Doaks' Project Interlock network linked them with people all over the globe who have had complex exchanges with cetaceans. They researched the histories of 30 solitary dolphins that have sought human companionship for prolonged periods. They discovered remote and special dolphin tribes in close rapport with humans in the Bahamas, Brazil and Australia. Amazingly they found whales just as ready to communicate: mighty humpbacks are sensitive to interaction with humans, mother grey whales present their babies to be stroked, and wild orca seek to establish trust by gently mouthing human limbs."

___________. Dolphin, Dolphin. New York: Sheridan House, 1980.

"On an April day in 1975, a tribe of dolphins interrupted their journey up the east coast of northern New Zealand to frolic in the sea with a boatload of humans. They played games, acting with an indescribably good humour and ease. When the meeting was all over and Wade Doak had talked to his family and friends about it, a teasing thought began to intrude. Was it more than just a game? Were the dolphins ready and willing to meet humans, their peers in intellect, on an equal footing? Did they want to communicate with friends of another culture in the sea?

"There were further encounters with other dolphins--and sometimes the same ones--off that charmed Northland coast; tantalizing in their brevity but every now and then making Wade and Jan Doak feel they were on the brink of a revelation. The thought of establishing meaningful communication with dolphins and other cetaceans began to dominate the Doaks' life.

"There were so many ideas to be tried out in the search for a two-way dialogue. Music, but what style and tempo? (Pink Floyd gained quick popularity.) Mimicry, with the development of a dolphin suit to make resemblances more obvious. And was it proper to intrude on their territory, or did one wait for the 'nomadic villagers' to offer an invitation? What kind of boat made the best base? Wade and Jan sold their house and bought a Polynesian catamaran which they transformed into a specially rigged research vessel.

"Dolphin, Dolphin goes on to tell how the dolphins responded to these and other experiments. Journal entries capture the excitement and wonder of encounters which gradually developed into a relationship that, a few years before, would have been beyond belief.

"And so Project Interlock came into being. A study of dolphin-initiated approaches to humans opened a door to the rest of the world. Dolphins had deliberately aided mariners in distress; others had set up enduring friendships with chosen people. Responding to Operation Interlock newsletters, swimmers, divers, surfers and yachtsmen reported meetings with friendly and strangely communicative dolphins. Britain and South Africa, Spain, the Bahamas and Australia, Hawaii and the two Americas furnished fascinating anecdotes.

"The pathway to friendship with dolphins extends to physical contact and play with the great whales. The future possibilities that Wade Doak outlines are fascinating. The great brain capacity of the cetaceans can be used in ways that we earthbound creatures cannot fully comprehend. These possibilities come excitingly together when Wade Doak, attending the 1980 conference on cetacean intelligence in Washington, D.C., reviews modern research in this field and then, in the coastal waters of Hawaii, discovers new horizons for human/ cetacean exploration."

Dobbs, Horace. Dolphin Adoption and Watching Handbook. All of Horace Dobbs' books are available from International Dolphin Watch, Parklands, North Ferriby, E. Yorks HU14 3ET, England, voice: 01 482 844468, fax: 01 482 634914.

___________. Dolphin Healing. 2000.

From the website: This work explores " the healing power of dolphins. [The author] tells . . . of over two decades' work with dolphins, and reveals new research that shows dolphins can inspire us not only with their beauty and intelligence, they can also heal us physically and emotionally.

"Horace Dobbs explores possible scientific explanations for the healing power of dolphins which he supports with many heartwarming tales of personal transformation. These range from that of Bill, who, after swimming with dolphins, was completely cured after 12 years in a deep depression, and Lilo, whose terminal cancer regressed, to the incredible story of Eve, a severely autistic girl who uttered her first word, 'good', after meeting a dolphin."

___________. Journey into Dolphin Dreamtime. London: Jonathan Cape, 1992. Part three of the trilogy including Tale of Two Dolphins and Dance to a Dolphin's Song. Large-print edition available.

The optimistic voyage of discovery recounted in this volume begins and ends in Australia. Along the way, readers meet Aborigines in Australia; Freddie, the Amble dolphin; JoJo, the Caribbean dolphin; and travel to Japan to ponder the mysteries of dolphin healing.

___________. Save the Dolphins. London: Souvenir Press, 1992.

The story of the life of the solitary dolphin Donald until his mysterious disappearance. Calls for the freedom of all dolphins and takes the reader around the world discovering dolphins in the wild and in captivity. Recounts the anguish of the Iki Island dolphin massacre and the joy of Rocky's successful release from the Morecambe dolphinarium.

___________. Dance to a Dolphin's Song: The Story of a Quest for the Magic Healing Power of the Dolphin. London: Jonathan Cape, 1990. (Outgrowth of two television films: Bewitched by a Dolphin and The Dolphin's Touch.) Part two of the trilogy including Tale of Two Dolphins and Journey into Dolphin Dreamtime.

Explores the development of Operation Sunflower and tells the story of Simo, a wild dolphin who lived near Solva in Pembrokeshire, and Funghie, the famous Dingle Dolphin, and the people whose lives were changed by their experiences with these dolphins.

___________. Follow a Wild Dolphin: The Story of an Extraordinary Friendship. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Sheridan House, 1990/London: Souvenir Press, 1990. Also published in Japanese.

About Dobbs' life-changing friendship with Donald and Percy, two lone wild bottlenose dolphins in Cornwall, as well as his interaction with wild dolphins off the coast of Ireland, his experience of dolphins in Florida associating with humans in "open confinement," and his acquaintance with JoJo, a lone wild bottlenose dolphin in the Turks and Caicos Islands.

___________. The Magic of Dolphins. Guildford, England: Lutterworth Press/Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Sheridan House, 1990.

___________. Tale of Two Dolphins. London: Jonathan Cape, 1987. Part one of the trilogy including Dance to a Dolphin's Song and Journey into Dolphin Dreamtime.

This account of encounters with dolphins is set mainly off the romantic coast of Cornwall. Introduces a friendly wild dolphin named Percy who gently responds to a woman who cannot swim yet is courageous enough to get into the sea with Percy. It was this remarkable encounter that later led Horace Dobbs to set up Operation Sunflower, a research project which investigates the uplifting effect of dolphins on the human spirit. Also tells the story of Horace Dobbs' encounter with Jean Louis, a lone female dolphin off Brittany in France.

Dolphin, J. G. How to Shapeshift to Dolphin Form. Torrance, California: Dolphin Society, 1996. (New Age)

Dolphin Awareness: Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales of the Moray Firth. Scottish Natural Heritage, 1993.

Dolphin Reef Eilat. Educational Packages. Available from Dolphin Reef Eilat via website, or Southern Beach, P.O. Box 104, Eilat 88100, Israel, 972-6371846, fax: 972-6375921, e-mail: reef@netvision.net.il.

Package I contents:

Donio, Sophie. "Summary of Therapy Season 1996-1997: Supportive Experience with the Aid of Dolphins at Dolphin Reef, Eilat, Israel."

Nathanson, David E., Donny de Castro, Heather Friend, and Marcia McMahon. "Effectiveness of Short-Term Dolphin-Assisted Therapy for Children with Severe Disabilities." Anthrozoos, 1997, 10(2-3):90-98.

Package II contents:

Arion - Associazione Scientifica senza fini di lucro. "Dolphin Assisted Psychotherapy - A Gestalt Approach. ASPIC: Realta e Prospettive in Psicofisiologia, n. 8/9/10, Roma luglio 1994.

Cusack, Odean, and Elaine Smith. Project Inreach.

Donio, Sophie. "Case Report of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy at Dolphin Reef Eilat.". (Contents: Introduction, The advantages of the dolphin in therapy, Survey of studies involving therapy with dolphins, What takes place at the Dolphin Reef in Eilat. Description and analysis of the working procedure with a little girl suffering considerably delayed development, Conclusion, Appendix - description of sessions, Bibliography)

Nathanson, David E. "Using Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins to Increase Cognition of Mentally Retarded Children." In P. Lovibond, and P. Wilson, eds., Clinical and Abnormal Psychology. Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1989, pp. 233-242.

Nathanson, David E., and Sherri de Faria. "Cognitive Improvement of Children in Water with and without Dolphins. Anthrozoos, 6(1): 17-29.

The Dolphin Report. Sea Frontiers, v. 37, Mar/Apr 1991: 36-55.

Includes articles on dolphin intelligence and communication and on therapeutic swim-with-dolphins programs, plus a collection of news items about dolphins.

Dolphins. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1997. Originally in Japanese.

Dolphins and Whales in Captivity. International Specialized Book, 1984.

Dolphins in Peril. Issue #13, April 1990 of Paws News. Progressive Animal Welfare Society, P.O. Box 1037, Lynwood, Washington 98046.

Dolphins, Whales, and Porpoises. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1978.

Donoghue, Michael, and Annie Wheeler. Save the Dolphins. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Sheridan House, 1990.

This book "celebrates the beauty and wonder of the world's dolphins and small whales, and makes a plea to save the many species that are acutely endangered.

"It identifies and describes the threats currently facing these wise and gentle creatures, such as 'wall-of-death' nets, purse-seining and even hunting or deliberate harassment by humans.

"Also included is the story of how inshore habitats have become so polluted that, for example, the belugas of the St. Lawrence Seaway have become sterile and are doomed to extinction. And dolphins are deliberately pursued and slaughtered around Japan, South America, and the Black Sea because they compete with commercially valued fish, and are used for food, fertilizer, or even crab bait.

"From Asia and South America come accounts of the most endangered dolphins of all: small river-dwelling species like the Ganges River dolphin which are very restricted in distribution and now extremely rare because of hunting and habitat destruction."

Chapters include: The Most Threatened Species, The Human/Dolphin Encounter, An Equal Intelligence in the Sea?, A Remarkable Adaptation to Life Under Water, The Sad Story of the River Dolphins, The Deliberate Killing of Dolphins, Dolphin Slaughter in the Tuna Industry, Drift-nets--Stripmining the Oceans, Gill-Nets-- the Quiet Massacre, Last-Minute Reprieve for the Downunder Dolphin, Poisoned Waters, Dolphins and Whales in Captivity, The Militarisation of Flipper, International Law for Protecting Dolphins and Small Whales, Saving Dolphins-- Conservation Initiatives, What You Can Do to Help, and Species List. Also includes brief bibliography, glossary, and index.

Scott: Intense, well documented, excellent photographs. Exceptionally complete on the subject for its 120 pages. Strong on international law.

Donovan, G. P. Behaviour of Whales in Relation to Management. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 8. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1986.

"The papers are divided into four sections: a review of aspects of cetacean behaviour in the light of current behavioural thought on other mammalian species; methodological studies incl. acoustics and other benign methods; species specific studies, particularly bowhead and gray whales; a review of photographic mark-recapture methods for estimating population size."

Donovan, G. P., C. H. Lockyer, and A. R. Martin, eds. Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales: A Collection of Papers. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 14. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1993.

"The first (and larger) section of this volume mainly concerns papers arising out of a field programme to examine catches of long-finned pilot whales taken in the Faroese fishery. Some thirteen papers discuss the analyses of the resultant data, including: external characteristics; age determination and growth; genetic studies and social organisation; reproductive biology; feeding and energetics; pollution; and parasitology.

"The Faroese studies have provided some . . . new information about the biology of the pilot whale, particularly in terms of its social organisation and reproductive biology. Other papers on North Atlantic pilot whales examine historical trends in catches, provide the first direct estimates of current population size and information on distribution and fishery interactions.

"The final three papers in the volume concern the short-finned pilot whale in the North Pacific."

Dorn, E. W., R. Dietz, and R. R. Reeves. Studies of White Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and Narwhals (Monodon monceros) in Greenland and Adjacent Waters. Meddelelser Om Gronland, Bioscience 39 series. Denmark: Danish Polar Centre, 1994.

Vital research data charting the status and distribution of belugas and narwhals in Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, Scoresby Sound, Svalbard, Eclipse Sound, North Baffin Island, and other arctic waters.

Dornics, Bettina, and Ulrich "Ulisses" Reinartz. KAIROS-Bordbuch der Delphin- und Walbegegnungen (KAIROS-Logbook of Dolphin- and Whalewatching). Forthcoming 1998. (Click on title for excerpts.)

Doud, Forrest. The Gray Whale Pocket Guide. San Luis Obispo, California: E Z Nature Books, 1992.

Dow, Leslie. Whales. Great Creatures of the World Series. New York: Facts on File, 1990.

From the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society Booklist: " . . . A mixture of colour photos and illustrations in an easy-to-read style provides a compelling introduction to these amazing creatures." (Companion volume to Dolphins and Porpoises, by Hatherly and Nicholls.)

Doyle, Mark. Celebrating 50 Wyland Whaling Walls. Laguna Beach, California: Wyland Studios, 1995.

Doyle, Mark, and Wyland. The Art of Wyland. Laguna Beach, California: Wyland Studios, Inc., 1993.

Dozier, Thomas A. Whales and Other Sea Mammals: Based on the Television Series Wild, Wild World of Animals. New York: Little Brown & Co., 1977.

Dudok van Heel, Willem Hendrik. Extraordinaires dauphins. Ed. Rossel, Nature/Sciences, 1974. In French.

___________. Dolfijn, hoe doe je het?. Amsterdam: P. N. van Kampen & Zoon N.V., 1970. In Dutch.

Jaap: Natural history and general biology of whales and dolphins.

___________. Sound and Cetacea. Groningen: J. B. Wolters, 1962.

Dudzinski, Kathleen. Communication and Behavior in the Atlantic Spotted Dolphin (Stenella frontalis): Relationships Between Vocal and Behavioral Activities. Dissertation. 1996. Available for $16.00 from the author. E-mail: dudzinskik@aol.com, s-mail: 157 Curtis Street, Meriden, Connecticut 06450.


This work presents a description of behaviors and vocalizations of free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in Bahamian waters. The objective is to elucidate mechanisms of intraspecific communication in these dolphins by interpretation of associations between vocal structures, social context, and observed behaviors. The ultimate goal is to evaluate communication and behavior of spotted dolphins in order to eventually understand how an aquatic mammal's sensory abilities permit it to adapt to an environment foreign to terrestrial mammals. While this work does not yield the Rosetta stone to dolphin communication, it does provide a beginning description of associations among their intraspecific interactions, behaviors, and vocalizations. To facilitate this work, I developed a system that allowed concurrent recording of underwater vocal activity and behavior among dolphins. With this system, the vocalizing dolphin could be identified for approximately 38 percent of all recorded vocalizations, thereby facilitating examination of relationships between an individual's vocalizations, behaviors, age, and gender. Behavior units varied with behavioral activity, group type, and age, but not gender.

Some behaviors and vocalizations were produced only by particular ages. For example, melon-to-genital contact was observed between mother/calf dyads, while screams were recorded only from calves and juveniles. Vocal type varied significantly with behavioral activity, group type, and spot class: whistles and chirps were observed mostly during social and play activity, and click trains more during inquisitive and forage modes. No evidence for signature whistles was indicated from the data, although their presence and potential use as contact calls is suggested from anecdotal observations. Spotted dolphins use vocal, visual, and tactile pathways for signal exchange. Behaviors and vocal signals were used concurrently, apparently to maximize or enhance a message. Behaviors and vocalizations were also used separately, but with similar functions. For example, a click train with a chirp produced while one individual approached another appeared to indicate the same message as a pectoral fin to pectoral fin rub between individuals that joined after a separation.

___________, Toni G. Frohoff, and Nicole L. Crane. Behavior of a lone female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with humans off the coast of Belize. Aquatic Mammals, 1995, 21(2):149-153.

Duguy, R., and D. Robineau. Guide des mammifères marins d'Europe. Lausanne, Switzerland: Delachaux et Niestlé, 1982.

Dumont, Jean M. On the Trail of Whales. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series, 1998.

Why Do Whales and Children Sing? A Guide to Listening in Nature. David Dunn. Book and CD. Santa Fe, N.M.: Earth Ear Records. Email: info@earthear.com, voice: 1-888-356-4918, 505-466-1879, fax: 505-466-4930.

From the Web site: quot; How did our culture come to lose its appreciation for the voices of our planetary companions? What can paying attention to sound offer us, individually and collectively? In this wide-ranging and accessible book and accompanying CD, David Dunn-sound recordist, composer, eco-philosopher-leads us to ask such questions, while showing how sound offers connection with nature, and ourselves, in profoundly direct ways.

"This book of short essays, each accompanied by a track on the CD, introduces the universal qualities of soundmaking and listening, and is filled with sudden kernels of synthesis and insight. It's a great blend of history, philosophy, personal reflection, deep ecology musings, and cultural context."

Durham, F. E. Biology of the Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the Western Arctic. Los Angeles, California: University of California, 1972. Unpublished manuscript.

D'Vincent, Cynthia, with Delphine Haley and Fred A. Sharpe. Voyaging with the Whales. Chicago/Toronto: Oakwell Boulton, 1989.

"For eight years Cynthia D'Vincent has sailed the Pacific from Alaska to Hawaii and back, voyaging as much as 30,000 miles a year, observing the humpback whales in all their moments, private and social, spectacular and serene. From [her research platforms] every visible and audible detail of humpback whale behavior was recorded . . . "

Chapters include: Voyaging with the Whales; Mysticete Whales; Breeding Behavior; Photo-Identification; Blows; Breaching; Spyhops, Slaps and Lobs; Feeding Behaviors; Cooperative Feeding; Interactions of Humpbacks with Other Animals; and Conclusions. Also includes a glossary, a bibliography, and a rudimentary index.

Trisha: A beautifully illustrated oversize book.

Scott: A beautifully published book . . . Wonderful photos, insightful text.

Dyke, Arthur S., and Thomas F. Morris. Postglacial History of the Bowhead Whale and of Driftwood Penetration: Implications for Paleoclimate, Central Canadian Arctic. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 89-24. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre, 1990.

Earle, Sylvia A. Sea Change: A Message of the Oceans. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1996.

This is not a book about cetaceans, but rather about the ever-degrading status of their home. Dr. Earle discusses the problems and concludes with a blueprint for change and offers suggestions for guaranteeing the survival of the seas. (She also describes some of her encounters with cetaceans and the specific problems they face.)

Eaton, Randall L. The Orca Project--A Meeting of Nations: An Anthology. Enterprise, Oregon: Sacred Press, 1998. WARNING: I placed an order for this title (sent a check) when it was first announced in 1995 and never received the book, which was published in 1998. My phone calls were never returned, nor my inquiries answered.

From the publisher: "After twenty years of study of orca whales and dolphins in the wild and in captivity, Dr. Eaton has written a collection of twenty-four stories and essays [that reflect] on the behavior, intelligence, and interspecies communication of orcas and dolphins and our relationship to them. Dr. Eaton and his Orca Project volunteers actually made friends with wild orcas."

Economizing at Ecology: Why Big Rare Whales Still Die. 1981.

Eder, Tamara. Whales and Other Marine Mammals of California and Baja. Lone Pine Publishing, 2002.

Describes and depicts 37 cetacean species, 6 pinniped species, and 2 otter species. Covers origin and evolution, behavior and adaptations, dentition, conservation, and whale-watching regions.

Edwards, Frank. Stranger Than Science. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1959.

Scott: A collection of strange stories that defy scientific explanation, including the tale of James Bartley, the man who survived being swallowed by a whale.

Edwards, Hugh. The Remarkable Dolphins of Monkey Mia. Swanbourne, West Australia: Hugh Edwards, 1989.

Elliot, Daniel Giraud. The Land and Sea Mammals of Middle America and the West Indies. 2 vol. Chicago, Illinois: Field Columbian Museum, Zoological Series, 1904.

Ellis, Frederick Thomas. Can We Believe Today the Story of Jonah and the Whale? London: Bible Testimony Fellowship, 1952.

Ellis, Richard. Monsters of the Sea: The History, Natural History, and Mythology of the Oceans' Most Fantastic Creatures. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

Matte Bille: Good chapter on the sperm whale and one on the contest between the whale and its chief prey, the giant squid. I would indeed recommend it to anyone interested in the way humans view whales or in the sperm whale in particular.

From the book: "The generic 'whale' has achieved a unique degree of veneration; it has become more than a biological entity, more than a hunted creature. It has become a symbol . . . It is not surprising that the whale has been chosen for the symbol of the environmental movement; to the faithful it represents purity, goodness, and hope for the future . . . Why do we need whales? As monsters they are obsolete, and as commercial objects they seem to have outlived their usefulness. As endangered species, however, they serve to remind us of our frailty, which may be, in this crucial time of our planet's peril, their most important function.".

". . . Listen to the words of Loren Eisley, the anthropologist-poet: 'If man had sacrificed his hands for flukes, he would still be a philosopher, but there would have been taken from him the power to wreak his thought upon the world. Instead, he would have wandered, like the dolphin, harmless across currents and winds and oceans, intelligent, but forever the curious observer of unknown wreckage falling through the blue light of eternity. This role would now be a deserved penitence for man. Perhaps such a transformation would bring him once more into the mood of childlike innocence in which he talked successfully to all things living but had no power and no urge to harm. It is worth a wistful thought that someday the whale might talk to us and us to him. It would break, perhaps, the long loneliness that has made man a frequent terror and abomination even to himself.' It was this sentiment that glorified and enshrined the whale."

___________. Men and Whales. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

". . . Richard Ellis delineates in this copiously illustrated book the complex history of men and whales." He tells the [complete] history of whaling, and there are also sections on "whale-watching, whales on exhibition, whales and whaling in film, and whales in captivity. In addition, Ellis describes the origins of the unicorn myth (a whale was responsible), the use of baleen in the manufacture of corsets and skirt hoops (for which millions of whales were killed), and the profound influence of Moby-Dick on the perception of whales in contemporary culture"

___________. Dolphins and Porpoises. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982.

"This . . . comprehensive account of the forty-three species of dolphins and porpoises is a companion volume to the author's highly acclaimed The Book of Whales. [The author] . . . now captures the essence of the small cetaceans in his enlightening text and . . . artwork . . .

"Often thought of as 'cousins' to man, dolphins and porpoises have been shrouded in the lore and mythology of the sea since [humankind's] earliest seafaring days. Richard Ellis assesses the myths that have grown up around these appealing marine mammals and details what is known--and guessed--about the anatomy, habitats, feeding habits, and relationships (with each other, with other sea creatures, with [humans]), of every species."

___________. Marine Mammals: A Sea Guide. San Pedro, California: American Cetacean Society, 1982.

Scott: Black-and-white drawings and brief description of 75 whale and dolphin species.

___________. The Book of Whales. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980.

Emmons, George Thornton. The Whale House of the Chilkat. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 19, Part 1. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1916.

Entrup, Niki, and Doug Cartlidge. "The Dolphin Traders: An Investigation into the World-wide Trade and Export of Black Sea bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Ukraine and Russia, 1990 - 1997." Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1998.

Executive Summary

"This report lists a total of 43 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exported from the Black Sea countries of Georgia, Russia and the Ukraine to foreign dolphinariums (Appendix 1 & 2). Current information suggests that only 11 (26%) of the 43 dolphins exported are still alive in the dolphinariums to which they were taken. A further nine dolphins (21%) were returned to the Ukraine or Russia. The authors have been unable to obtain sufficient information on the fate of these animals to state if they are alive or dead, although it has been confirmed at least one dolphin (“Dicky”) was successfully released back into the Black Sea.

"Documentary evidence is available on the death of 20 of the 43 dolphins (47%), but further information indicates that at least another three dolphins are also dead, bringing the potential total to 23 (53%). Therefore, we can surmise that 47%, but potentially 53% of the Black Sea bottlenose dolphins have died following export since 1990.

"The report details several dolphin exports (mainly from the former Soviets, Ukraine, Russia and Georgia) to travelling or temporary shows around the world. After investigating these operations, it seems a well-planned strategy has been initiated to eventually establish long-term captive facilities. Such a plan would result in a more profitable commercial business, as a steady supply of wild-captured dolphins from the Black Sea would be needed.

"Whilst some dolphinariums or travelling shows in Argentina, Hungary, Israel and Turkey have been closed down in the last six years, Black Sea bottlenose dolphins are still kept in Argentina, Cyprus, Israel and Malta. A common justification put forward for the continued trade of dolphins is for the conservation of the species through captive breeding: however, no successful reproduction programmes have been established in any of the facilities, with the exception of ‘Dolphin Reef’ in Eilat, Israel, and no conservation management plan exists which include a viable captive breeding element.

"This report argues that the export of bottlenose dolphins from the Black Sea is not an efficient Ex-Situ conservation measure, but is simply a disaster for the majority of animals involved. Trade in Black Sea dolphins is a commercial venture, with current practices contributing nothing to the conservation of the species. If the protection and conservation of the bottlenose dolphin population in the Black Sea is to be taken seriously, the trade in dolphins for captive display or breeding should cease immediately."

Environmental Investigation Agency. The Global War Against Small Cetaceans: The IWC and the Politics of Extinction. London/Washington, D.C.: Environmental Investigation Agency, 1990.

Chapters include: The IWC and the Politics of Extinction, The International Whaling Commission, IWC Competence Over Small Cetaceans--A Legal Opinion, Japan, The Driftnet Fisheries of Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, South-East Asia, Australasia/South Pacific, North America, The Soviet Union, Scandinavia, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, Africa, Middle East, India, Sri Lanka, Conclusions and Recommendations. Also includes an extensive reference section.

Trisha: Detailed overview of the specific threats to small cetaceans in all known locations around the planet, including each country's IWC position and, where known, the total number of small cetaceans killed per year and threatened species/populations at risk.

___________. The Global War Against Small Cetaceans. A second report. London/Washington, D.C.: Environmental Investigation Agency, no date.

Sections and chapters include: Introduction, Legal Analysis of IWC Competence to Conserve Small Cetaceans in EEZ's and Territorial Seas, DIRECT KILLS: Belugas/Narwhals, Japan, The Tuna Dolphin Slaughter, Chile, Peru, Denmark (Faroe Islands), Sri Lanka, Turkey, Live Capture, INDIRECT KILLS: Driftnets (includes pirate driftnetters, sperm whales killed in Indian Ocean sanctuary, South Africa, Mauritius, Japan and the EC, driftnet piracy, France, Ireland, Italian ban on driftnets, and Spain), Gillnets (includes the vaquita, harbour porpoise, and gillnets worldwide), Environmental Destruction of Small Cetaceans (includes PCBs, mass die-offs, and oil spills), Conclusions and Recommendations. Also includes an extensive reference section and indexes to countries and species.

Trisha: Detailed overview of the specific threats to small cetaceans in all known locations around the planet.

___________. The Continuing Global War Against Small Cetaceans. A third report. London/Washington, D.C.: Environmental Investigation Agency, date unknown.

Environment Australia [Australian Federal Department of the Environment]. "Guidelines on the Application of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act to Interactions between Offshore Seismic Operations and Whales (Large Cetaceans)." URL: http://www.environment.gov.au/marine/species/cetaceans/pubs/guide_whale.doc.

" The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist proponents of offshore seismic operations [in addressing] certain of their obligations under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 relevant to interactions with whales or large cetaceans."

Eschricht, D. F. On the Species of the Genus Orca. Trans. from Oversigt o. d. Kong. Danske Videnskab. Selskabs. Forhand., 1862, by W. H. Flower, London, Ray Society, 1866. ___________. Undersögelser over Hvaldyrene, Volumes I-V. Copenhagen. [In Danish.]

Environmental Research Associates. Reactions of Beluga Whales and Narwhals to Ship Traffic and Ice-breaking along Ice Edges in the Easter Canadian High Arctic, 1982-1984. Northern Affairs Program. Ottawa, Canada: Indian and Northern Affairs, 1986.

European Cetacean Society Annual Conference Proceedings. Cambridge: European Cetacean Society, 1987-present.

Evans, Peter. European Research on Cetaceans. Volumes 1-11, 198?-1997. European Cetacean Society.

Proceedings of the annual conferences of the European Cetacean Society.

___________. Guide to Identification of Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises in European Seas. S.N.H.: 1996.

___________. Dolphins. London: Whittet Books, 1994.

___________. Whales. London: Whittet Books, 1990.

Contents: Preface, Whale Origins--Evolution, A Diversity of Whales, Whales in Europe, Whales as Sea Mammals, Whale Motion, Breathing and Diving, Whale Senses, Feeding, Whales as Social Animals, Moving around the World--Migration and the Annual Cycle, Obtaining a Mate, Rearing a Calf, How Long Do Whales Live?, Causes of Death, Hunting the Whale, Whales in Folklore and Legend, Saving the Whale, Counting and Managing Whales, Competing for Food, Pollution and Disturbance, Modern Whale Research, A Whale of A Time, Further Information, Organizations to Join

Scott: An update on Evans's scholarly works, with a popular format. Excellent black-and-white illustrations by Euan Dunn. Quite thorough, with pictures of tagging devices, bubble nets, mating patterns, etc.

___________. The Natural History of Whales and Dolphins. London: Christopher Helm/New York: Facts on File, 1987.

Scott: Technical book, with many charts, graphs, and detailed descriptions. Excellent basic reference.

___________. Guide to Identification of Cetaceans in the North East Atlantic.

Evans, W., and A. V. Yablokov. Variation of Coloration of Cetaceans: A New Approach to the Study of Coloration of Mammals. 1983. In Russian. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Fair, P. A., and P. R. Becker. Review of stress in marine mammals. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery, 2000, 7:335-354.

Abstract: There has been a growing concern over the last few decades about the effects of environmental stress, including anthropogenic impacts, on marine mammals. This paper provides an overview of the wide range of anthropogenic stressors that marine mammals may encounter and the level of understanding on their potential effects. Sources of stress and physiological responses of the animals are explored. Many of the life history traits of marine mammals (i.e., long-life spans, late maturity, relatively low reproductive potential, and feeding high in the food chain), make them susceptible to various anthropogenic stressors. Since marine mammals are exposed to a diverse array of multiple stressors, this paper focuses on three case studies (acute and chronic effects from oil spills; chronic effects from environmental contaminants; and fishery-induced stress) to emphasize potential relevant hazards and to provide a perspective on the use of marine mammals in assessing ecosystem health. Additional research to enhance our understanding of stress on marine mammals and to provide the science needed to guide management decisions is recommended.

Fairley, James. Irish Whales and Whaling. Belfast, Ireland: Blackstaff, 1981.

Provides a detailed account of all species of whale found in Irish waters -- from the common porpoise to the blue whale. Also includes a chapter on whales in Irish archaeology and folklore.

Fertl, D., and S. Leatherwood. "Cetacean Interactions with Trawls: A Preliminary Review. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 1997, 22: 219-248.

Contains an extensive bibliography, including numerous articles on cetacean-fishery interactions.

Fichtelius, Karl-Erik, and Sverre Sjolander. Smarter than Man? Intelligence in Whales, Dolphins and Humans. New York: Pantheon Books/Random House, 1972. (Also sold under the title Man's Place: Intelligence in Dolphins, Whales, and Humans. London: Victor Gollantcz, 1973.)

"[Are humans] the most intelligent of mammals? Do whales and dolphins reason? What is the relationship between brain size and intelligence? [Dr. Fichtelius], a Swedish professor of medicine who spent five years studying and trying to communicate with dolphins, presents in this book his comparative study of large-brained animals, using recent scientific findings to show that in many areas the intelligence capacities of whales and dolphins are superior to those of [humans]."

Topics covered include "intelligence and sex, intelligence and instinct, the evolution of the human brain, dolphin language, sperm whales' social behavior, the function of culture in intelligence, natural selection, and [humans'] place in the intelligence hierarchy."

The author concludes that "there may exist at present animals with brains that have a greater functional potential than our own, but that these animals have lived under circumstances promoting the use of this potential in ways that are foreign to us. [Human] supremacy so far may be attributable to a fortuitous combination of high intelligence and the opposable thumb, and not to intelligence alone."

Fichter, George S. Whales and Other Marine Mammals. A Golden Guide. New York: Golden Press/Western Publishing Company, 1990.

Contains a brief survey of the major groups and species of marine mammals, plus chapters on whale watching, animal welfare organizations, marine mammal exhibits, and scientific names. Also includes suggestions for further reading and an index.

___________. Whales, Dolphins, and Other Marine Mammals. St. Martin's Press, 2001. (Probably a renamed version of Whales and Other Marine Mammals described above.

Field Guide to the Identification of the Birds, Mammals and Reptiles of the Galapagos. Pica Press, forthcoming.

See cetacean chapter by Dylan Walker (Galapagos Cetacean Project, 17 Stanmore Road, Thorpe St., Andrew, Norwich, NR7 0HB, U.K., voice: (0)1603 433566; email: dylanwalker26@hotmail.com). Contains photographs (mostly above surface) and color plates of all of the cetacean species present in the region. The text concentrates on identification with notes on status and distribution. (Species include minke, sei, Bryde's, blue, fin, humpback, sperm, pygmy sperm, dwarf sperm, Blainville's beaked, gingko-toothed beaked, Hector's beaked, lesser beaked, Cuvier's beaked, pygmy killer, short-finned pilot, orca, and false killer whales, and common, striped, long-snouted spinner, pantropical spotted, rough-toothed, bottlenose, Risso's, and Fraser's dolphins.

Fitzgerald, Rebecca. Dolphins: Dreams and Healing. (New Age)

Trisha: Beautifully orchestrates the dolphin experience without in any way limiting it or dispelling its mystery. No one else I've read in the New Age genre (and I've read extensively) has done this so well. Other New Age authors tend to hyperidealize dolphins and whales, casting them as one-dimensional, perfect, superior, always gentle, etc., off-world beings, with not much sense conveyed of their complex earth-born character, depth, and mystery (or ours) left intact. Mainstream authors, on the other hand, keenly intent on avoiding anthropormorphism, etc., may dismiss the luminous dimensions altogether that may open in us in the company of our heart totems, whether they be dolphins or some other nonhuman or human being.

Although I don't believe that dolphins and whales communicate to humans, as one commonly finds in the New Age and fiction literature (and in Rebecca's book), I do believe that for some humans an emotional opening may occur in the company of dolphins and whales (whether actual or filmed or dreamed) that puts them in touch with aspects of their own deeper selves/wisdom that seems like communication. It comes from an unfamiliar place within, however, not from without.

I also want to emphasize that any interaction with wild dolphins or whales must always be conducted benignly and respectfully, within the bounds of the laws governing these encounters, and with an understanding of the needs of the dolphins and whales for space, peace, and rest. They are currently being besieged in some areas of the world, and anything one apparently gains from such an experience is actually at great and unjustifiable cost to the dolphins and whales.

Fitzgibbon, Ronnie. The Dingle Dolphin. Athlone: Temple Printing, 1988.

Flaherty, Chuck. Whales of the Northwest: A Guide to Marine Mammals of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Seattle, Washington: Cherry Lane Press, 1990.

Flower, Sir William Henry. List of the Specimens of Cetacea in the Zoological Department of the British Museum. London, 1885.

An update of Gray's Catalogue of Seals and Whales in the British Museum written in 1868.

___________. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea by Professors Eschricht, Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866.

Fodor, Beth. The Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon L.): A Bibliography. 1971.

Fontaine, Pierre-Henry . Whales of the North Atlantic: Biology and Ecology/Biologie et ecologie des baleines de l'atlantique nord. English and French editions. Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada: Editions MultiMondes, 2000.

"Careful to ensure the accuracy and quality of the information presented, the first part explains key topics on cetaceans -- their specific environmental adaptations, pollution and its effects, strandings, feeding, and others. The second part of the work consists of fact sheets that provide detailed, complete descriptions of each species."

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Mammals of the Sea. Vols. 1-3. Rome: FAO, 1981.

Ford, John K. B. Call Traditions and Dialects of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1986. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985.

___________, and Graeme M. Ellis. Transients: Mammal-Hunting Killer Whales of British Columbia, Washington, and S outheastern Alaska. University of Washington Press, 1999.

Review in Book News, Inc., 1999: "Describes the natural history of killer whales and provides a catalogue of identification photographs for whale enthusiasts. With a focus on transient killer whales, Ford (director of marine mammal research, Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre and professor at the University of British Columbia) and Ellis (marine mammal research technician, Pacific Biological Station) give the latest information on their feeding habits, social lives, and distribution patterns. The catalogue section contains color and b&w photographs of and notes on about 200 individual whales, and sidebars present interesting observations on encounters with transients as well as where and how to watch for them. Lacks an index . . ." -- Copyright (c) 1999 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR All rights reserved.

___________, Graeme M. Ellis, and Kenneth C. Balcomb. Killer Whales: The Natural History and Genealogy of Orcinus orca in British Columbia and Washington State. Vancouver, British Columbia/Seattle, Washington: UBC Press/University of Washington Press, 1994.

From Book News, Inc., November 1, 1994: "The three authors have been studying killer whales since the 1970s, when they began photographing dorsal fins and the gray saddle patches at the base of the fins in order to identify individual whales. They present the latest information on killer whale natural history; suggestions on how, when, and where to best watch killer whales; and a catalog of some 300 photographs of 'resident' killer whales which can be used to identify individuals and their family groups." Copyright (c) 1994 Book Neews, Inc. All rights reserved

Fowler, G. Herbert. "Whales, Notes and Labels, Etc." In Science of the Sea: An Elementary Handbook of Practical Oceanography for Travellers, Sailors, and Yachtsmen, G. Herbert Fowler, ed. Prepared by the Challenger Society for the Promotion of the Study of Oceanography. London: John Murray, 1912.

Fowler, M. E., ed. Zoo & Wild Animal Medicine. W. B. Saunders Company, 1986.

See the following chapters: Marine Mammals: Introduction and Identification; Marine Mammals: Husbandry; Marine Mammals: Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders; Clinical Techniques; Infectious Diseases

Fraser, Francis Charles. British Whales, Dolphins & Porpoises: A Guide for the Identification and Reporting of Stranded Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises on the British Coasts. London: British Museum (Natural History), 1976.

___________. Guide for the Identification and Reporting of Stranded Whales, Dolphins and Turtles on the British Coasts. London: British Museum, 1949.

___________. Report on Cetacea Stranded on the British Coasts, London: British Museum (Natural History), multiple volumes and dates.

Freedom for Dolphins: The Iris and Ivo File. Brussels: Labor, 2000.

From the 2001 Brussels Delphinaria Conference announcement: "From 1994 until now, some associations in Belgium have been fighting together against the cruel captivity conditions of Iris and Ivo, the two last dolphins of Antwerp Delphinarium (now closed). A huge campaign was [started] in 1998 and [has not stopped] so far. Iris and Ivo were sent to Duisburg zoo - despite the presence in the pool of another dominant male, Play Boy (now dead) - but Belgian press and Belgian public keep a close eye on them and a petition is now still turning through Belgium, [asking] for their release. A collective book was even written by the concerned associations, under the title of Freedom for Dolphins: The Iris and Ivo File . . . An abstract of this book was also used for pedagogic purposes and sent to all schools in Belgium."

Frenette, Deborah A. How to Connect with the Living Earth: Telepathic Love from the Dolphins. Lincoln, Nebraska: iUniverse.com, 2001. (New Age)

From the publisher: "It was an ordinary vacation on the beautiful, still pristine beaches of Cuba. But the guided tour to the natural aquarium was much more than an excursion -- the tiny island in the Caribbean Sea was the home of dolphins! This true story of interspecies love and communication will . . . fill your soul with a longing to feel the tenderness and the devotion of the dolphins.

"Spanning three yearly visits to Cuba, you experience a growing connection with these marvelous mammals as the author shares her . . . encounters with her wondrous new friends. Then, the author's . . . dream comes true as she swims with wild dolphins in the United States . . ."

Friends of the Earth. The Whale Manual. San Francisco: Friends of the Earth Books, 1978.

Provides "a comprehensive assessment of the whaling controversy.

"Members of the whale family have existed for some 45 million years, but in less than one hundred years of commercial exploitation their populations have been severely depleted. As a result, some populations are now extinct, and others, even now, are seriously endangered, including the Blue Whale, the largest mammal ever to have lived.

"The authors of this book illustrate the incompetence with which populations have been managed, and that whaling is largely undertaken for short- term economic gain. They also show that, with the large number of substitutes for whale products that already exist, the killing of whales on the present scale is unnecessary, and argue for a 10-year moratorium on all commercial whaling."

Chapters and appendices include Why Save Whales?, The Biology of Whales, The Politics of Whaling, The History of Whaling Legislation and the International Whaling Commission, Whaling Nations, The Economics of Whaling, Analysis of the Scientific Basic of Whaling, The Cruelty Aspects of Whaling, Action Guide, Whales in Ancient History and Mythology, The History of Whaling, Checklist of the Living Cetaceans, The Currently Exploited Species, The Protected Species of Whales, Small Whales, Whale Products, Substitutes for Sperm Oil and its Derivatives, The International Trade in Whale Products, Alternatives to Whaling in the Antarctic, Research on Cetaceans, The Whale Conservation Movement, and Whale Population Sizes. Also includes a glossary and bibliography.

Scott: A small book with a tremendous amount of information about the whales and how to understand the need to save them. Detailed information on products and their substitutes, etc. Very good.

Friends of the Earth and The Whale Coalition. The Whaling Question: (The Inquiry by Sir Sydney Frost of Australia). San Francisco: Friends of the Earth, 1979.

"It's not often that a government changes a longstanding policy overnight. It's even less frequent that one makes a dramatic and abrupt change because of citizens' pressure. But this is what happened to Australia's whaling policy in early 1979: Australia closed its whaling industry and became a leader in the international movement against commercial whaling.

"Australia moved because of this book. The Whaling Question is a verbatim copy of the independent inquiry undertaken by the Australian government to consider all the data available from all over the world. This summary report is of profound importance to all who are concerned for the survival of whales."

Chapters include: Whales and Their Biology; History of Whaling; Development of Control of Whaling; The Basis of Scientific Advice; International Management of Whales; Whale Stocks and Whale Research; Whale Products and Alternatives; The Closure of Cheynes Beach; Whale Brains, Anatomy and Behaviour; Techniques Used to Kill Whales; Community Attitudes to Whaling; Australia's Future Policy on Whaling; Conclusions and Recommendations. Also includes multiple appendices on such topics as legislation, whaling statistics, whale products, and the whale brain and its intelligence potential, plus a bibliography.

Frohoff, Toni G. Behavior of Bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and Spotted (Stenella frontalis) Dolphins Relative to Human Interaction. Dissertation, 1996. The Union Institute. The author may be reached at frohoff@ix.netcom.com.

Abstract: This document examines the behavior of dolphins relative to interaction with humans across a variety of conditions. First, each of the three captive facilities in the Bahamas offering swim-with-the-dolphin programs were examined relative to U.S. guidelines. Behavior of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as well as facility management and maintenance were assessed. Second, a population of spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) that has regularly initiated contact with vessels and swimmers in the Bahamas was examined with respect to human activity. Differences in duration of interactions for five dolphin group types were significant . . . ; mixed groups and adult females with juveniles were most frequently associated with long encounters . . . Differences in encounter duration between six dolphin behavior activities were also significant . . . Observations of interspecific play and short-term behavioral indicators of stress were noted. One obseration of avoidance in response to swimmer activity was observed. Lastly, the behavior of a lone, sociable dolphin in Belize was examined. First-order Markov analysis revealed that selected dolphin behaviors were significantly non-random given the previous behavior of adjacent swimmers . . . This dolphin was most likely to direct threat display toward a swimmer following the latter's touch of the anchor or anchor rope . . . and by a swimmer's attempt to climb up the swim ladder. In summary, both qualitative and quantitative techniques proved valuable in assessing dolphin behavior relative to human interaction. These studies indicate that research and regulations for human-cetacean interactions need to be specific relative to biology, behavior, and environment because the risks to dolphins and humans appear to vary accordingly. The species, individual history, gender, age, and social and environmental context of dolphins should be addressed in both research and management.

___________. "Dolphin Emotions: Beneath the Surface." Talk given by Dr. Frohoff at the Puget Sound Chapter of the American Cetacean Society, October 17, 2000.

Synopsis: "New insights into dolphin behavior that provide compelling indications that dolphins experience rich and complex emotional lives will be discussed. This will be addressed with respect to how we may attempt to study emotions in dolphins and how this endeavor may lead us to re-evaluate the ways in which we interact with them."

Dr. Frohoff is a behavioral biologist who specializes in the study of marine mammal behavior. Her research on human-dolphin interactions in captivity and in the wild has contributed to management regulations in several countries and has been featured in various publications, television shows, and documentaries. Currently with the Whale Stewardship Project and TerraMar Research, she is studying free-ranging solitary beluga whales who regularly initiate sociable interaction with people.

___________, and K. M. Dudzinski. "Interactions between Free-Ranging Spotted Dolphins (Stanella frontalis) and Human Swimmers: A Quantitative Examination." Poster at the American Cetacean Society Conference, San Pedro, California, USA, November 8-9, 1996. Abstract in Whalewatcher (1996) 30(1):25-26.

___________, and Brenda Peterson, eds. Between Species: Celebrating the Dolphin-Human Bond. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2003.

From the publisher: "Dolphins and humans have always been curious about each other, and since ancient times the kinship between our species has been celebrated across cultures and continents in myth, art, literature, and science. Only recently, however, have we gone beyond our own view of this interspecies connection and begun to ask: What might this bond look like from the dolphins' perspective?

"Now, Between Species brings together for the first time eminent scientists and gifted writers to help shed light on this intriguing question. The book selections range from tales of transforming dolphin encounters to views on how to protect cetaceans and their habitats, and from poems honoring dolphins to provocative critiques of swim-with-the-dolphins programs and acoustic pollution. Pieces include an interview with Jean-Michel Cousteau, Diane Ackerman's essay on 'deep play' with a wild dolphin; Marc Bekoff's ethical questions concerning our intrusion in dolphins' lives; and the late Dr. John Lilly's call for a 'Cetacean Nation.'

"This groundbreaking anthology not only explores the depths and beauty of the dolphin-human bond but encourages new generations to respect the complexities and responsibilities inherent in such interspecies kinship.

Contributors: Diane Ackerman, Ph.D.; Giovanni Bearzi, Marc Bekoff, Ph.D., Leigh Calvez, Rochelle Constantine, Ph.D., Jean-Michel Cousteau (interview),Horace Dobbs, Ph.D., Kathleen Dudzinski, Ph.D., Cathy Englehart, Toni Frohoff, Ph.D., Howard Garrett, Oz Goffman, Linda Hogan, Erich Hoyt, Cathy Kinsman, John Lilly, M.D., Christina Lockyer, Ph.D., Ashley Montagu, Ph,D., Sy Montgomery, Monica Müller, Ph.D., Jim Nollman, Mark Orams, Ph.D., Brenda Peterson, Naomi Rose, Ph.D., Marcos Santos, Betsy Smith, Ph.D., Paul Spong, Ph.D, Helena Symonds, Lindy Weilgart, Ph.D., Pat Weyer, Ph.D., Richard Wilbur, Ben White, Bernd Würsig, Ph.D., Melany Würsig, Joana McIntyre Varawa, Suzanne Yin, and Sharon Young.

Fromm, Peter J., ed. Whale Tales: Human Interaction With Whales, Volume One and Volume Two. Friday Harbor, Washington: Whale Tales Press, 1995 (Vol. 1) and 2000 (Vol. 2). Available via the website or by calling 360-378-8378 or 800-669-3950.

Trisha: This is a collection of first-person accounts of interactions with whales all over the world, which together provide insight into the human-cetacean relationship. A broad range of interactions is included ranging from whale sightings to making contact in the dark (one of the most moving accounts is Guy D'Angelo's description of how he and Physty, a rescued juvenile sperm whale, explored each other in the dark), to swimming with pilot whales and the complexities of rescuing trapped and stranded individuals. There are sections on orcas, minkes, humpbacks, gray whales, sperm whales, whales approaching boats, swimming with whales, feeding whales, collisions with whales, research with whales, calling whales, dying whales, and rescues.

I look forward to future volumes, but would encourage a more lively editing style for subsequent compilations. For more information, visit the Whale Tales Web site.

Frost, The Hon. Sir Sydney., ed. Whales and Whaling. Vol. II. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1978.

Contains papers on the brain and intelligence of whales.

"The Future of Whale and Dolphin Watching." A workshop held Saturday, December 4, 1999, in Kihei, Maui, Hawaii. Sponsored by Pacific Whale Foundation, 101 North Kihei Road, Kihei, Hawaii 96753, voice: 808-879-8860, fax: 808-879-2615, http://www.pacificwhale.org.

Speakers included:

Dr. Carole Carlson, Senior Marine Biologist, International Fund for Animal Welfare, and Adjunct Scientist, Center for Coastal Studies, Massachusetts

Rochelle Constantine, Marine researcher and author of a report on marine-mammal based tourism by New Zealand's Department of Conservation

Paulo Flores, International Wildlife Commission, Brazil

Dr. Paul Forestell, Marine Science Professor, Southampton College, Long Island University

Greg Kaufman, Founder and President, Pacific Whale Foundation

Chris Malcolm, an organizer of a workshop on whalewatching at the World Marine Mammal Science Conference in Monaco, and Ph.D. Candidate, Whale Research Lab, University of Victoria

Clark Lee Merriam, Researcher, The Cousteau Society, and guest writer for "Calypso Log"

Dr. Rob Wilder, Marine biodiversity specialist; author of Listening to the Sea. Director of Education at Pacific Whale Foundation.

Topics discussed included:

* Trends in whale- and dolphin-watching around the world
* Predictions about the future status of whale and dolphin populations
* Approaches by different cultures and communities
* Challenges to, and the responses by, regulatory agencies
* The future of the industry: Is whale- and dolphin-watching leveling off - or growing?

Gambell, Ray. The Concise Illustrated Book of Whales and Dolphins. New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1991/London: Grange Books, 1993.

More than 40 species of cetaceans are briefly described and illustrated. Also includes a glossary.

Garcia, Maria Setien, and Sofia Gimenez Alcover. Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Also published in Spanish as Ballena Gris (Eschrichtius robustus). Benefits "El Vizcaino" Reserve of the Biosphere.

Trisha: An elegantly produced slim volume on the gray whale with no publisher or date of publication given.

Gardner, Erle Stanley. Hunting the Desert Whale: Personal Adventures in Baja California. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1960/London: Jarrolds, 1963.

Scott: An odd and rare book about two trips Gardner made to Scammon's Lagoon in Baja California to observe the gray whale. It is as much a defense of the Mexican character and a promotion of the wonders of Baja California before its eventual exploitation as it is a very personal story of Gardner's adventures in attempting to be one of the first to take boats by trailer to the lagoon and to photograph the whales. Includes the first photo of a gray feeding there.

Gardner, Robert. The Whale Watcher's Guide. New York: Julian Messner, 1984.

Contents include: Whale Watching; What Is a Whale and How Can I Tell One from Another?; Facts about Whales; Whale Watchers' Questions; A Few of the World's Special Giants; Whale Biology; Whale Psychology; Whales on the Move; Whale Sounds, Songs, and Talk; Whaling: Giant-Killing at Sea. Also contains a bibliography and an index.

Garrett, Howard. Orcas In Our Midst: The Whales That Share Our Inland Waters. Friday Harbor, Washington: Center for Whale Research, 1996.

This booklet has been "prepared for readers of all ages who share an interest in the orcas that inhabit the inland waters we live by--to celebrate the whales' presence here, and to help our orca neighbors live healthy lives in their chosen home."

Trisha: A nice thirty-two-page overview of the orcas of the region extending from south of Olympia, Washington, to far north of Vancouver, British Columbia. Includes history, habitat, biology, status, studying orcas, anecdotes, art and etiquette of watching orcas, threats, what we can do, a glossary, and a reading list.

Garrett, Howard, and Candice Keays Garrett. New England Whales. Rockport, Massachusetts: Whalesong Publishing Company, 1985.

Gaskin, D. E. The Ecology of Whales and Dolphins. London/Exeter, New Hampshire: Heinemann, 1982. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.


DISTRIBUTIONAL ECOLOGY OF CETACEA: Seasonal migrations; Possible factors initiating migration; Cetacean orientation and navigation; Cetacean breeding grounds; Oceanographic structure of feeding grounds; Influence of zooplankton distributions and behaviour on feeding of baleen whales; Diurnal feeding patterns in Cetacea.

DIET AND FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF CETACEA: Odontocete dietary patterns; Use of echolocation in odontocete feeding; Mysticete feeding and dietary patterns; Mysticete sound production; Colour patterns--possible roles in predation

METABOLIC RATE AND ENERGY BUDGET IN CETACEANS: Introduction; Concept and value of 'energy budget'; Food content; Food intake and feeding rates; Metabolism and activity; Estimation of heat loss in Cetacea; Energetic cost of locomotion; Metabolic rate; Energetic cost of growth; Energy budgets; Population energetics; Concluding remarks

SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR: Introduction; Some comments on the study of behaviour in Cetacea; Social organization (The cetacean school; Evolution of polygyny in an odontocete [sperm whale]); Social behaviour (Epimeletic or 'care-giving' behaviour; Dominance hierarchies in captive Cetacea; Possible co-operative behaviour [argues against intentionality]; Social behaviour, communication and intelligence [argues there is not sufficient evidence to support claims of exceptional intelligence in Cetacea])

EVOLUTION OF CETACEA: Palaeocene origins and Eocene differentiation; Colonization of the sea; Evolutionary development and characteristics of the suborders with living representatives; Are the Cetacea monophyletic or polyphyletic? Systematic list of living Cetacea, including probable synonyms which have been used as specific names in relatively recent literature

THE ZOOGEOGRAPHY OF CETACEA: Introduction; Controversies in zoogeographic interpretation; Patterns of cetacean radiation and dispersal; Mesozoic-Caenozoic drift and the decay of Tethys; Ocean temperature fluctuations in the Caenozoic; Did the Mysticeti evolve in the western South Pacific?; Factors modifying cetacean distribution patterns

CONCEPTUAL VIEW OF SPECIES AND SPECIATION IN CETACEA, AND RECOGNITION OF DEGREES OF POLYTYPY: Species and speciation--problems of definition; Differentiation of populations below the species level; Degrees of polytypy; Conclusions

ANALYSIS OF CETACEAN POPULATIONS: Introductory comments on population dynamics; Characteristics of populations; Measurements of abundance (Direct visual estimates; Mark-recapture or resighting methods); Methods of calculating population abundance utilizing catch data of exploited species; Summary and conclusions; Summary of best estimates of present population sizes of commercially exploited Cetacea subdivided by regions where possible

MANAGEMENT OF CETACEAN POPULATIONS: Introduction; Safeguarding populations which are not protected or have never been deliberately hunted (Habitat protection; Harassment; The problem of 'incidental catch'); Exploitation and management of whale populations in theory and practice [past and present]; Economics of whale fisheries and their influence on industry policy; Harvesting strategies and the route of optimal whale fisheries management; Concluding thoughts: should we harvest whales at all? [argues that the pressures of human population increase and climatic changes and uncertainties in grain crops as a result of those change will most probably dictate a return to whaling--in addition to extant whaling--in some parts of the world]

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND TRACE ELEMENTS: THEIR OCCURRENCE AND POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANCE IN CETACEA: Introduction; Compounds identified in cetacean tissues (Chlorinated hydrocarbons; Heavy metals; Petroleum hydrocarbons); Contaminant levels in cetacean species (Chlorinated hydrocarbons; Heavy metals; Impact of oil on cetaceans); Global patterns of contaminants in cetaceans (Chlorinated hydrocarbons; Mercury); Variation of contaminant levels; Bay of Fundy harbour porpoise population: a case history of variation in residue levels; Metabolism of chlorinated hydrocarbons; Metabolism of mercury; Do high organochlorine and heavy metal contaminants represent a threat to cetacean populations? [the author's view that there is insufficient evidence to assess the impact of contaminants on cetaceans is now dated]

Indexes: author, scientific and common names, subject

___________. Whales, Dolphins, and Seals, with Special Reference to the New Zealand Region. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1972.

Gatenby, Greg, ed. Whales: A Celebration. Boston/Toronto: Little, Brown and Company, 1983. (See also Whale Sound: An Anthology of Poems about Whales and Dolphinsin the fiction bibliography.)

"Whales: A Celebration is a magnificent tribute to the massive beauty and intelligence of whales and dolphins by many of the world's leading artists. Never before has one volume gathered such a group of renowned contemporary painters, novelists, poets, sculptors, and composers, all addressing themselves to a single social issue: saving those most majestic and friendly creatures, the whales and the dolphins. This book brings together 250 of the most eminent artists from 30 countries, and displays their work, in most cases created especially for Whales, beside the portraits of the past, to create a splendid worldwide pageant of art from paleolithic days to the present.

"Throughout our history whales and dolphins have been close to humankind, and Whales: A Celebration shows that our affection and fascination is as old as art itself. The stories and images from the past highlight and provide a background for the contemporary works. From Plutarch to John Fowles, from William Golding to Margaret Atwood, from Allen Ginsberg to Carl Sagan, from Dali to Rauschenberg, from Shchedrin to Leonard Bernstein, artists have found inspiration in the great whales. This extraordinary book is a vivid protest against their slaughter. It contains over 200 stories, essays, and poems, 11 musical scores, 150 black-and-white illustrations, and 75 full-color paintings and images."

Trisha: A beautifully produced, remarkable collection.

Scott: Beautiful. Extensive exploration of the Jonah story.

Gawain, Elizabeth. The Dolphin's Gift. Mill Valley, California: Whatever Publishing, 1981.

"Imagine yourself wading into the open sea to have two or three dolphins glide up to your knees. You reach down to stroke them and they press affectionately against your hand as they slide past.

"A dream? This was a dream come true for Elizabeth Gawain. In an easy, narrative style she shares with us her personal experiences with a family of free dolphins [at Monkey Mia, Shark's Bay, Australia], chronicling their interaction with each other as well as with the humans who come to meet them.

"This . . . book will interest readers of all ages. Scientific information as well as many personal stories of contact with dolphins present a touching, comprehensive picture of our friends in the sea."

Genet, Jean C. Dolphin Mind. Denver, Colorado: Jean C. Genet, 1990. Address: 283 Columbine, Suite 187, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA, (303) 369-1125.

Geraci, J. R., and D. J. St. Aubin, eds. Biology of Marine Mammals: Insights through Strandings. Based on workshop convened a the University of Georgia in Athens in 1977. U.S. Marine Mammal Commission Report MMC-77/13. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Document 293890, 1977.

___________. Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks. New York: Academic Press, 1990. (800) 321-5068.

See chapter "Physiologic and Toxic Effects on Cetaceans."

Geraci, J. R., and V. J. Lounsbury. Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings. Galveston, Texas: Texas A&M Sea Grant Publications, 1993. New version on CD-ROM, 1999. Email: vlounsbury@aqua.org.

"[The] CD-ROM is an updated version of Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings, published in 1993 and now out of print. The book was designed to provide marine mammal stranding network participants with the information necessary to understand and deal with strandings: an overview of marine mammal biology, behavior, and health; guidelines for response and rescue operations; advice for dealing with the media and the public; and protocols for collecting data and specimens.

"The electronic version features the original book in Adobe Acrobat portable document format (PDF) with full search, cut-and-paste, and print capabilities. Additional materials include: updates on important topics and procedures, supplementary sample and data collection protocols, directories of organizations involved in marine mammal rehabilitation and research, and a multimedia overview of the CD-ROM contents and project goals.

Geraci, J. R., and J. Sweeney. "Marine Mammals (Cetacea, Pinnipedia, and Sirenia)." In M. E. Fowler, ed., Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1986.

Gerald, Hausman. The Day the White Whales Came to Bangor. Freeport, Maine: Cobblesmith, 1979.

Getten, Mary. The Orca Pocket Guide. EZ Nature Books, 1998.

___________. Voice of the Whales: Conversations with an Orca Elder. Forthcoming. (New Age)

Gewalt, Wolfgang. Wale und Delphine: Spitzenkonner der Meere. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993.

Gibbons, E. F., B. S. Durrant, and J. Demarest, eds. Conservation of Endangered Species in Captivity: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: SUNY Press, 1995.

See sections on marine mammals.

Gibbs, Jane M. Whales Off New England. Newbury, Massachusetts: Gibbs and Gibbs, 1982, 1995.

Gierak, Cherie J. The Dolphin Experience. New Frontiers Institute. Available from Insight Publishing, 5814 Highway 96, Yreka, California 96097, USA. (New Age)

Relates "the early days of the [New Frontiers Institute] Interspecies Communication project [involving dolphin/human communication utilizing remote viewing and telepathy]."

Gilders, Michelle A. Reflections of a Whale-Watcher. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1995.

"'The first time I saw a whale, I looked into its eye and saw myself reflected.' For Michelle Gilders, this moment was revelation. It becomes for us the start of a marvelous journey into the realm of the great whales. Gilders weaves a spellbinding account of her voyages through the Sea of Cortez and the Pacific Ocean in search of whales. Along the way, she takes us to the desert of Baja California to witness its diverse and remarkable wildlife. She recounts the whaling history of the area and the pressures brought to bear on this region and its wildlife. In the rough beauty of Baja, Gilders ponders ecological complexity, environmental issues, and ethical concerns, while immersing the reader in the sights and sounds of a desert awash in the whale-haunted seas.

"Gilders's encounters with whales occasion reflections on such matters as speciation and evolution, the diversity of life, the role of politics and science in the treatment of animal populations, and the ethical and moral dilemmas that face us as we contemplate the sentience of nonhuman animals."

Gill, Peter, ed. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises. Little Guides series (San Francisco). Weldon Owen, 2000.

___________, and Cecilia Burke. Whale Watching in Australian & New Zealand Waters. New Holland/Struik, 2000.

Gill, Peter, and Linda Gibson. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Reader's Digest Explores Science & Nature Series. Pleasantville, New York: Reader's Digest, 1997.

"A study bringing together the latest findings on the evolution, biology, habits, and behavior of the great sea mammals by marine biologists. Also includes more than four hundred . . . illustrations and photographs."

Gillespie, T. H. Is It Cruel? London: Herbert Jenkins Limited, 1934.

Rauno Lauhakangas: A study of the condition of captive and performing animals. This book was published in 1934--before the time of dolphin captivity problems. It deals with the question "To keep or not to keep" animals in captivity, and it contains some positive viewpoints which would not necessarily stand up to present-day criticism.

Gilmore, Brian. Ten Patterns for Carving Whales. Schiffer Publishing, 1995.

From the publisher: "Brian Gilmore provides patterns and easy to follow carving instructions for 10 species of whales. More than 150 color photographs lead the carver step-by-step through the carving and painting of the Great Right Whale and the Killer Whale and provide direction for the alterations needed to carve the other species."

Gilmore, Raymond M. The Story of the Gray Whale. 2d rev. ed. San Diego, California: American Cetacean Society, 1961.

Gingerich, Philip Dean. Marine Mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: Stratigraphy, Age, and Paleoenvironments. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan (Museum of Paleontology), 1992.

Gingerich, Philip Dean, and Donald E. Russell. Pakicetus inachus, A New Archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Early-Middle Eocene Kuldana Formation of Kohat (Pakistan). Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan (Museum of Paleontology), 1981.

GIS (Coastal/Marine) Bibliography (webpage gone).

Information provided on MARMAM January 17, 1998, by Darius Bartlett (djb@ucc.ie): For the past twelve months, teams from the Sea-Grant Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA), at the Coastal Services Centre of NOAA (South Carolina, USA) and the Coastal Resources Centre at University College Cork (Ireland) have been compiling a bibliography of scientific literature relating to coastal and marine applications of geographic information systems (GIS) and related technologies.

The resulting database has now been put on the World Wide Web as a fully-interactive, searchable resource (click on GIS (Coastal/Marine) Bibliography above.

Please note that this is the first release of the database and, while it has been extensively tested by a dedicated intercontinental team of reviewers and critics, some glitches may still inadvertently have crept in. Please contact the "webmaster" through the NOAA/CSC home page if you do notice any problems with the search tool.

Please also note that this is intended to be a "live" and evolving project. The compilers would therefore welcome any information regarding new publications (or those that may have escaped our earlier searches) that merit inclusion. They may be sent to me at the address above, or else to any of the other contributors as detailed on the Web pages.

Glantz, Margo. Doscientas Ballenas Azules. Mexico: La Maquina de Escribir, 1979. In Spanish.

Glaser, Connie, and Barbara Steinberg Smalley. Swim With the Dolphins: How Women Can Succeed in Corporate America on Their Own Terms. New York: Warner Books, 1995.

From the dustjacket: "Unlike sharks, who prefer working in rigid traditional hierarchies, dolphins thrive in teams organized around networks. Comfortable with power, they rarely abuse it, viewing themselves as leaders rather than bosses. And although they value the bottom line as much as any shark, they know that the bottom line grows fastest in a flexible workplace where people are satisfied and motivated to do their best. With their tough but caring ways, women have the very characteristics America's forward-thinking corporations are looking for in today's fiercely competitive and ever-changing business environment.

"Now, there's a navigational map to guide you through the new corporate waters. Swim with the Dolphins is loaded with specific strategies and hands-on advice that will help make you, as a woman, a better manager, both for yourself and for your company. Based on interviews with more than 200 successful female managers . . . "

Glen, Thomas B., III. The Dolphin and Whale Career Guide: A Sourcebook for Anyone Interested in Cetaceans. Chicago: Omega, 1997.

From the author, a former trainer at Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois:

"The Dolphin and Whale Career Guide is more than a career guide for people wishing to work in oceanaria as dolphin trainers. It is a comprehensive sourcebook for anyone interested in cetaceans on any level, and contains complete descriptions of the more than 150 dolphin and whale-related organizations in the United Stated and Canada, including zoos and aquariums, stranding centers, research groups, government organizations, conservation groups, swim-with programs, dolphin-human therapy groups, schools, professional organizations, and interest groups. The book covers the history, purpose, resources, programs, memberships, publications, location, and volunteer, intern, and job opportunities for each organization."

Trisha: Written in a user-friendly, often humorous style, this is a very thorough guide to the employment, internship, volunteer, and other involvement opportunities available at thirty-six captive-cetacean display facilities in the United States and Canada, to the research projects and involvement opportunities at twenty-nine research organizations, and to the conservation projects and involvement opportunities at twelve conservation organizations. Also included are descriptions of five professional associations; five government departments; marine mammal stranding networks in California and the U.S. northeast, southeast, and northwest; three dolphin-assisted therapy programs; and four dolphin interest groups. The appendixes include a listing of schools with marine mammal programs, suggested reading, and a listing by state and province of all organizations discussed in the main body of the text.

The author also writes briefly about our fascination with dolphins and whales and provides some basic terminology associated with cetaceans. His twelve-page discussion of cetacean intelligence, although drawing on some of the research literature, is somewhat selective and oversimplified, but he does tell you that "there are many more points of view on dolphin and whale intelligence than those I've expressed here," so the reader is encouraged to do more in-depth research on his/her own.

The discussion in which the author seems most at home and provides the most detail (since he is a former captive-dolphin trainer) is that on the requirements for becoming a trainer. He describes both what it is like and how to increase the odds of becoming one. (See also below Ramirez, Ken. Animal Training.)

For research organizations, he provides an overview of what cetacean research consists of, who conducts it, and some of the best ways to go about becoming a cetacean researcher. For conservation groups, he provides an overview of cetacean conservation and how one can become involved.

His inclusion of some New Age cetacean organizations in the "Interest Groups" section seems out of sync with the orientation of the rest of the book, and I think I would have confined this section to organizations working on dolphin rehab/release programs, etc.

Visit the Omega site for samples from each section of the book, links to all the organizations described in the book that also have Web sites, and updates on the book's contents.

Trisha: To view an extensive file of information I've compiled on careers working with cetaceans, click here. Cetaceans should not be held captive, and I therefore encourage anyone wanting to study or work with them to pursue field work with wild cetaceans.

Glueck, Nelson. Deities and Dolphins: The Story of the Nabataeans. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1965.

"The title of explorer-archaeologist Nelson Glueck's latest book is not whimsical. It captures accurately and in the fewest possible words the results of some of the author's archaeological discoveries in present-day Transjordan, once the land of the Nabataeans, who flourished in the first centuries B.C. and A.D. . . .

"The deities and dolphins were discovered by Dr. Glueck when, as director of the American School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, he excavated the Nabataean temple of Khirbet Tanur, the most complete temple of its kind to be opened up. Among the deities was a goddess wearing on her head a stone tiara of two dolphins facing each other in heraldic juxtaposition. In this book the author searches out and pieces together the evidence explaining why there are likenesses of dolphins in the desertland of Arabia--the old Roman Provincia Arabia. The importance of the dolphins lies in the clues they furnish for increased understanding of the Hellenistic-Semitic cultures of the Near East at the time of the Nabataeans (who spoke both an Aramic dialect and Greek), and for revealing in a new light the commerce and other contacts between the Orient and the Occident."

Gohier, François. Humpback Whales: Traveling on the Wings of Song. San Luis Obispo, California: Blake Publishing, 1991.

Publisher's annotation: "In 30 photographs and 6,000 words of text, Gohier gives a detailed and accurate portrait of the humpback whale, perhaps the most beloved and recognizable of the great whales . . . This engrossing books, written in simple terms by a man who has followed the humpbacks for many years, contains a wealth of recent data on the whales. Social behavior, play, courtship, birth, male aggression, and numerous feeding techniques are talked about and depicted in oversized photos. Excerpts from humpback whale song are shown in easy-to-understand sonograms. The text further elaborates on what is known about humpback singing. Like other Blake nature titles, the type of both text and captions are very generously sized, making the books especially attractive to youngsters and to adults who have difficult with standard type. A favorite with whale-watchers and report-writers too."

___________. A Pod of Gray Whales: An Affectionate Portrait. San Luis Obispo, California: Blake Publishing, 1988/EZ Nature Books, 1999.

A well-illustrated, brief overview of gray whales and gray-whale watching.

Gold, Joy. Sources of Information on Whales. National Museum, 1981.

Gold, Michele. Angels of the Sea: Sacred Dolphin Art of Atlantis. Poetry by Scott Huckabay. Carlsbad, California: Hay House, Inc., 1996. (New Age)

"Acclaimed multimedia artist Michele Gold brings her lyrical and spiritual vision of the world of dolphins to the pages of this exquisite coffee-table book. Having lived among these angelic creatures herself, Michele has truly captured the profound ability of dolphins to 'touch our hearts and bring us instantly into the moment, into pure joy, into the Light.'

"Each of Michele's beautiful works of art is brought to life through heartfelt poetry, personal stories and reflections, myths and legends, and poignant memories. As you gaze at these uniquely inspired paintings, you will awaken your own divinity as you reconnect with long-lost memories of Atlantis. These images serve as oracles, mirrors, cosmic valentines . . . a way of giving thanks to Mother Nature for the blessings she has bestowed upon us through her dolphin children--these very, very special angels of the sea."

From the author: ". . . The challenge in painting dolphins lies in the fact that their beauty is so dazzling, so luminous, it is nearly impossible to capture. What I have tried to portray are the feelings I experienced while swimming with pods of wild Atlantic Spotted, Spinner, and Bottlenose dolphins. This is a book about the wonder, joy, and mystery of dolphins, the spiritual journey, and life itself. All of the paintings [there are 50 in the book] were inspired by actual experiences, dreams, myths, observations, questions, and understanding . . . "

Goodman, Robert B. Whale Song. Aiea, Hawaii: Island Heritage Publishing/Portland, Oregon: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Co., 1987.

Gordon, David G., and Alan Baldridge. Gray Whales. Monterey, California: Monterey Bay Aquarium, 1991.

"You'll travel along the gray whales' journey from warm breeding lagoons to icy feeding grounds. You'll read the latest findings about how grays feed, play, mate, communicate, and navigate on these heroic journeys, and learn about the dangers that grays face along the way."

Gordon, David G., and Chuck Flaherty. The American Cetacean Society Field Guide to the Orca. Seattle, Washington: Sasquatch Books, 1990.

"This practical and informative field guide . . . shows you how to observe orcas up close and understand these elusive and often misrepresented creatures of the sea. You'll find facts on the orca's life cycle, tips on planning a whalewatching trip, maps, and a sighting log to help you enjoy the unrivaled experience of orca-watching."

Chapters include: A Word About Whales, Orca Facts, Orca Society, One Society or Two?, Sounds and Language, Diet and Appetite, Orcas in Captivity, An Uncertain Fate, Orca Behavior, Orca-Watching from Shore, Watching Orcas by Boat, Guide to Listings, Whale Sighting Log, Sites (Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California), Suggested Readings, and Information Sources.

Gordon, Jonathan. Sperm Whales. Worldlife Library series. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press/Grantown on Spey, Great Britain: Colin Baxter Photography, 1998.

First general survey of the natural history of the sperm whale.

Gormley, Gerard. Orcas of the Gulf: A Natural History. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books; Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1990.

William Rossiter writes on the back cover: "Orcas of the Gulf will be a pleasure to anyone who wants to explore the realities of nature. Mr. Gormley's awe and respect for these magnificent whales is shared with us as a small pod of orca pass through the familiar waters off New England. We find ourselves enveloped in the interlocked, interwoven spectrum of the sea; everyday life to the orca, white water drama and magical beauty to Man. Much seems incredible, impossible, even mythical, yet the author has included every available bit of science in his exciting and educational narrative. He takes us a few steps farther than science has yet gone with common sense and realism, challenging the scientists to discover the full world of the orca. His narrative theories on perception, communication, pod society and chillingly realistic assessment of human impact are most interesting. The values and perceptions expressed in this work are not human, but they may just be the orca's, and we can all learn from that."

___________. A Dolphin Summer. New York: Taplinger Publishing, 1985.

Trisha: This is actually primarily a fictional work, but is based on years of the author's and others' observations and a solid grounding in scientific literature, so I've included it in the nonfiction list as well.

"In this . . . book--the story of the first eight months of a dolphin's life--we enter a young dolphin's world to share her experiences, see what she sees, hear what she hears.

"The world of the young dolphin is an exciting and active one. A variety of sea life--prey and predator--cross her herd's path. And in her explorations she cavorts in play, faces dangers, and witnesses a mass stranding.

"Along with the fascinating events of the young dolphin's early months, the author . . . provides the current facts that are known about dolphins as well as information about the other creatures she meets [including humpback whales and orcas] . . . "

Gotto, V. Commensal and Parasitic Copepods Associated with Marine Invertebrates (and Whales): Keys and Notes for Identification of the Species. Synopses of the British Fauna, New Series, No. 46. London: Universal Book Services/Dr. W. Backhuys for the Linnean Society of London and the Estuarine Coastal Sciences, 1993.

Grace, Eric S. Whale: Giant of the Ocean. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Key Porter Books, 1996/San Diego, California: Laurel Glen Publishing, 1996/Thunder Bay Press, 1997.

This beautifully produced, oversize book with many color photographs contains the following chapters: Beneath the Waves, Hunters and Gatherers, In the Body of a Whale, Family Life, Saving the Whales, Families of Whales, and Conservation Groups. Also contains a bibliography and an index.

Graves, Eleanor, ed. Whales & Other Sea Mammals. Based on the television series Wild, Wild World of Animals. New York: Time-Life Films, 1963, 1977.

Discusses baleen and toothed whales (including dolphins and porpoises), manatees and dugongs, seals, sea lions, walruses, and otters.

Gray, John Edward. A Synopsis of the Species of Whales and Dolphins in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1868.

Ten pages of scientific text/nomenclature followed by 37 lithograph plates of complete whales, skulls, and other anatomical views.

According to the book The Whale, Gray "did much to rationalize and reduce to order the confusion arising from many fragmentary and casually collected specimens, and a great lack of field work."

Gray, William B. Friendly Porpoises. South Brunswick/NewYork: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1964.

Primarily about capturing and training dolphins for the Miami Seaquarium.

___________. Porpoise Tales. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1964.

Primarily about capturing and training dolphins for the Miami Seaquarium, plus a chapter on captive dolphins Lalla and Palooza held in a canal in Italy and their death from freezing temperatures.

Following are two quotes from the author, who spent years capturing and incarcerating dolphins, and by his own admission losing several in the process of capture:

"Of all the multiple, weird, and varied forms of life which the sea produces, I have found that the most endearing is the porpoise. They have a lot of love in their hearts."

"There is much speculation these days about teaching porpoises to communicate with men, or vice versa. If this ever happens, and if they ever turn their high intelligence to international political affairs, I am sure that they will be the allies of the democracies. You can't push them around, regiment them, or force them to do anything. They are free souls. You can only persuade them through love - and fish."

Trisha: After you capture them and lock them up.

The Gray Whale Nursery at Laguna San Ignacio: Briefing Book. Natural Resources Defense Council and International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1997, rev. ed., 1998. [Note: The salt works project has been canceled.]

"This report describes plans by the Mitsubishi Corporation and the Mexican government to build a massive salt works in Laguna San Ignacio, Mexico, the last untouched breeding and calving grounds of the Gray Whale. The report, originally published in February 1997 by the Natural Resources Defense Council and the International Fund for Animal Welfare, was revised in January 1998."

Contents: Introduction; Background: The proposed project at Laguna San Ignacio, The environmental assessment of the project, The existing salt evaporation facility in Guerrero Negro; Politics: International Whaling Commission, MAB/UNESCO, NAFTA's Commission for Environmental Cooperation, SEMARNAP, Protected Areas; Economics: Mitsubishi Corporation, The existing economy, History of the salt industry in Baja California, A brief analysis of the world salt market, Eco-tourism and Fisheries; Civil society: International Groups, National Groups, Baja Peninsula Groups

Green, D. M., H. A. DeFerrari, D. McFadden, J. S. Pearse, A. N. Popper, W. J. Richardson, S. H. Ridgway, and P. L. Tyack. Low Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 1994.

Greene, Carol. Reading about the Humpback Whale. Hillside, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, 1993.

Extensive information about physical characteristics, behavior, migration routes, and threats to existence.

Greenpeace. Disappearing Dolphins. London: Greenpeace, 1991?.

___________. Intelligent, Beautiful, Unusually Sensitive, and Vanishing--Fast. London: Greenpeace, 1989?.

___________. The Last Ditch Fight of the Dolphin and the Porpoise. London: Greenpeace, 1989.

Greenwood, Judi. 'With Love, the Dolphins'. Lombard, Illinois: Dolphin Love Publishing 1993. (708) 629-5069. (New Age)

"Channeled" session with "the Dolphins."

Gricks, Nathan. Whale Watching in the West Indies: A Guide to Cetaceans and Sites of the Region. Washington, D.C.: Island Resources Foundation, 1994. E-mail: iresources@aol.com, snail-mail: 1718 "P" Street NW, Suite T-4, zip code 20036, (202) 265-9712, fax: (202) 232-0748.

"The guide is divided into two parts. The 26 species included in Part I represent every likely whale and dolphin that an observer might come across in this geographic area . . . Key features to identification of each species are presented in both the physical description and behaviour sections. You can use the range section to help confirm your sighting. The status of each species is noted in accordance with the IUCN Red Data Book criteria . . .

"Part II covers areas of special interest for whale-watching, including Dominica's west coast to the Dominican Republic's north-east shore. It gives details of boat trips and land-based watching all over the region."

Also includes an annotated bibliography, a record card, equipment for use in whale-watching, first aid for stranded cetaceans, and a glossary.

Griffin, Edward I. Namu: Quest for the Killer Whale. Seattle, Washington: Gryphon West Publishers, 1982.

Grose, K. Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales: 1993-1998. World Conservation Union, 1993.

A Guide to the Whales and Dolphins of the Sultanate of Oman. Natural History Museum, Ministry of National Heritage and Culture, 199?.

Gubbins, Cara. The Dolphins of Hilton Head: Their Natural History. University of South Carolina Press, 2002. Author email: caragubbins@hotmail.com.

From the publisher: "The Dolphins of Hilton Head introduces readers to the unique population of bottlenose dolphins that inhabit the warm waters and brackish salt marshes of South Carolina's inland coastal waterways. Drawing on years of research in Hilton Head and the latest discoveries of scientists throughout the world, Cara Gubbins describes this atypical habitat and explains how distinctive behaviors of Hilton Head dolphins distinguish them from other populations. She identifies their particular behavior patterns, vocalizations, behavioral ecology and local traditions. Gubbins also offers practical suggestions on how best to view and understand these animals while visiting the island.

"Framing her study with a general overview of dolphins and their habits, Gubbins explores the natural history, ecology, and evolution of free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins in South Carolina. She compares this population with other throughout the world to reveal South Carolina dolphins' innovative foraging techniques, novel social system, and unconventional habitat use patterns. Gubbins debunks widely held myths about the animal, addresses conservation issues that will affect their future in South Carolina waters, and discusses environmental problems that threaten them worldwide.

"While Gubbins looks specifically at the dolphins of Hilton Head, her guide helps readers understand these animals throughout the world. She offers advice not only for spotting dolphins but also for interpreting such behaviors as feeding, socializing, resting, travelling, and communication."

Guldberg, Gustav Adolf, and F. Nansen. On the Development and Structure of the Whale. Part I: On the Development and Structure of the Dolphin. Bergens Museums skrifter no. 5. Bergen, 1894.

Haggerty, Betsy Frawley. New York and New Jersey Coastal Adventures: Whales, Beaches, Packets, Tugs, Tall Ships, Lighthouses, and More. Country Roads Press, 1995.

Haley, Delphine., ed. Marine Mammals of the Eastern North Pacific and Arctic Waters. 2d rev. ed. Seattle, Washington: Pacific Search Press, 1986.

Discusses cetaceans, pinnipeds, polar bear, sea otter, and steller sea cow. Cetaceans include fin, humpback, blue, gray, right, bowhead, sperm, beaked, pilot, killer, false killer, and belukha whales, narwhal, dolphins, and porpoises.

___________, ed. Marine Mammals. Seattle, Washington: Pacific Search Press, 1978.

From the preface: "This book is factual in approach, centered--within the space available--on what is known of the unique adaptations, biology, and behavior of the marine mammals. It contains no poems, no legends, no mystical stories--only facts . . . "

Contents: Introduction; Origins of Eastern North Pacific Sea Mammal Fauna; Cetaceans (blue whale, finner whales, humpback whale, graywhale, right whale, bowhead whale, sperm whales, beaked whales, porpoises and dolphins, pilot whale, killer whale, false killer whale, belukha whale, narwhal); Pinnipeds; Polar Bear; Sea Otter; Steller Sea Cow; Conservation of Marine Mammals; Classification of Marine Mammals; Further Reading

Hall, Howard. A Charm of Dolphins. San Luis Obispo, California: Blake Publishing, 1993.

___________, and Ashala Lawler. Dolphins. EZ Nature Books, 1999.

Hall, J. D. Aspects of the Natural History of Cetaceans of Prince William Sound. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1981.

Hamilton, J. E. A Rare Porpoise of the South Atlantic, Phocaena Dioptrica (Lahille, 1912). London: Cambridge University Press, 1941.

Hamilton, Robert. The Natural History of the Ordinary Cetacea or Whales. 19th century.

Hamilton, Richard. Mammalia, Vol. VI, On the Ordinary Cetacea or Whales. Edinburgh, 1839.

Hammond, Philip S., et al. Distribution and Abundance of the Harbour Porpoise and Other Small Cetaceans in the North Sea and Adjacent Waters. Final Report, October 1995. Great Britain, 1995.

Hammond, Philip S., Sally A. Mizroch, and Gregory P. Donovan, eds. Individual Recognition of Cetaceans: Use of Photo-Identification and Other Techniques to Estimate Population Parameters. Cambridge: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 12. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1990.

"In recent years several . . . non-lethal techniques have been developed which enable information required for management to be obtained for at least some species and populations. In recognition of this, the IWC sponsored a Symposium (attended by some 200 people), and Workshop in La Jolla, California. Emphasis was given to those techniques using individual identification of whales (primarily by photo-identification) to estimate population parameters. A major goal of the Workshop, attended by 37 scientists from five continents, was to provide a forum for exchange of expertise between researchers who are primarily field workers and those who are primarily analysts. . . It addressed questions of the development of common terms of reference for coding and matching of photographs, comparison of various field techniques and equipment and the evaluation of current and potential levels of precision of population parameters estimated from such data. The volume . . . contains 49 peer reviewed papers on a wide range of topics, including: (1) theoretical application of such data to the estimation of abundance and life history parameters; (2) guides to handling large data bases of individual recognition data efficiently; (3) general reviews of the applicability of such techniques to groups of species, e.g., small cetaceans; (4) results from groups of animals that have already been the subject of many years of study; (5) early results from studies of species for which it has only relatively recently been realised that photo-identification techniques can be used; (6) feasibility studies on new species: (7) the use of genetic 'fingerprinting' to identify individual animals."

Hand, Douglas. Gone Whaling: A Search for Orcas in Northwest Waters. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

Explores the meaning of orcas in the art and consciousness of the Pacific Northwest.

This book "appeals to the part of us all that has pondered the deep rift between humans and other creatures, between the modern and the primitive. There is an old Haida belief that a good life is rewarded by death and rebirth as an orca. Therefore, you should treat the orca well that swims close to shore, for it may be your ancestor. This special book probes the boundary that separates and binds humans to killer whales, and humans to the natural order."

Debbie: This is a personal account by Hand which takes you through Vancouver's natural history, going out with Ken Balcomb's group on San Juan Island, and visiting Paul Spong at ORCALAB on Hanson Island. It's another "chiller" and "I want to do that" kind of book. I loved it.

Hankins, Terence N. Interactions and Play between Captive Bottlenose Dolphins and Humans in a "Swim-with-the-Dolphins" Program. 1993.

Hardy, Sir Alister. Great Waters: A Voyage of Natural History to Study Whales, Plankton and the Waters of the Southern Ocean in the Old Royal Research Ship 'Discovery,' with the Results Brought Up to Date by the Findings of the R.R.S. 'Discovery II'. London: Collins, 1962.

Harmer, S. F. Guide to the Whales, Porpoises, and Dolphins Exhibited in the Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History). London, 1909.

Harms, Elvira. Association Patterns and Pod Cohesion in Northern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). M.Sc. thesis. E-mail: harms@ubc.zoology.ca (Ms. Harms is presently doing fieldwork and will be unable to respond to e-mail until September 1997.)


Understanding the social structure of a killer whale community may give insight into the short-term factors that determine pod-cohesion and pod-splitting. Social patterns within British Columbia's northern resident killer whale community were analyzed using a 20-year long photographic database. Females were found to associate primarily with their mothers when young, and with their own offspring later in life. They showed a surprising lack of contact with other females in their pod, and were photographed more often with females of other pods. Males seemed to be the preferred associates of all pod members, especially other males. Upon reaching age 21, males showed an explosion in social contacts of all sorts, especially with their extended kin.

The results suggest that it is male social bonds that give cohesion to killer pods, binding two or more related female-offspring units. Female associations are mainly between mothers and their offspring, and their associations with females of other pods may give some cohesion to the community as a whole. These patterns lead to the prediction that without an adult male and the possibility of male-male bonds between mother-offspring units, a pod is likely to split after the death of the common mother. This prediction is consistent with observed cases of pod-splitting.

Harrison, Elizabeth A. Auditory Perception in Cetacea: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Springfield, Virginia: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, 1977.

Harrison, Richard, ed. Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals. 3 vols. London/New York: Academic Press, 1972, 1974, 1977. (800) 321-5068.

Harrison, Richard, and M. M. Bryden, eds. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises. New York/Oxford, England: Facts on File Publications/London: Merehurst/Sydney: Golden Press Pty Ltd., 1988.

Reviewed by Phil Clapham in the Spring 1989 issue of Oceanus: "A sobering thought: there are now probably more books about whales than there are right whales in the North Atlantic. Since whales first became symbols of the environmental movement, there has been a seemingly endless line of books about whale biology, whale identification, whaling history, whale art, and even--heaven help us!--whale mysticism.

"These books vary considerably, from excellent to frankly abominable. More than one has perpetuated ideas that research has long since confounded, or carelessly used fictive notions to fill gaps in our understanding of these enigmatic mammals.

"It's therefore a pleasure to welcome this excellent compendium, edited by Sir Richard Harrison, a distinguished Cambridge University anatomist, and Michael M. Bryden, an Australian marine mammal biologist with wide field experience. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises comes perhaps closer than any of its rivals to a seemingly impossible dream: it combines a wealth of accurate information with a feast of spectacular photographs. As a handsome addition to the coffee table, it will evoke satisfying 'oohs' and 'aahs,' and as a comprehensive introduction to the biology and behavior of cetaceans, it will help the college student with his [or her] next essay.

" The first of the three sections, entitled 'Whales of the World,' deals with evolution, taxonomy, and distributional ecology of cetaceans. It includes what is, in effect, a field guide to various species, accompanied by illustrations that are, if not perfect, at least tolerably realistic. The second section, 'The World of the Whale,' contains more detailed information on biology and behavior. As with the rest of the book, each subsection is written by an authority on the topic in questions. The final section, 'Whales and People,' provides the counterpoint to its more didactic predecessors, and offers a history of whaling, a review of whales in art and literature, and articles on captivity, strandings, and 'human contact.' Books that attempt to combine a scientific perspective with more literary musings often result in an unsuccessful marriage of the two, yet this one succeeds. It's not at all jarring to find a reproduction of the famous dolphin fresco from the Minoan palace of Knossos just a few pages beyond a review of the social behavior of baleen whales.

"As one would expect in a work that attempts to distill knowledge from so many sources in a rapidly expanding field, the book isn't devoid of errors. We're told, for example, that fin whales 'avoid . . . coastal waters,' which comes as a surprise to those of us who regularly watch them from the beaches of Cape Cod or Long Island. And a caption says that whale mothers have an 'aunt' in 'constant attendance for protection' of the calf. While this is true of certain toothed whales, the notion has long since been discredited for baleen whales; among humpbacks, for instance, the 'aunts' have turned out to be mature males that are probably waiting for an opportunity to mate with the mother.

"There are also some errors of omission. Given that a great deal of our present understanding of whales comes from long-term studies based on the recognition of individual animals--by the markings on their backs or the shapes of their flukes--one would think this topic deserved an entire article instead of incidental mention. And the article on strandings leans far too heavily on a single hypothesis: the idea of the article's author, Margaret Klinowska of Cambridge University, that they result from a disorientation of the biomagnetic navigation system possibly possessed by certain cetaceans. While there's some interesting evidence to support her theory, it's far from widely accepted, and other researchers have equally convincing data for alternative explanations.

"But my major objection is to the article on captive cetaceans. One doesn't have to read the biographies of the contributors to discern that the author, Victor Manton, makes his living displaying cetaceans (as curator of Britain's Whipsnade Park). The article reads like a press release, lavishly praising the contributions made by oceanariums to public education and scientific research, yet glossing over or ignoring concerns about the well-being of captive show animals. At points, the article becomes frankly insulting, as when Manton contends that performing dolphins are 'generally extroverted animals that respond to applause or public enthusiasm.'

"These shortcomings nothwithstanding, the editors deserve high marks for their conservative, well-researched approach: if science is largely ignorant about a topic, they say so, and don't attempt to fill up their pages with meaningless guesses based on skimpy data. Overall, they've produced an excellent book that stands out among the gathering crowd of whale publications and will be turned to repeatedly for instruction or simply enjoyment."

Chapters include Evolution, Kinds of Whales, Baleen Whales, Toothed Whales, Distribution and Ecology, Anatomy, Adaptation to the Aquatic Environment, The World of the Senses, Reproduction and Development, Social Behaviour, Intelligence, Whales in Art and Literature, History of Whaling, Whales and Dolphins in Captivity, Human Contact, and Strandings--Fact and Fiction. Also included are a checklist of living whales, a bibliography, and an index.

Harrison, R. J., and J. E. King. Marine Mammals. London: Hutchinson Press, 1980.

Harrison, R. J., and S. H. Ridgway. Deep Diving in Mammals. Durham, England: Meadowfield Press, 1976.

Hart, Stephen. Scientific American Focus: The Language of Animals. New York: Holt, 1996.

See section on whale song.

Hast, Fai Chivell. Where to See Whales and Dolphins in Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Magistra Publishing.

". . . With dozens of key places right round the coast, this book shows you how to get there, where to stay and where to see migratory whales and their ever-present cousins, the dolphins. Also included is a host of whale and dolphin stories, whale identification diagrams and access numbers to the many organizations devoted to the protection of cetacea."

Hatherly, Janelle, and Delia Nicholls. Dolphins and Porpoises. Great Creatures of the World series. New York: Facts on File, 1990.

From the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society Booklist: " . . . Learn about these playful, intelligent and often friendly creatures in this fully illustrated book." (Companion volume to Whales, by Lesley Dow.)

Haug, Herbert. Der makroskopische Aufbau des Grosshirns: Qualitative and Quantitative Untersuchungen an den Gehirnen des Menschen, der Delphinoideae und des Elefanten (The Macroscopic Structure of the Cerebrum: Qualitative and Quantitative Examination of the Brains of Humans, Dolphins and Elephants). Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag, 1970.

Hawes, Sandra D. An Annotated Bibliography of the Ecology of Co-occurring Tunas (Katsuwonus pelamis, Thunnus albacares) and Dolphins (Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Delphinus delphis) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. La Jolla, California: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Center, 1982.

Hayes, Ruth. Orca Breaching. Friday Harbor, Washington: The Whale Museum, 1983. (Art and calligraphy)

Hayter, Adrian. The Dolphins' Message. Nelson, New Zealand: R. W. Stiles, 1981.

Scott: Privately published booklet of author's ideas about the essence of the Dolphin Mystery. Oddly written, but quite insightful, inspirational.

Hebden, Mark. A Pride of Dolphins. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Hebert, Marie-Francine. Poppy's Whale. LPC Inbook, 1996. (Fiction)

Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter, and Oystein Wiig. Belugas in the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications Series, Vol. 4. Tromso, Norway: North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, 2003.

From the website: "The background for the compilation of [this] monograph is the ongoing assessment of belugas in the North Atlantic, started by the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission in 1999 (NAMMCO 2000, 2001, 2002). Most of the information presented in this volume has been presented at scientific working group meetings within NAMMCO and the Canada/Greenland Joint Commission on Conservation and Management of Narwhal and Beluga (JCNB). The information from these meetings is both of general interest to scientists dealing with Arctic wildlife and of value for future scientific assessments of beluga stocks. As a consequence it was decided that the information should be compiled as a volume in the series of Scientific Publications from NAMMCO. There has been special concern in both NAMMCO and JCNB about the conservation status of beluga that winter off West Greenland, and this is reflected in the subject matter of the compilation. However the volume is . . . broad in scope, covering beluga populations from the St. Lawrence River in southern Canada to the Russian eastern Arctic, Information on the two other Arctic cetaceans, the narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), often are by-products of studies specifically targeting belugas, so some information on these species is included in the volume as well."

Heimlich-Boran, Sara and James Boran. Killer Whales. WorldLife Library. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1994, rev. 2001.

Trisha: This is an excellent introduction to orcas, with an informative and interesting text and wonderful and plentiful photographs.

From a review by William Rossiter, Cetacean Society International, in Whales Alive!, July 2001, p. 12: "Written by two scientists with extraordinary familiarity with orcas, this book will please all readers with the presentation of facts, experiences, and incredible photographs. Issues and controversies such as captivity and fisheries interactions are reported objectively. The authors clearly held back their subjective opinions. I would have welcomed a little limb hanging; it would have helped to show how much they care, and stimulated more readers to get involved. Science is learning so much so fast that no book can keep up. Some recent research from New Zealand and Latin America are examples for the next update, but don't hesitate to get this book now."

Heintzelman, Donald. A World Guide to Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Winchester Press, 1981.

Contents include checklists of whales, dolphins, and porpoises; species accounts; whale-watching equipment; watching and identifying whales, dolphins, and porpoises; whale migrations, whale-watching lookouts and sanctuaries; and appendixes on whale conservation organizations, member nations of the IWC, U.S. federal laws and marine mammal protection, recent estimates of numbers of great whales, and whale sighting report forms. Also contains a glossary, suggested reading, and an index.

Helm, Thomas. Monsters of the Deep. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1962.

See chapter 2, "True Monsters of the Deep," which briefly describes the evolution and behavior of whales, attacks of sperm whales on whaling ships, the Jonah legend, sperm whale-squid encounters, ambergris, narwhals (including associated unicorn lore), orcas ("vicious killer whales" to give you some idea of the orientation), belugas, and strandings.

Helzel, A. R., and S. J. Stearn. Minke Whales. World Life Library. Voyageur Press.

Hemmi, Sakae. The Beach Where Dolphins Come to Play. In Japanese. ISBN 7896-0389-X C8095. Telephone: 03 3479 3943, fax: 03 3479 5197.

Henderson, David A. Men and Whales at Scammon's Lagoon. Baja California Travels Series. Los Angeles, California: Dawson's Book Shop, 1972. Limited edition--700 copies.

From a review in the March-April 1973 issue of Oceans magazine: "In scholarly yet readable fashion, David A. Henderson of California State College, Northridge, has introduced the California gray whale and the history of man's contact with this unique mammal, from Indian times and the early Spanish accounts to the whaling years climaxed by Charles M. Scammon and his dwindling successors as salt replaced whale oil and baleen on ships outward bound from the twin lagoons midway along Baja's Pacific coast. As befits a work of history, human and natural, the volume is concluded with compendious notes and an exhaustive bibliography. Appended also are certain tables of historiographic interest relative specifically to whaling.

Heptner, V. G., et al. Mammals of the Soviet Union: Pinnipeds and Toothed Whales, Vol. II, Part 3. 1976. Science Pub., 1996.

Herald, Earl S. Field and Aquarium Study of the Blind River Dolphin. 1969.

Herman, J. S. Cetacean Specimens in the National Museum of Scotland. Edinburgh: National Museum of Scotland, 1992.

Herman, Louis M. "Knowledge Acquisition and Asymmetry Between Language Comprehension and Production: Dolphins and Apes as General Models for Animals" In Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, Volume I: Interpretation, Intentionality, and Communication, Marc Bekoff and Dale Jamieson, eds. Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England: Westview Press, 1990. ___________, ed. Cetacean Behavior: Mechanisms and Functions. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Contents: Sound Emission and Detection by Delphinids; The Cetacean Eye; Social and Ecological Correlates of Cetacean Vision and Visual Appearance; The Communication System of Cetaceans; The Structure and Function of Cetacean Schools; The Social Ecology of Inshore Odontocetes; The Behavior and Training of Cetaceans in Captivity; Cognitive Characteristics of Dolphins; Classification of the Cetaceans

___________. Humpback Whales in Hawaiian Waters: A Study in Historical Ecology. Seattle, Washington: Pacific Search Press, 1978.

___________. Humpback Whales in the Hawaiian Breeding Waters: Population and Pod Characteristics. Tokyo: Whales Research Institute, 1977.

Hershkovitz, P. Catalog of Living Whales. U.S. National Museum, Bulletin 246/Smithsonian Institution, 1966.

Herzing, Denise L. "Dolphins in the Wild: An Eight Year Field Study on Dolphin Communication and Interspecies Interaction." Doctoral dissertation. The Union Institute Graduate College, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1993.

___________, and Thomas I. White. "Dolphins and the Question of Personhood." Etica & Animali, 9/98 (special issue on nonhuman personhood).

Hetzel, Bia, and Liliane Lodi. Baleias, Botos e Golfinhos: Baia da Ilha Grande (Whales, Porpoises and Dolphins: Identification Guide for Ilha Grande Bay). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Manati Producoes Editoriais, 1996. In Portuguese. Available from Cetacean Society International, P.O. Box 953, Georgetown, Connecticut 06829, USA, (203) 544-8617, e-mail: 71322.1637@compuserve.com.

Ilha Grande Bay cetacean identification guide.

___________. Baleias, Botos e Golfinhos: Guia de Identificacao para o Brasil (Whales, Porpoises and Dolphins: Identification Guide for Brazil). Editora Nova Fronteira, 1994. In Portuguese. Available from Cetacean Society International, P.O. Box 953, Georgetown, Connecticut 06829, USA, (203) 544-8617, e-mail: 71322.1637@compuserve.com.

Brazilian cetacean identification guide.

Heyning, John E. Masters of the Ocean Realm: Whales, Dolphins, & Porpoises. Seattle/London: University of Washington Press in association with the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 1995.

" . . . a colorful, accessible introduction to the cetaceans that shows how scientists study these elusive creatures and reveals what they have learned. The book gives examples of the interaction of whales, dolphins, and porpoises with human cultures around the world and discusses such conservation issues as modern whaling, habitat degradation, pollution, and the threat of extinction. Short essays address additional topics such as whale intelligence, the mystery of mass strandings, the lessons of DNA analysis, and the tuna-dolphin controversy. The book features numerous color illustrations, including images by leading nature photographers . . . " Also includes a glossary, and index, and a brief bibliography.

Trisha: This is a beautifully illustrated, nicely written introduction to cetaceans, published in association with a traveling exhibition of the same name.

Contents: Introduction; The Basic Whale and Dolphin; Evolution (Miocene diversity; Modern diversity); Life Below the Surface (Feeding; Senses; Diving; Behavior and social systems); The Challenges of Research (Tagging and photo-identification; Strandings; How many species? How many whales?); Conservation (Modern whaling; Accidental deaths in fishing gear; Pollution and habitat destruction; The role of research); Whales and People (Greek and Minoan civilization; The Tlingit; Nineteenth-century New England; The Eskimo); Epilogue. Also contains a bibliography, glossary, and index.

Hicks, Takara. When a Dolphin Walks on Land: Healing Body, Mind, and Emotions for Total Success. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: HumInt International, forthcoming.

Synopsis: "The book is in two sections. The first contains information about dolphins and how to connect with them. The second includes techniques for overcoming limiting beliefs, fears, and judgments which prevent a person from exhibiting their own dolphin-like qualities. These qualities are joy, laughter, playfulness, spontaneity, unconditional love, creativity, and sensuality.

Hill, David O. Vanishing Giants: The History, Biology and Fate of the Great Whales. New York: Rare Animal Relief Effort (National Audubon Society), 1975. Reprinted from Audubon.

An overview of the history, biology, and demise by whaling of sperm, gray, minke, Bryde's, sei, fin, blue, humpback, right, and bowhead whales.

Hill, Ralph Nading. Window in the Sea. New York: Rinehart & Co., 1956.

Scott: The story of the first twenty years of Marineland, near St. Augustine, Florida, where the first dolphin was "trained" to perform tricks for people.

Hillman, Anthony. Carving Whales and Dolphins. Dover Publications, n.d.

Hindell, Mark, and Cath Kemper. Marine Mammal Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Volume 1 - Status, Ecology and Medicine. Sydney, Australia: Surrey Beatty and Sons, 1997.

From the description in the December 1997 issue of Marine Mammal Society Newsletter, the newsletter of the Society for Marine Mammalogy: Presents the proceedings of a marine mammal symposium conducted by the Australian Mammal Society in July 1994 in Hobart, Tasmania. It comprises 22 chapters arranged in four parts: Status and Management (6 chapters), General Ecology (4), Foraging Ecology (8) and Medicine and Husbandry (4). Chapters cover whales, dolphins, and seals of Australia, New Zealand, subantarctic islands, and Antarctic waters. There are many good photographs of animals, in color and in black and white.

Hoegel, Vanessa Dyane. Perceptions of Dolphin Therapists and Dolphin Researchers on Using Dolphin Assisted Therapy with Symptomatic HIV Disease. Master's thesis, Pacific Oaks College, Pasadena, California, 1997. Available for $20 U.S./softcover, $50 U.S./hardcover from Vanessa Hoegel, 575 Chino Hills Parkway, #A-327, Chino Hills, California 91709, USA.

Findings: * A strong majority of experts agree that dolphin assisted therapy is beneficial for persons who are HIV+ symptomatic.

* Non-direct dolphin assisted therapeutic techniques are highly encouraged in this application. These methods are: guided dolphin imagery, listening to prerecorded dolphin audio, dolphin visual stimulation achieved through video or film, and the latest technology, Cyberfin (a dolphin virtual reality experience).

* The predominant goals for utilizing dolphin assisted therapy with symptomatic HIV disease are: to increase positive states of mind, to decrease depressive symptoms, and to decrease anger. The physiological effects of this interaction will increase the state of physical health and stimulate the immune system.

Hoelzel, A. R., ed. Genetic Ecology of Whales and Dolphins. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 13. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1991.

"This is in many ways a companion volume to special issue 12 on photo-identification and other individual recognition techniques . . .

"In October 1989 in La Jolla, California, a Workshop took place that examined the applicability of molecular genetic techniques to studies of cetacean populations, and in particular to the definition of kin-groups, genetic populations and reproductive strategies . . .

"In addition to the report section, there are twenty peer-reviewed scientific papers contributed by cetologists and geneticists. These cover subject matter from the collection of samples at sea and their preservation, through individual population studies, to the final section of the book which considers both the theory of interpretation and the applicability of the techniques for the management of cetacean populations. There has been a sense in some quarters that molecular genetic techniques may be a panacea for troubled behavioural ecologists and population biologists. While the reality falls short of this, as shown in this volume, these techniques will facilitate substantial advancement when combined with non-genetic approaches."

Hoelzel, A. Rus, and S. Jonathon Stern. Minke Whales. Worldlife Library Series. Moray, Scotland: Colin Baxter Photography/Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 2000.

Holts, David B., and James M. Coe. A Preliminary Study of Dolphin Release Procedures Using Model Purse Seines. La Jolla, California: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries, Southwest Fisheries Center, 1982.

Horwood, Joseph. Biology and Exploitation of the Minke Whale. Boca Raton, Florida: C.R.C. Press, 1989.

___________. The Sei Whale: Population Biology, Ecology and Management. London/New York: Croom Helm/Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1987.

Howard, Carol J. Dolphin Chronicles: The Two World of Misha and Echo. New York: Bantam, 1995.

"In 1988 a group of scientists began a revolutionary experiment: they 'borrowed' a pair of wild dolphins from the sea, studied them in captivity for two years, and then set them free to continue studying the animals in their home waters. Dolphin Chronicles is the extraordinary story of that experiment, a coast-to-coast odyssey that began when two Atlantic bottlenose dolphins--dubbed Echo and Misha--were captured in Tampa Bay, Florida, and transported to Long Marine Laboratory in Santa Cruz, California.

"Scientist and author Carol Howard was involved in all aspects of this project--as a member of both the capture crew and the release/follow-up team, as one of the dolphins' trainers, and as a researcher who studied their echolocation for her doctoral dissertation. Renowned marine mammalogist Dr. Kenneth S. Norris, director of this 'dolphin sabbatical' program and Carol's mentor, has written the book's foreword."

Some reviews of this newly released work:

"Fresh, beautiful, and elegantly scientific, Dolphin Chronicles gives us a cascade of insights into our seagoing mammalian kin. Carol Howard's sensitive, dedicated research has produced a glorious book, a must for those who love animals and for those who love the sea." --Elizabeth Marshall Thomas
author of The Hidden Life of Dogs

"Dolphin Chronicles gives a true and lively report of research into the intelligence and behavior of a large-brained nonhuman animal species. Emphasizing communication, Dolphin Chronicles' message will have uncommon appeal for today's networking generation." --Victor B. Scheffer
author of The Year of the Whale and A Natural History of Marine Mammals

Trisha: This book is wonderfully written in a candid, friendly, even chatty style at times, and provides interesting, and not always pleasant, details on the process of capturing Echo and Misha, their life and health in captivity, the training and research process, human attachments to their captives, the rehab and release of Misha and Echo two years later, and the post-release follow-up process. Also discusses the dolphins' complex sensory system and debunks some of the current speculations surrounding dolphin abilities such as the extent of their ability to see inside other bodies, their ability to communicate, etc.

While the author discusses the qualms that she and others felt about taking Misha and Echo captive and acknowledges the stresses implicit in this process, she, based on the usual arguments, concludes that captivity is justified, although she does state that her perceived "need for some dolphins in captivity doesn't necessarily mean we need to capture any more from the wild . . . " (Based on the experiment with Misha and Echo, she and Ken Norris, her academic advisor, also conclude that it is not workable to take dolphins from the wild on a temporary basis.)

In her introduction, the author writes: "My aim in this book has been to present a view of dolphins that is well grounded in science but within a framework that allows the heart and soul of these creatures to show through as well. I have tried to portray Echo and Misha as multifaceted individuals. They are down-to-earth flesh-and-blood animals who nonetheless seem to inspire some sense of the mythic, of the mystical in us. They are strangely familiar, and yet so alien." She does a masterly job of reaching her goal, so masterly, in fact, that it is difficult to understand her conclusion.

Howard, Edwin B., ed. Pathobiology of Marine Mammal Diseases. Volumes I and II. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1983.

Howell, A. Brazier. Aquatic Mammals: Their Adaptations to Life in the Water. Springfield, Illinois/Baltimore, Maryland: Thomas, 1930. New York: Dover, 1970 (reprint).

Howorth, Peter C. Whales & Dolphins: Shorelines of America. The Story Behind the Scenery series. Las Vegas, Nevada: KC Publications, 1994.

A brief introduction to dolphins and whales and our relationship to them. Large, full-color photos and illustrations.

___________. Whales-Dolphins-Porpoises of the Pacific. Nevada: KC Publications, 1985.

How to Build an Inflatable (55 ft.) Finback Whale. J. Michael Williamson, MICS, 20 Moynihan Rd., So. Hamilton, Massachusetts 01982, USA.

Hoyt, Erich. The Best Whale Watching in Europe. Germany: The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 2003.

From the publisher: "This comprehensive guide to whale and dolphin watching in Europe focuses on the best whale watch operators in 14 different countries, from Greenland to Greece. The guide offers a choice of location as diverse as Norway, with one of the most successful Arctic whale-watch options, and the Azores, where you can laze on a sun-baked deck, watching massive sperm whales diving deep into the bluest waters imaginable. There are many opportunities to watch for free from special lookouts on land, or at the other end of the scale, you can spend £1,000 or more to watch whales on research ships, thus helping to contribute to whale and dolphin conservation. The Best Whale Watching in Europe helps whale watchers understand, identify and photograph the animals they see, whilst ensuring that their chosen whale watch trip does not harm the animals . . .

"WDCS has been working for many years with whale watch operators, researchers, fishermen, sailors, local communities and governments to protect whales and dolphins, by encouraging careful and responsible whale-watching.""

___________. Whale Watching 2000: Worldwide Tourism Numbers, Expenditures, and Expanding Socioeconomic Benefits. Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 2000.

From an IFAW press release: "The report notes that whale watching tourism expenditures more than doubled from 1994-1998; expenditures now are more than a billion dollars per year. In the US alone, more than 4.3 million people went whale watching in 1998, accounting for 47% of the global whale watching industry.

"Since the last global survey on whale watching, conducted in 1994, the number of people who took part in a whale watching trip grew 40%. At least 492 communities in 87 countries now have whale watching businesses, while since 1994, 22 countries have started whale watch tours.

"Africa has the fastest growth in whale watching of any continent. Central America and the West Indies are second, and Asia is third in growth. In addition to economic benefits, the whale watching industry makes important educational, environmental, socioeconomic and scientific contributions.

"'This report is very exciting in that it highlights not only the growth of whale watching as an economically successful global industry, but that it signifies a growing global appreciation of whales and marine environments,' said Dr. Carole Carlson, IFAW Senior Marine Biologist and whale watching expert, from Provincetown, MA, once a whaling center and now home to one of the world's most prosperous whale watching industries."

___________. Whale & Dolphin Watching: The Best Way to Look at Cetaceans. Hamburg, Germany: Vier Pfoten, 1999. Available from Ulrich.Geertz@Vier-Pfoten.de, fax: 49 40 399249 99. To report on a whale-watching experience: Whale Watch Survey, c/o E. Hoyt, 29 Dirleton Ave., No. 11, North Berwick, Scotland EH39 4BE, UK, Fax 44 1620 895 257

From Erich Hoyt and the publisher: "Over the past decade, whale and dolphin watching has come of age as an exciting, inspiring activity of growing popularity around the world. More and more people are making whale watching a part of their holidays. As of 1995, more than 5 million people in 65 countries and overseas territories went whale watching.

"At its best, whale watching teaches people to appreciate whales and dolphins, helps researchers study them, contributes to the conservation of the animals, and helps ensure the economic security of local communities which serve as protectors of marine habitat.

"Some whale-watch operators, however, have haphazard or unsafe practices. They may make money from the whales without putting anything back to research, education, or conservation. As well, careless whale-watch practices can bother the animals, perhaps causing them to steer clear of boats or even to abandon an area. Whale watching that is only commercial is a wasted opportunity.

"In an effort to encourage quality whale watching, we have contacted hundreds of operators around the world involved in whale and dolphin watching, dolphin swimming, and marine ecotourism which features cetaceans . . . We have included operators using every type of boat, from kayaks to cruise ships, as well as operators offering land-based tours. We have asked each to complete a survey form, and this information has been supplemented in many cases by reports from independent sources.

What is quality whale watching?

"Probably the most important key indicator of quality whale-watching is the presence of a good naturalist, or nature guide. Ideally, this guide should be enthusiastic and personable, combining experience of cetaceans at sea with good background knowledge about marine species and ecology. A good naturalist can make or break a trip, turning even a day with no, few, or distant whale sightings into an exciting, memorable adventure.

"Quality whale watching offers both an educational and scientific component. The operator should be keen to teach people about whales. Many invite students and other interested people from their local communities to see the whales, free or at a reduced rate, as a good will gesture. At minimum, operators should keep a logbook with accurate information on sightings and take photographs useful for identification of individual animals, which can be contributed to photo-ID programs now or in the future. The better operators also get involved with researchers, allowing them to do research on the boat, sometimes in exchange for acting as a naturalist. Everyone benefits from this arrangement. The researcher gets free boat time to do his work; the operator gets an additional, experienced pair of eyes for finding, identifying and watching the whales; the whale-watching visitor gets a good insight into how science is done and learns much more about the whales.

"Whale watching is also enhanced by the presence of certain equipment and other items, which can be used on the ship, such as hydrophones for listening to the whales, binoculars, whale and bird guide books. Providing these and other extra features is simply good customer care, but some features also add to the educational experience.

"Two final key items essential for every trip are, first, good safety practices. For the most part, safety for tour boat passengers is legislated by government regulations, so this will not be a concern for people travelling with established operators. But with smaller operators, if in doubt, ask about safety features, such as life jackets, life boat, radio, survival suits (for cold temperate and polar waters). The last item is the importance of following whale-watch guidelines or regulations to ensure the whales are not bothered by whale watching. Most tour operators are careful around the whales, and the individual whale watcher can be sure that all care is taken. In some areas, however, whale watching is new or it has become overly competitive and, in both cases, may not be properly regulated. Here, whale watchers with some experience of quality whale watching can be outspoken about how to approach and observe whales and dolphins. Comments can be made in person or in writing to tour operators, local conservation groups, or even, for flagrant violations, to local or marine police.

"It is impossible to make blanket regulations for all cases. Below is a brief summary of the minimum key points boat operators should follow in most parts of the world for most species of whales and dolphins.

* Do not charge toward or chase the whales or dolphins with a boat, or drive through a group, separating them. (For example, do not try to get dolphins to bowride by driving fast through the pod.)

* Approach whales and dolphins slowly from behind and to the side, not head on or directly behind.

* Do not approach closer than 300 feet (100 meters) (a few places have even stricter minimum distances). Of course, sometimes the whales will close the gap to "inspect" a boat or person in the water or, in the case of dolphins, to ride on the bow. In this case, allow the animals to control the nature and duration of the interaction.

* Do not make sudden changes of speed, direction, or noise when close to the whales.

* If other boats want to watch the whales, it is important to take turns, with no more than 2 or 3 boats whale watching at one time, and to limit the time that each boat stays with the whales.

* Do not reach out to try to touch whales or dolphins.

* Do not feed whales or dolphins.

* Do not throw litter into the water.


USA: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, Texas, California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii; MIDWAY ATOLL; CANADA: British Columbia, Manitoba, Arctic/Northwest Territories, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland; MEXICO; BELIZE; THE BAHAMAS; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS; BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS; MARTINIQUE; DOMINICA; GRENADA; ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES; SOUTH AMERICA: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina; FALKLAND ISLANDS; GREENLAND; ICELAND; THE FAROES; NORWAY; RUSSIA: Arctic; UNITED KINGDOM: England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland; FRANCE; GERMANY; SPAIN; GIBRALTAR; ITALY (and nearby Mediterranean); CROATIA; GREECE: AZORES (Portugues territory): CANARY ISLANDS (Spanish territory); THE GAMBIA; REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA; MADAGASCAR; INDONESIA; HONG KONG (CHINA); JAPAN; PHILIPPINES; FIJI; AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia; NEW ZEALAND; TONGA; ANTARCTICA

Trisha: I've not yet seen this book, but Erich Hoyt's other books are excellent, and based on the description, I find this guide to be the best available resource on whale watching.

___________. The Potential of Whale Watching in Africa. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1998. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

___________. The Potential of Whale Watching in Europe. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1998.

___________. The Potential of Whale Watching in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1997.

___________. Discover Whale and Dolphin Watching in Northern Europe. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1995.

Concise guide to the available tours and best look-out sites. Coverage includes all U.K. waters.

___________. The Worldwide Value and Extent of Whale Watching 1995. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1995.

___________. The Performing Orca--Why the Show Must Stop. Bath, England: The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1992.

___________. Riding with the Dolphins: The Equinox Guide to Dolphins and Porpoises. Camden East, Ontario, Canada: Camden House, 1992.

___________. Meeting the Whales: The Equinox Guide to Giants of the Deep. Camden East, Ontario, Canada: Camden House, 1991.

___________. Seasons of the Whale: Riding the Currents of the North Atlantic. Post Mills, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1990/Washington, D.C.: Humane Society of the United States, 1998, 2d. ed. rev.

In this book, the author offers "a remarkable chronicle of a year in the life of about a dozen humpback, right, and blue whales. Moving through their migration cycles in the North Atlantic Ocean, the whales--Comet, Beltane, Talon, Stripe, June, and their companions--sing, fight, play, mate, and feed. In their travels, they meet many other animals, predators and prey, each of which plays a role in the ocean ecosystem. They also encounter toxic waste, oil slicks, and 'ghost' fishing nets, and at times, their prey is contaminated. Many of the whales' activities are recorded in more than 75 color photographs by some of the world's finest marine photographers." Also contains a reading list and an index.

From a review by Sandra L. Hersh in Sea Frontiers, April 1991: "This work is a fine example of a new trend in whale books that seeks to merge the bare facts of cetacean research with the light, easy-reading style of good fiction . . . The books' flavor is derived mainly from Hoyt's relating various events in the seasonal cycle of well-studied whale populations, while interspersing what is known about whales and whale research. In this manner he educates the reader on a variety of scientific topics, almost without their noticing . . . One of the most interesting sections in the book deals with the scientific investigation into the dolphin die-off of 1987-88 . . . "

___________. Orca: The Whale Called Killer. Camden East, Ontario, Canada: Camden House, 1990. (First published in 1981 under the title The Whale Called Killer.)

"Intent on dispelling the killer myth, Erich Hoyt and his colleagues spent seven summers following these splendid creatures in the waters off northern Vancouver Island and found them to be intelligent, playful, and even friendly. This book, the first ever published on killer whales, is Hoyt's fascinating account of those seven summers of adventure and discovery."

From Discover magazine: "Hoyt's passionate sense of kinship with orca makes his account effective as both science and literature. He has chronicled his adventures and discoveries . . . with grace, insight, wit--and a comprehensiveness that might satisfy even Herman Melville."

Trisha: Highly detailed and interesting account with a reasonably good index, informative appendixes, and an excellent sixteen-page annotated bibliography (through 1984). Appendices include information on the diet of the orca, live capture locations in the Northwest (1962-1977), populations in British Columbia and Washington, local and national names for Orcinus orca, world catch statistics, live-capture statistics, information on individual captive orcas, institutions that have kept captives, and a concise history of humans and orcas (c. 100 B.C. - 1983).

___________. The Whales of Canada. Camden East, Ontario, Canada: Camden House/Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books, 1988.

"The Whales of Canada will help you identify and understand all 20 species of whales, porpoises and dolphins found in Canadian waters. Included are feeding, breeding, and social habits, size comparisons, drawings, photographs, range maps and firsthand observations from biologists and experienced whale watchers."

Species include: grey, minke, sei, fin, blue, humpback, bowhead, northern right sperm, Cuvier's beaked, northern bottlenose, beluga, narwhal, long-finned pilot, and killer whales, white-beaked, Atlantic white-sided, and Pacific white-sided dolphins, and harbour and Dall's porpoises.

___________. The Whale Watcher's Handbook. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company/Toronto: Penguin/Madison Press, 1984.

Contains the locations of hundreds of coastal lookouts, detailed information on hundreds of specially chartered whale-watching tours, more than 90 photographs, 75 illustrations by Pieter Folkens, 15 maps and charts, a selection of facts about the various species, tips and guidelines, helpful advice on how to take whale photographs and tape-record whale sounds and calls, and a glossary, index, and recommended reading list.

___________. 5 Case Studies. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society.

In-depth look at how whale watching has grown in five communities in Norway, Iceland, New Zealand, Argentina, and the United States.

___________. Discover Whale and Dolphin Watching in Northern Europe. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society.

___________. Kujira Watching. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. (whale watching in Japan)

Human Marine Mammal Interactions in the Southern Hemisphere. A companion volume to the Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammal Conference, Phillip Island, May 2001.

Humpback Whales, A Catalogue of Individuals Identified by Fluke Marks. Bar Harbor, Maine: College of the Atlantic, 1983?.

Humpback Whale catalog for the Gulf of Maine Population CD. Available from WhaleNet.

"The CD includes software with which one can identify a particular humpback whale from the fluke pattern and natural history information on 20 marine mammals common to the Gulf of Maine area."

The Humpback Whales of Georgia Strait. Volume 8, 1985 of Waters, the journal of the Vancouver Aquarium.

Humpback Whales of the Central and Eastern North Pacific: A Catalog of Individual Identification Photographs. University of Hawaii at Manoa Sea Grant College Program, 1988.

Hunt, Douglas G. The Dolphin Reader. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1996.

Hunter, Robert. Warriors of the Rainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1979.

___________. To Save a Whale: The Voyages of Greenpeace. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1978.

"In the summer of 1975 a Greenpeace crew set out on an eighty-foot halibut seiner to confront the Russian whaling fleet off the coast of California. Their most successful tactic was to place their Zodiac rubber boats between the Russian killer boats and the fleeing whales, forcing the harpooners either to hold their fire or risk hitting one of the Greenpeace crew. Because of their successes that summer, the group could send out a retired minesweeper as well as the seiner for the campaign of 1976. And by the summer of 1977, the Greenpeace message was being heard around the world.

"This is the story of the voyages of Greenpeace and of the whales they came to know, to love, to respect . . . "

Huntley, A. C., D. P. Costa, G. A. J. Worthy, and M. A. Castellini, eds. Marine Mammal Energetics. Society for Marine Mammalogy special publication no. 1. Lawrence, Kansas: Society for Marine Mammalogy, 1987.

Ilangakoon, Anouk. Whales and Dolphins Of Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka: WHT Publications (Private) Limited. Publisher email: rohan@wht.org, tel.: 699219/686579.

From the publisher: "The first comprehensive guide to the identification of whales, dolphins and porpoises (Order Cetacea) inhabiting the Indian Ocean waters around the island of Sri Lanka. This compact field guide gives a general description of cetaceans including their evolutionary history, unique natural history characteristics and behavioural traits followed by a detailed description of the 26 species identified thus far from Sri Lanka's waters. These descriptions are based on over fifteen years of observation and research undertaken by the author and are accompanied by over 50 full colour photographs and technically precise paintings that illustrate the unique features of each species. This guide is meant not only for the serious researcher, but also for the layman who is interested in these unique denizens of the waters around Sri Lanka."

Ingles, Lloyd G. Mammals of the Pacific States: California, Oregon, and Washington. Chapter 10, " Order Cetacea." Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1947, 1954, 1965, pp. 310-333.

International Forum for the Future of the Beluga. Pour l'avenir du beluga: Compte rendu du Forum international pour l'avenir du beluga/For the Future of the Beluga: Proceedings of the International Forum for the Future of the Beluga. Sillery, Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec, 1990. In French and English.

International Whaling Commission. Whales. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1978.

Notebook format, pictorial work.

___________. Sperm Whales. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 2. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1980, 1998.

"In the late 1970s, the management of sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific was a major scientific issue. This volume documents the approach adopted by the Scientific Committee at that time. The 41 authored papers cover a variety of subjects including: stock [sic] identity; pregnancy and mortality rates; population models; whaling statistics and strategies."

___________. Sei and Bryde's Whales. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 1. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1977.

"This volume is concerned with two morphologically similar balaenopterid species, the sei (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's (B. edeni). The 20 papers consider a number of topics ranging from biological parameters to stock [sic] identity and feeding studies. It contains the first paper to identify inshore and offshore forms of a balaenopterid species."

Internet Guide to International Fisheries [and Marine Mammal] Law.

Chris Hedley (chris@oceanlaw.net): This site "deals comprehensively with all aspects of marine living resource conservation and management. It contains information and documents on marine mammal organizations and agreements and contains a large collection of links. Recent additions to the site also include a discussion list for law and policy aspects of marine living resource conservation and management and a monthly news bulletin (the latter requires a subscription fee) . . ."

The main sections are:

Compendium of Legal Texts: a collection of more than 140 international agreements and instruments

Compendium of Fisheries Cases: a collection of the main international fisheries cases, and links

International Organizations: information and contacts for the main fisheries and marine mammal organizations

Int-Fish Bulletin: news e-zine containing articles and news summaries on fisheries, whaling, sealing and related subjects

Internet Pathfinder: a collection of around 4,000 links to relevant information

Review: a review database of around 200 relevant books

Glossary: a glossary of relevant terms

Lists: a discussion list and an update/announcement list

Investigative Network, with Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society and Swiss Coalition for the Protection of Whales. The Gray Zone: Industrial Threats to Gray Whales in Baja, Mexico.

Explores how recklessly expanding industry in Baja California--in particular the salt, oil, and gas industries--threatens the gray whale's survival.

Isaacs, Ross. Encounters with Whales: A Journey Among Southern Humpback Whales. Australia: Robert Brown and Associates, 1994.

Recounts the author's personal journey among the southern population of humpback whales. Filled with spectacular photographs of whales and their underwater world.

Ivanova, Elizaveta Ivanovna. Morfologiia krovenosnoi sistemy chemomorsko; afaliny. Moskva: Izd-vo "Nauka," 1984.

Iwago, Mitsuaki. Mitsuaki Iwago's Whales. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1994.

A spectacular tribute to the humpback whale. Photographs taken in the waters off southeastern Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, and the Bonin Islands. Includes informative captions and an essay on the author's experiences while photographing the whales.

Jacobs, Lou, Jr. Wonders of an Oceanarium: The Story of Marine Life in Captivity. A Marineland of the Pacific Souvenir Book. San Carlos, California: Golden Gate Junior Books, 1965.

A sad, but revealing, paragraph you would never see in any oceanarium publication today: "Scientists are not sure how long a marine animal can adjust to being away from the open ocean, but they know a tank may begin to seem like a prison after several years. Marineland's large male whale was perfectly at home in the tank for four years, and then it slowly stopped eating and performing. None of the regular medicines seemed to help, so the curator decided the whale must be simply depressed. He bought a large supply of a new drug, the same kind doctors give to people with mental breakdowns. In a few days the whale ate again but it would not do its tricks. For more than a year the 19-foot whale was sluggish and languid, but people still could enjoy looking at it through the windows of the tank. Life in captivity seemed to have affected the whale's mind, but the drug saved its life . . ."

Jaffe, David. The Stormy Petrel and the Whale: Some Origins of Moby Dick.

Jahoda, J. C., and D. N. Wiley. "An Educational Program for Reducing Whale Harassment by Recreational Boaters." In Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals.

James, Joseph. International Management of Tuna, Porpoise, and Billfish: Biological, Legal, and Political Aspects. University of Washington Press, 1980.

Jamieson, Bernie, ed. Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Cetacea. Forthcoming.

Jardine, [first name unknown]. The Natural History of the Ordinary Cetacea or Whales. London: W. H. Lizars, 1837.

Jasny, Michael. Sounding the Depths: Supertankers, Sonar, and the Rise of Undersea Noise. Washington, D.C.: Natural Resources Defense Council, March 1999.

Contents: The Proliferation of Undersea Noise, The Laws of Noise, Floodlights and Hotspots, Findings and Recommendations, Sidebars: Defining the Problem, by Dr. Sylvia Earle, Masking the Great Whales, by Dr. Lindy Weilgart, Calling Long Distance, by Dr. Roger Payne, The LFA Scientific Research Program, by Dr. Peter Tyack, The ATOC Scientific Research Program, by Drs. Dan Costa & John Calambokidis, Tables: A Preliminary List of Acoustic Hotspots, U.S. Naval Exercises Using Low-Frequency Active Sonar

Jauniaux, T., J.-M. Bouquegneau, and F. Coignoul. Marine Mammals, Seabirds, and Pollution of Marine Systems. E-mail: patho@stat.fmv.ulg.ac.be.

Contents: Geohydrodynamic Variability; Biological Oceanography and Marine Food Webs: Role of Marine Mammals and Seabirds; Systematics and Ecology of Seabirds and Marine Mammals; Coastal Eutrophication of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: Assessment and Modelling; Problematic and Methodological Approach of the Study of the Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Delphinids; Ecotoxicology of Stable Pollutants - Organochlorines and Heavy Metals - in Seabirds and Marine Mammals; Oil Pollution and Seabirds; Parasitology of Marine Mammals; Parasitology of Marine Birds; Basic Concepts of Veterinary Pathology; Pathology of Marine Mammals; Marine Bird Necropsy Findings; Virus Infections in Feral Birds, a General Review; Rehabilitation of Seabirds: Improved Protocols in the Light of Continual Review and Practice

Jefferson, Thomas A., Stephen Leatherwood, and Marc A. Webber. Marine Mammals of the World. FAO Species Identification Guide. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 1993. Available in print and on CD-ROM (click on "CD-ROM Catalogues").


This is a worldwide guide for the identification of marine mammals and those cetaceans, seals, and sirenians also found in freshwater. The 119 species include a variety of taxa: baleen whales, toothed whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, sea lions, sirenians, marine otters, and the polar bear. There is an introduction with notes on marine mammal distribution in regard to oceanography and marine mammal identification, a glossary of technical terms, illustrated keys to species, illustrated family keys for skulls, species sheets, and a table of species by major marine fishing areas. Every species sheet includes scientific and official FAO names, diagnostic features, notes on similar species, size, distribution, biology, habitat, behaviour, exploitation, and IUCN (World Conservation Union, formerly International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) status. The work is . . . indexed [by scientific and vernacular names] and includes a list of references and sources for further reading.

Jeune, Paul. The Whale Who Wouldn't Die: The True Story of "Miracle". Chicago: Follett Publishing Company, 1979.

From Erich Hoyt's annotated bibliography in his book Orca: The Whale Called Killer: "Journalist's account of the rescue of the bullet-wounded baby orca Miracle as well as his theories about how it was separated from its pod."

Jeunesse: Dauphins et Baleines Livre anime. Paris: Albin Michel, 1991. Originally published as Whales and Dolphins in Action, Intervisual Books, Inc, Santa Monica, California, 1991.

Johnson, C. Scott. How to Train Goldfish Using Dolphin Training Techniques. Vantage Press, 1995.

Johnson, Frederick Neil, and Susan Johnson. The Dolphin Story: An Introduction to the Biology of Dolphins. Carnforth: Castlerigg Publications, 1976.

Johnson, Jessica, and Michel Odent. We Are All Water-Babies. London: Dragon's World, 1994; Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press, 1995.

About the relationship of humans with water, its special role during pregnancy, and the dolphin connection; absolutely stunning photographs--Trisha.

Johnson, Tora. Entanglements: The Intertwined Fates of Whales and Fishermen. University Press of Florida, 2005.

From the publisher: "Entanglements explores the clash of cultures and personalities among fishermen, scientists, and whale advocates struggling to save both the endangered North Atlantic right whale and the livelihoods of thousands of Atlantic coastal families. By most counts, just over 300 of these whales remain in the North Atlantic, and scientists warn that collisions with fishing gear are contributing to their decline. Without pointing fingers or laying blame, Tora Johnson explores every side of the issue. She takes us to sea with fishermen who struggle to stay in business, setting traps and gillnets in the whale's habitat, and with members of the rescue teams who attempt to cut away deadly rope and net from whales in the wild. Weaving their stories and her personal observations into a discussion of the science and history of the conflict, she offers an admirable balance of perceptions, backgrounds, and agendas. Her thoughtful discussion of the plight of fishermen and whales and of the frustrations between fishing communities and conservationists presents an authentic microcosm of the global conflict between human demands on the environment and nature's finite capacity for supporting those demands.

Jones, Anna. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. London: Mammal Society, 1991.

Jones, Charles. When the Whale Came. Bisbee, Arizona: The Studio Press.

Jones, David. Whales. Portland, Oregon: Whitecap Books, 1998. Available from the publisher, P.O. Box 10306, Portland, Oregon 98296-0306, (800) 452-3032, fax: (800) 355-9685, e-mail: sales@gacpc.com.

From the publisher: ". . . With captivating text and spectacular color photographs, Whales celebrates the struggles [with whaling, pollution, and increasing marine traffic] and survival of these ocean giants. From the orcas of the Pacific to the belugas of the Arctic, author David Jones examines the habits of these creatures and reveals fascinating aquatic facts . . . "

Jones, Hardy. The Dolphin Diaries: A Story of Interspecies Friendship. Forthcoming.

". . . the story of fifteen years of contact between a group of humans and a school of free-swimming spotted dolphins in a remote area of the Bahamas. The story includes related contacts in the Galapagos with the dolphins' larger cousins, the sperm whales. It also depicts how the work in the Bahamas was effective in the struggle to save dolphins from slaughter in Japan and in the nets of tuna fishermen. A continuing theme in the book will be hitherto unreported examples of animal intelligence and curiosity and illustrations of the remarkable relationships that are possible between humans and animals when they meet as equals. The book will include an expose of how marine parks capture their dolphins and examine the ethics of capturing dolphins in the wild and keeping them in captivity for commercial display purposes."

Jones, Mary Lou, Steven L. Schwartz, and Stephen Leatherwood, eds. The Gray Whale: Eschrichtius robustus. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, 1984. (800) 321-5068. Also available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Contents: The Fossil Record and Phyletic Relationships of Gray Whales; Atlantic Gray Whales; History of Gray Whales in Japan; Aboriginal Whaling from the Aleutian Islands to Washington State; Gray Whales and the Aborigines of the Pacific Northwest: The History of Aboriginal Whaling; Shore Whaling for Gray Whales along the Coast of the Californias; Nineteenth Century Gray Whaling: Grounds, Catches and Kills, Practices and Depletion of the Whale Population; Modern Commercial Pelagic Whaling for Gray Whales; Assessing Gray Whale Abundance: A Review; Census of Gray Whales at Unimak Pass, Alaska, November-December 1977-1979; Distribution and Migration of Gray Whales in Alaska; Gray Whales off Vancouver Island, British Columbia; Gray Whale Migrations along the Oregon Coast, 1978-1981; Demography and Phenology of Gray Whales and Evaluation of Whale-Watching Activities in Laguna San Ignacio, Baja California, Mexico; Reoccupation of Laguna Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico, by Gray Whales; Migration Corridors of Gray Whales along the Central California Coast, 1980-1982; Soviet Studies of the Distribution and Numbers of the Gray Whale in the Bering and Chukchi seas from 1968-1982; A Review of Gray Whale Feeding Ecology; Foraging of the Gray Whale along the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia; A Review of Russian Research on the Biology and Commercial Whaling of the Gray Whale; Investigations of Gray Whales Taken in the Chukchi Coastal Waters, U.S.S.R.; Sound Production by the Gray Whale and Ambient Noise Levels in Laguna San Ignacio, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Gray Whales in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas: Distribution and Sound Production; Dive Characteristics and Movements of Radio-tagged Gray Whales in San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Ocean Movements of Radio-tagged Gray Whales

Jones, Michael P. Whales. Sealife Series. Rhododendron, Oregon: Crumb Elbow Publishing, 1984.

Jones, Tristan. Saga of a Wayward Sailor. Sheridan House, 1995.

". . . chronicles the author's adventures aboard a wooden lifeboat converted into a cruising sailboat . . . [including] being sunk by whales."

Jonsgard, Age. Biology of the North Atlantic Fin Whale Balaenoptera physalus L.: Taxonomy, Distribution, Migration and Food. Hvalradets skrifter no. 49. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1966.

Jonsson, Orn D., ed. Whales and Ethics. Reykjavik, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 1992.

Judd, Mark, C. Kemper, J. K. Ling, and J. Olman. A Guide to Whales and Whale Watching in South Australia. South Australian Museum, 1993.

Kastelein, R. A., J. A. Thomas, and P. E. Nachtigall, eds. Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals. Woerden, The Netherlands: DeSpil Publishers, 1995. (DeSpil Publishers, P.O. Box 23, NL-3440 AA Woerden, The Netherlands.)

Much of this volume is dedicated to acoustics and contains 38 papers from a symposium held in Harderwijk, The Netherlands, in 1994.

Subjects include: hearing, echolocation, communication, influence of human-made noise, sensory anatomy, cognition, and bycatch reduction.

Kasuya, Toshio,and Yasuharu Izumizawa. The Fishery-Dolphin Conflict in the Iki Island Area of Japan. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Marine Mammal Commission, 1981.

Katona, Steven K. Field Guide: Whales and Seals. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Macmillan Library Reference, 1983.

Katona, Steven, David Richardson, and Robin Hazard. A Field Guide to the Whales and Seals of the Gulf of Maine. Rockland, Maine: Steven Katona and David Richardson, 1975.

Contents include: Introduction; Summary of Occurrence of Whales of the Gulf of Maine; Species Accounts, Baleen Whales (Finback, Minke, Humpback, Right, Sei, and Blue Whales); Species Accounts, Toothed Whales (Harbor Porpoise, Pothead, White-Sided Dolphin, White-Beaked Dolphin, Saddleback Dolphin, Killer Whale, Bottlenose Dolphin, Gray Grampus, Striped Dolphin, Beluga, Sperm Whale, Pygmy Sperm Whale, Northern Bottlenose Whale, True's Beaked Whale, Dense-Beaked Whale); Key or the Identification of Stranded Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises in the Gulf of Maine; Sample Whale Sighting Report Form; Derivations of Species Names for Whales and Seals in the Gulf of Maine; Further Reading

Katona, Steven K., Valerie Rough, and David T. Richardson. A Field Guide to the Whales, Porpoises, and Seals of the Gulf of Maine and Eastern Canada: Cape Cod to Newfoundland. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983. Renamed A Field Guide to Whales, Porpoises, Seals From Cape Cod to Newfoundland, 4th rev. ed., Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1993.

Presents maps and revised species accounts of 22 whales and porpoises and 7 species of seals, along with sea turtles, basking shark, and ocean sunfish, characteristic markings, feeding habits, behavior and reproductive cycle, a regional listing of whale watching tours, guidelines for photographing the mammals, and more.

Katz, Jane. Swimming through Your Pregnancy: The Perfect Exercise for Pregnant Women. Wellingborough: Thorsons, 1983, 1985.

Trisha: I've not seen this book, but it comes up in a library catalogue search on the term "dolphin."

Kaufman, Gregory D., and Paul H. Forestell. Hawaii's Humpback Whales: A Complete Whalewatchers Guide. Kihei, Hawaii: Pacific Whale Foundation Press, 1986/Aiea, Hawaii: Island Heritage Publishing, 1997.

"An informative and richly illustrated description of the humpback whale and its behavior. This book is unique in providing the opportunity to learn about one species of whale in sufficient degree to recognize the behaviors and displays, and perhaps even to interpret the significance of many of them.

"This . . . volume includes a behavior 'key' describing activities and the contexts in which they occur, detailed information on where and how to watch for whales; regulations governing human activity in the vicinity of whales; what to do in the case of stranding; and a discussion of the future management and conservation of humpback whale populations."

Chapters include: Visitors to Paradise, Cetaceans, External Anatomy, Internal Anatomy, Breathing, Swimming, Diving, Thermoregulation, Sleep, Sensory Systems, Intelligence, Feeding, Enemies and Parasites, Age, Identification, Communication and Song, Status, Behavior Key, Interpreting Behaviors, Migration and Distribution, Social Dynamics, Calving, Mating, Historical Ecology, Conservation, and Looking Ahead. Also includes appendices on Guide to Whales and Dolphins of Hawaii, Whalewatching Tips, Whalewatching Regulations, How You Can Help, and Strandings, as well as a selected bibliography and an index.

Kay, Helen. The Secrets of the Dolphin. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964.

A collection of "anecdotes, history, legends, and scientific facts" about the dolphin.

Kayes, Roger J. The Decline of Porpoises and Dolphins in the Southern North Sea: A Current Status Report. A report prepared for Greenpeace International. Oxford: Political Ecology Research Group, 1985.

Kedar, Karyn D. The Dance of the Dolphin: Finding Prayer, Perspective, and Meaning in the Stories of Our Lives. Jewish Lights Publishing, 2001.

Trisha: Not about dolphins, but utilizes the dolphin metaphor as indicated in a review from Cahner's Business Information: "Kedar (God Whispers) breaks ground in the fertile field of Jewish inspirational literature with this collection of essays that navigate the crossings between the rational and spiritual worlds. Departing from the spate of how-to books on Judaism, Kedar, a rabbi, offers reflective and eloquent perspectives on how to find meaning in the tension between wondering and doing, questioning and acting. As the dolphin arches out of the water and into the air, then submerges again, so Kedar urges readers to dance between life's contradictions . . ."

Kellog, Remington. A Review of the Archaeoceti. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1936.

Kellogg, Winthrop N. Porpoises and Sonar. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press, 1961.

"The ancient Greeks suspected that the porpoise . . . had a keen sense of hearing, and it was well known that it made sounds in water. Winthrop N. Kellogg first realized in 1951 that the true function of these abilities had not been gauged, and it occurred to him that the porpoise might be using its own echo- ranging system to perceive the nature of its environment. This is the story of how he, and other researchers, investigated the elaborate method of 'seeing with ears' used by the porpoise, a method that antedates by millenniums man's electronic sonar achievement."

Chapters include: Whales and Porpoises, The Amazing Dolphin, Sounds Beneath the Sea, Indications of Porpoise Sonar, The Nature of the Signal, The Acoustic Analyzer, Perception of Submerged Targets, Distinguishing Between Objects, The Avoidance of Invisible Barriers, and A Porpoise Obstacle Course. Also includes references and an index.

Kelly, John, Scott Mercer, and Steve Wolf. The Great Whale Book. Washington, D.C.: Center for Environmental Education/Lakewood: Acropolis Books, 1981.

Kendall, Sarita, Fernando Trujillo, and Sandra Beltran. Dolphins of the Amazon and Orinoco. Bogotá, Columbia: Fundación Omacha, 1995.

Kerrod, Robin. Whales and Dolphins. Nature Watch series. New York: Anness Publishing, 1998.

Kershaw, J., and H. Capra. L'école des dauphins. Grenoble: Glénat, 1989.

Kidwell, Al. Main Geographic: Whales and Seals: A Guide to Coastal and Offshore Mammals. Freeport: DeLorme Publishing Company, 1983.

Contents: Scientific Classification Table, Introduction, Finback Whale, Minke Whale, Sei Whale, Blue Whale, Humpback Whale, Right Whale, Sperm Whale, Pygmy Sperm Whale and Beluga Whale, Pilot Whale, Killer Whale, Harbor Porpoise, Gray Grampus and Striped Dolphin, Bottlenose Dolphin and Saddleback (Common) Dolphin, White-sided Dolphin and White-beaked Dolphin, Harbor Seal, Gray Seal, Harp Seal, Hooded Seal, CHARTS: Generalized Whale Types, Spouts, Flukes, Relative Whale Sizes

Killer Whale, the Saga of Miracle. Author and publisher unknown.

"The story of a young orca injured by human hands and, after an immense human effort, restored to health."

Kiem, Thai Van. "The Cult of the Whale." Vietnamese Studies 121 (1996): 145-172.

Kimura, Nobunori. Makko Kujira Kokkaku no Kiroku. Sendai: Zaidan Hojin Saito Hoonkai, Showa 58, 1983. In Japanese.

Kineon, Forsyth. P (kineon@afsc.noaa.gov). Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: A Case Study in the Effect of Political Pressures on Science. M. Marine Affairs Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, 1996.


One of the more controversial issues in the environmental community involves anthropogenic sound in the ocean. Sources of anthropogenic sound include: SONAR (SOund NAvigation and Ranging), vessel traffic, seismic exploration, pile driving, military experiments and civilian experiments involving tools such as acoustic tomography. Sounds produced by these sources are controversial because there are little data to determine impacts upon marine organisms. Regardless of this meager data base, research is hindered by a lack of funding, the general difficulty of studying marine organisms, and the restrictive nature of some United States (U.S.) legislation (e.g. Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act). Some sources of anthropogenic sound are restricted by statute, while others do not appear to require permits. The dearth of data, coupled with the lack of an avenue to obtain further information, and regulatory inequity, exemplify the contradictory policies surrounding man-made sources of sound.

Anthropogenic sound in the marine environment has come into the public arena due to a heightened awareness of marine activities and their effects. In 1990, a feasibility test designed to determine whether sound signals could be detected over great distances was announced. This experiment, referred to as the Heard Island Feasibility Test (HIFT), occurred off a remote island in the Southern Ocean. Some marine mammal experts, as well as Greenpeace, raised objections to this experiment where sound would be projected loudly enough presumably to be heard half way around the world. However, since the experiment was taking place a great distance from the United States and the newspapers did not carry the story until the experiment was in progress, there was little public comment on the Heard Island experiment.

The present focus of attention on anthropogenic sound involves the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) experiment, conceived by the same group of principal investigators involved in the Heard Island study. ATOC is a two-year test aimed at establishing the feasibility of measuring temperature change in the oceans to verify current climate change models. The experiment will operate two sound sources off California and Hawaii. It is essential that the sound produced be loud enough to travel through thousands of kilometers of ocean to meet the experimental design criteria of accounting for local variations in temperature. The present controversy that surrounds the validity of the ATOC experiment, as well as the potential harm to marine fauna, is caused by: the intensity of the sound source, the innovative hypothesis of the project, and the proximity of the California and Hawaii locations to formally designated marine sanctuaries.

Beneath the principle of ATOC lies the relatively newly introduced science of acoustic tomography (AT), in which low-frequency sound waves projected over long distances are used to measure variations in the physical properties of the oceans. ATOC will use AT as a powerful tool for studying global climate change through verifying climate change models. A new set of concerns about the effect of human-generated sound on marine animals has been raised by AT causing the AT experiment ATOC to become contentious, even though such research offers the prospect of better understanding global climate change.

Environmentalists have challenged proposed AT experiments, arguing that they pose a threat to whales and other marine mammals. AT researchers have responded that there is no evidence that AT is harmful, and that there are many other natural and human sources of high-energy, low-frequency sound in the marine environment that have not aroused such concerns.

Government agencies that are responsible for approving permits to conduct AT experiments are hampered by a dearth of data concerning the effects of such sound on marine animals. Moreover, there is a lack of a coherent policy framework for evaluating the environmental impacts of AT research. The current case-by-case approach to permitting AT experiments has produced continual challenges in which the same issues are raised, but left unresolved. A growing public discontent has lead to criticism beginning to spread to all forms of anthropogenic sound in the ocean. The need to create a coherent and equitable policy surrounding anthropogenic ocean sound becomes evident as controversy increases.

Many individuals are concerned about the health of the ocean and want to learn more about how it functions. Subsequently, there are many stakeholders in the ATOC experiment. Physical oceanographers are concerned with how sound travels through the oceans. Behaviorists who study marine mammals, are interested in what type of response or potential physical damage these projections of sound will create. Fishery biologists and fishermen, similarly, are interested in the effects of anthropogenic sound on fish. Climatologists are concerned with the question of global warming and what can be learned from sound regarding this topic. Environmental groups want the ocean and its flora and fauna to be preserved for future generations, and are proponents of responsible management of the resources towards that end. Government agencies want already instituted laws to be adhered to. Finally, there is the Strategic Environmental Research Defense Program (SERDP) that funds ATOC through the Advanced Research Projects Agency. SERDP is a program established by Congress that mandates the Department of Defense to spend money on environmentally relevant issues.

The impetus behind this study is the author's experience compiling the Environmental Assessment for HIFT, and participating as a marine mammal observer on the experiment. The politics, misunderstandings of the science, and controversial scientific hypotheses involved with both HIFT, and later intensified through ATOC, prompted my desire to facilitate a more fundamental understanding and structured set of policies in which to explore the ocean realm by means of sound.

This paper seeks to define the controversy surrounding the ATOC experiment as an example of human-generated sound in the ocean and stake holder interactions. The ATOC study becomes instructive as a case analysis because it provides an example of the effects of public controversy on a scientific experiment. The first chapter provides context by: characterizing human-generated sound in the ocean; reviewing the history of sound research in the marine environment; analyzing research results on the effects of sound on marine animals; providing an overview of the applicable environmental laws, and describing the case study, ATOC. The second chapter discusses ramifications of the controversy that surround the study by characterizing why ATOC is controversial, and addressing the harm this experiment has caused to the individuals involved and society as a whole. Chapter Three examines the causal factors that led to the emerging controversies. Chapter Four consists of a policy analysis focused on decisions made surrounding ATOC. This analysis includes alternative solutions, and through criteria, suggests the best plan to avoid future conflicts.

Conclusions reached through this analysis were derived from current literature, and interviews with many professionals in the marine mammal research realm, environmental organizations, physical oceanographers, acousticians, policy specialists, and academicians. The broader perspective implicit in this thesis will optimistically be considered with necessary future policy surrounding all anthropogenic sound in the ocean. With over fifty years of research and an enhanced effort to understand ocean noise in the past five years, it is time to lay the foundations for such a policy.

Kirkevold, Barbara C., and Joan S. Lockard, eds. Behavioral Biology of Killer Whales. Zoo Biology Monographs, Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley & Sons/Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1986. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Kirschvink, J. L., A. E. Dizon, and J. A. Westphal. "Evidence from Strandings for Geomagnetic Sensitivity in Cetaceans." J. Exp. Biol. (1986) 120:1-24.

Klingel, Marianne. Dolphincare: A Therapeutic Recreation Program for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents. 1991.

Klinowska, Margaret. Marine Mammal Database Review. Available from OCeans and Coastal Areas Programme Activity Centre, United Nations Environment Programme, P. O. Box 30552, Nariobi, Kenya.

From Dolphin Data Base News, Winter 1995/1996: "Provides a review of marine mammal information held in computer databases around the world."

___________. Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland/Cambridge, England: IUCN, 1991.

Klinowska, Margaret, and [first name unknown] Brown. A Review of Dolphinaria. Cambridge, England: Department of the Environment, 1986. (See also Dolphinaria under the author Steering Group on Dolphinaria.)

Knudtson, Peter. Orca: Visions of the Killer Whale. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996.

From the dust jacket: "Quietly cruising through a northern fiord, diving underwater with astonishing grace, or hurtling their bodies skyward in a leaping breach, killer whales have long been admired as one of the most intriguing and mysterious of all animals. This lavishly illustrated portrait of the killer whale, or orca, which inhabits all oceans throughout the world, presents this almost mythical sea mammal in all its mystery and grandeur.

"In his poetic yet scientifically precise text, author Peter Knudtson offers visions of orcas throughout the ages and across cultures, from the Kwakiutl reverence for and identification with killer whales to scientists' fascination with this intelligent, large-grained counterpart to both humans and wolves on land. Knudtson also describes in vivid detail the savvy, cooperative hunting techniques of killer whales as they race in ever tighter circles around a school of herring; the dramatic birth of a calf as it shoots from its mother's body like a torpedo; and the emerging evidence about the whales' exquisitely refined sonar and communication abilities. This compelling portrait concludes with a discussion of the ethics of orca captivity, environmental threats to wild populations, and a reassessment of orca's place in our world.

"Throughout the book, spectacular full-color photographs capture the whales spy hopping, breaching, hunting for seals and salmon, and caring for their young. Photographs of the whales' habitat in various parts of the world are also included. The result is a shimmering vision of the magnificent, majestic orca."

From the foreword by David Suzuki: "This magnificent book reveals the long relationship between humanity and whales, assembling our knowledge about them from many different perspectives. Human beings and nature have been on a dangerous collision course in this century. The fate of orcas will tell us whether our species can learn that we must share the earth with other species, not compete with them."

From a review by William Rossiter in the January 1997 issue of Whales Alive!: ". . . a fascinating and unique portrait of these majestic creatures, glimpsed with the help of the best of Haida myths, eighteenth-century sailors' tales, current scientific facts, and fifty-five outstanding color photographs . . . Knudtson takes us into both the symbolic and real world of the orca, vividly describing their evolutionary origins, complex social structure, and remarkable adaptability to marine ecosystems around the world. He also finds common ground between orcas, wolves, and humans in character, appetite, and activity as he explores the orca-human relationship."

Trisha: An exquisite work.

Contents include: Remembering Orca (early descriptions of killer whales and dolphins, a Kwakiutl vision, a mythical Haida sea monster), Orca Origins (the evolution of whales, the killer whale family tree, races of killer whales), Shaped by the Sea (anatomy of a blowhole, breathing and diving, heat and cold, colours and contours), Orca Society (a matriarchy of whales, courtship and mating, birth of a killer whale calf, seasons of a killer whale's life, cooperative feeding on herring in Norway, hunting blue whales in Mexico, hunting seals in Argentina, killer whale communication), Imagining Orca (the killer whale's brain, killer whale senses, echolocation: pictures of sound), Epilogue: Honoring Orca, References, and Index.

Konig, Karl. Penguins, Seals, Dolphins, Salmon and Eels: Sketches for an Imaginative Zoology. Anthroposophic Press, 1990.

Kos, Erih. The Strange Story of the Great Whale, Also Known as Big Mac. Translated from the Serbo-Croat by Lovett F. Edwards. London: Methuen, 1962. Originally published in Serbo-Croat as Veliki Mak, 1956.

Kraus, S., and S. Katona. Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the North Atlantic--A Catalog of Identified Individuals. Bar Harbor, Maine: College of the Atlantic, 1977.

Kraus, Scott, and Kenneth Mallory. The Search for the Right Whale.

Kreitman, R. C., and M. J. Schramm. West Coast Whalewatching: The Complete Guide to Observing Marine Mammals. New York: HarperCollinsWest, 1995.

Kruetzen, Michael, Janet Mann, Michael R. Heithaus, Richard C. Connor, Lars Bejder & William B. Sherwin. Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins. Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences (USA). PDF reprints are available upon request from michael.kruetzen@aim.unizh.ch. For subscribers to PNAS, it can be downloaded from http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0500232102.

Abstract: In Shark Bay, wild bottlenose dolphins apparently use marine sponges as foraging tools. We demonstrate that genetic and ecological explanations for this behavior are inadequate; thus, "sponging" classifies as the first case of an existing material culture in a marine mammal species. Using mitochondrial DNA analyses, we show that sponging shows an almost exclusive vertical social transmission within a single matriline from mother to female offspring. Moreover, significant genetic relatedness among all adult spongers at the nuclear level indicates very recent coancestry, suggesting that all spongers are descendents of one recent "Sponging Eve." Unlike in apes, tool use in this population is almost exclusively limited to a single matriline that is part of a large albeit open social network of frequently interacting individuals, adding a new dimension to charting cultural phenomena among animals.

Kroeber, Theodora. The Inland Whale: Nine Stories Retold from California Indian Legends. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1959.

See first story, "The Inland Whale", and commentary.

Krone, Chester. The World of the Dolphin. Tower Publications, 1972.

From the back cover: "A thorough discussion of one of the world's most intelligent mammals and its relationship to man."

Every Day a Little Miracle: The Gift of the Dolphins. Smart Publishing, 2002. ___________. Jeden Tag ein kleines Wunder: Das Geschenk der Delphine. Munich: Heyne, 2000. [In German.]

"Seit seinem Unfall in einem stillgelegten Schwimmbecken ist der kleine Junge Tim stark behindert. Weder Äaut;rzte noch Therapien köaut;nnen ihm helfen. Als seine Mutter, die Autorin Kirsten Kuhnert, von den Erfolgen der Delfin-Therapie höaut;rt, reist sie mit ihm nach Florida. Dort bekommt Tim neuen Lebensmut, er beginnt auf seine Umgebung zu reagieren und sogar zu lachen. Ermutigt von diesen Fortschritten grüaut;ndete Tims Mutter den gemeinnützigen Verein 'dolphin aid'. In ihrem Buch erzäaut;hlt sie die Geschichte ihres Sohnes und seiner schwimmenden Freunde, den Delfinen. Ein Bericht, der Hoffnung weckt und Mut macht."

Kyngdon, D. J., E. O. Minot, and K. J. Stafford. "Behavioural Responses of Captive Common Dolphins Delphinus delphis to a 'Swim-with-Dolphin' Programme." Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2003, 71(2):163-170.

Laaman, Laura L., and Lillet Walters. The Dolphin Dynamic: How to Make a Splash in Today's Shark-Infested Business Waters. Franklin Lake, New Jersey: Career Press, 1996.

Synopsis: [Shows] readers how to use dolphin communication techniques and therapy principles to achieve success in business and in life. Not intended to make the reader an expert on dolphins, this book is about the unique characteristics of dolphins that, if adapted by humans, will make them more successful in any environment.

From the dust jacket: "The waters of today's business world are teeming with sharks. These sharks can be small to mega-sized corporate competitors, salespeople fighting for your customers or even rivals from your own organization. But you can outswim, outmaneuver and outperform them using the techniques Laura L. Laaman has garnered from her years as a winning salesperson, manager and business owner and her avid study of dolphin behavior.

"In The Dolphin Dynamic, Laaman reveals the unique characteristics of dolphins that, when adopted by humans, will make anyone more successful in any environment. So what do dolphins do that people should emulate? To name just a few characteristics obviously applicable to business situations, dolphins are master communicators, generate positive feelings, create an elegant image and are top performers. And dolphins are faster, stronger and more intelligent than sharks!

"Their most amazing skill--one most apparent to anyone who has ever been captivated by a dolphin performance--is their ability to connect with those around them, even with those much different than themselves: humans. Laaman describes how you can adopt this ability and win over customers and business associates alike.

"Organized into four sections, this book focuses on the four traits of dolphins that are especially key to human success. Determination, Instinct, Vision and Enthusiasm (DIVE). Laaman offers oceans of advice on how to use these 'Dolphin Dynamics' to overcome obstacles, achieve your goals, motivate others and make a great impression on everyone who does business with you."

Trisha: Dudley Lynch and Paul Kordis's Strategy of the Dolphin: Scoring a Win in a Chaotic World also utilizes the dolphin/shark dynamic. I haven't read Laaman's book yet, so can't comment on it, but I found that Lynch and Kordis's book stretches and exploits the dolphin metaphor to the point of inaccuracy.

Laenen, J. R. Théorie de l'évolution parallèle: Les ancetres des cétacés n'étainet pas des vertébrés terrestres mais des vertébrés marins. Thése en cétologie, 1988.

Laist, D. W. "Overview of the Biological Effects of Lost and Discarded Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment." Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6B) (1987): 319-326.

Lambert, Eric. Dolphin. London: Frederick Muller, 1963.

Lambertsen, R. H. "Disease Biomarkers in Large Whales of the North Atlantic and Other Oceans." In J. McCarthy and L. Shugart, eds., Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers, 1990, pp. 395-417.

Lantis, Margaret. The Alaskan Whale Cult and Its Affinities.

Documents the whaling past and relationship to the whales of the people of the Diomede Islands.

Larson, Douglas M., Sabina L. Shaikh, and David F. Layton. Revealing preferences for leisure time from stated preference data. (Whalewatching). American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 2004, 86(2:307-320.

Lassen, Christian Riese. The Art of Christian Riese Lassen. San Rafael, California: Cedco Publishing Company, 1992.

Lawley, David. A Guide to Whale Watching in the Maritimes. Nimbus Publishing/Chelsea Green Publishing, 1998.

Lawrence, Mike. The Wild Dolphins of Gibraltar. 2d ed. 1994. Mike Lawrence, 16A Torre del Ray, Torre Guadario, Cadiz 11312, Spain, voice: 56-616277 or Gibraltar 71914.

"This booklet is written by a man who has achieved what so many only dream of doing. For the past twenty years, the author has been taking visitors out from Sheppards Marina in Gibraltar to observe the whales and dolphins who use this gateway to the Mediterranean as home and as a port of call. This booklet is not intended as an in-depth treatise but as a joyful evocation by a man who has enabled thousand to experience the magic of cruising in the company of dolphins."

Layne, J. N. Observations on Marine Mammals in Florida Waters. 1965.

Leach, Nicky, and John Gattuso, eds. Whale Watching. Discovery Travel Adventures series. Discovery Channel, 1999.

Leahy, Chris, ed. Whalewatchers Guide to the North Atlantic. Lincoln, Massachusetts: Masschusetts Audubon Society, 1988, 1996.

Features more than sixty species of whale, dolphin, bird, and turtle that might be spotted during a marine cruise.

Lear, R. J. A Study of the Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus in Eastern Australian Waters. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1980.

Leatherwood, Stephen, David K. Caldwell, and Howard E. Winn. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic: A Guide to Their Identification. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circular 396, 1976.

Leatherwood, Stephen, and G. P. Donovan. Cetaceans and Cetacean Research in the Indian Ocean Sanctuary. Marine Mammal Technical Report No. 3. Nairobi, Kenya: Ocean and Coastal Areas Programme Activity Centre of UNEP, 1991.

Leatherwood, Stephen, and Randall R. Reeves, eds. Marine Mammal Research and Conservation in Sri Lanka 1985-86. Marine Mammal Technical Report Number 1, [1991]. Available from United Nations Environment Programme, Oceans and Coastal Areas, Programme Activity Centre, P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya.

___________. The Bottlenose Dolphin: Tursiops truncatus. San Diego, California/London: Academic Press, 1990. (800) 321-5068.


EVOLUTION AND FOSSIL RECORD: The Fossil Record and Evolutionary Relationships of the Genus Tursiops;

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY: Osteology of the Bottlenose Dolphin; Axial Muscles and Connective Tissues of the Bottlenose Dolphin; The Central Nervous System of the Bottlenose Dolphin;

SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY: Comments on Australian Bottlenose Dolphins and the Taxonomic Status of Tursiops aduncus (Ehrenberg, 1832); Distinctions between Northwest Atlantic Offshore and Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins Based on Hemoglobin Profile and Morphometry;

LIFE HISTORY AND BIOLOGY: Preliminary Observations of Bottlenose Dolphins from the Pacific Coast of South America; Bottlenose Dolphin Mortality Patterns in the Indian/Banana River System of Florida; Natural History of Bottlenose Dolphins along the Central Atlantic Coast of the United States;

BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY: Review of the Signature-Whistle Hypothesis for the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin; A Long-Term Study of Bottlenose Dolphins on the West Coast of Florida; Behavior and Ecology of the Bottlenose Dolphin at Sanibel Island, Florida; Residence Patterns, Group Organization, and Surfacing Associations of Bottlenose Dolphins in Kino Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico; Aspects of the Behavioral Ecology of Inshore Dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Sousa chinensis in Moreton Bay, Australia; Food and Feeding of the Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin off Southern Natal, South Africa; Food Habits of Bottlenose Dolphins in the Southeastern United States; Feeding by Bottlenose Dolphins in Association with Trawling Operations in Moreton Bay, Australia; Review of Incidents Involving Wild, Sociable Dolphins, Worldwide; Quantitative Description of a Rare Behavioral Event: A Bottlenose Dolphin's Behavior toward Her Deceased Offspring; Site and Association Fidelity in Bottlenose Dolphins off Argentina;

DISTRIBUTION, MOVEMENTS, AND ABUNDANCE: Bottlenose Dolphins off the Northeastern United States; Distribution and Herd Structure of Bottlenose Dolphins in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean; California Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins; Northward Extension of the Range of Bottlenose Dolphins along the California Coast;

HUSBANDRY AND CAPTIVE BREEDING: Breeding Bottlenose Dolphins in Captivity; Artificial Insemination of Bottlenose Dolphins; Observations on the Early Development of a Captive Bottlenose Dolphin Calf; Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values in Bottlenose Dolphins;

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES: Tagging and Marking Studies on Small Cetaceans; Distribution and Movements of Freeze-Branded Bottlenose Dolphins in the Indian and Banana Rivers, Florida; Comparison of Bottlenose Dolphin Behavior in Texas and Florida, with a Critique of Methods for Studying Dolphin Behavior; Ergometry (Exercise Testing) of the Bottlenose Dolphin; Reading between the Lines: Analysis of Age Estimation in Dolphins; Calibrating Dental Layers in Captive Bottlenose Dolphins from Serial Tetracycline Labels and Tooth Extractions; Use of Chromosome Heteromorphisms and Hemoglobins in Studies of Bottlenose Dolphin Populations and Paternities;

MANAGEMENT: Management-Oriented Research on Bottlenose Dolphins by the Southeast Fisheries Center

Leatherwood, Stephen, and Randall R. Reeves. The Sierra Club Handbook of Whales and Dolphins. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1983.

Trisha: Excellent general guide to all cetacean species. Indexed with a selected bibliography.

Leatherwood, Stephen, Randall R. Reeves, W. F. Perrin, and W. E. Evans. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1988. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circular 444, 1982.

Trisha: Excellent identification guide.

Leatherwood, Stephen, Randall R. Reeves, and R. S. Lal Mohan. A Future for Asian River Dolphins: Report from a Seminar on the Conservation of River Dolphins in the Indian Subcontinent. Bath, Avon, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1993.

Leatherwood, Stephen, Brent S. Stewart, and Pieter A. Folkens. Cetaceans of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. Prepared for National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service. Santa Barbara, California: The Sanctuary, 1987.

Ledwell, Wayne.Whales & Dolphins of Newfoundland and Labrador. Portugal Cove, NL, Canada: Boulder Publications, 2005.

Lee, Gregory. Whale Watching and Tidepools: A Guide to California Marine Life. Frederick, Colorado: Renaissance House, 1992.

Lentfer, Jack W., ed. Selected Marine Mammals of Alaska: Species Accounts with Research and Management Recommendations. Washington, D.C.: Marine Mammal Commission, [1989].

León, Vicki. A Pod of Killer Whales: The Mysterious and Beautiful Life of the Orca. San Luis Obispo, California: Blake Publishing, Inc., 1989.

___________. A Pod of Grey Whales. San Luis Obispo, California: Blake Publishing, Inc.

Leung, Y. "An Illustrated Key to the Species of Whale-Lice (Amphipoda, Cyamidae), Ectoparasites of Cetacea, with a Guide to the Literature." Crustaceana 12 (1967): 279-291.

If there is a more current resource, I would be grateful to receive info about it--Trisha.

Levy, Barbara Ann. Psychoaesthetics and Dolphin Personality. Unpublished master's thesis. Brooklyn, New York: Pratt Institute, 1990. Barbara Ann Levy, 140 Charles Street, Apt. 16E, New York, NY 10014.

The Psychoaesthetics Dolphin Project is discussed and a five-minute video of the project reviewed in volume 9, issue 4 (1992) of Art Therapy. For more information on the video, see the Cetacean Videography.

Abstract from the "Psychoaesthetics Dolphin Project" article in Art Therapy: Four Atlantic bottlenose dolphins' artwork and body and brush movement were the primary focus of this pilot study. [Dolphins were taught to paint on t-shirts by holding a brush in their mouths as a trainer held a t-shirt stretched on a piece of cardboard over the dolphins' heads at an accessible angle.] Research was conducted by the author at the Dolphin Research Center, Marathon Shores, Florida, in June 1989. Psychoaesthetics, child art development theory, and Laban movement analysis were used to consider the dolphins' painting behavior. Personality and individual graphic style of the dolphins were also noted."

Lichter, A., and A. Hooper. Guia Para el Reconocimiento de Cetaceos del Mar Argentino. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Fundaci____ Vida Silvestre, 1986. In Spanish.

Lien, Jon, and Steven Katona. A Guide to the Photographic Identification of Individual Whales Based on Their Natural & Acquired Markings. San Pedro, California: American Cetacean Society, 1990.

Lien, Jon, Leesa Fawcett, and Sue Staniforth. Wet and Fat: Whales and Seals of Newfoundland and Labrador. St. John's, Newfoundland: Breakwater Books, 1985.

Chapters includes an introduction to photo-identification, Photographing Whales, How to Behave Near Whales, How to Photograph Whales for Individual Identification, Where to Submit Your Photos, Information Sources, and Whale Anatomy. Also contains a bibliography and a glossary.

Lien-siang Chou. Guide to Cetaceans of Taiwan. National Museum of Marine Biology/Aquarium, 1994. In Chinese. Forward in English by Stephen Leatherwood. Available from author: Lien-siang Chou, Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C., voice: 886+2-3661331, fax: 886+2-3639902, e-mail: chouls@ccms.ntu.edu.tw.

Stephen Leatherwood: ". . . a well-written and well-illustrated introduction to the whales and dolphins of Taiwan . . . "

Lilly, John C. The Scientist: A Metaphysical Autobiography. New York: Bantam, 1978, 1981. Revised, expanded edition: Ronin Publishers, 1996.

John Lilly's autobiography, which uses fictional forms. Covers his early experimentation with dolphins and includes a chapter entitled "Simulation of the Future of Man, Dolphin, and Whale."

The expanded edition contains "'bubbles' of consensus reality--text and photos--in the hyperspace narrative. It includes an introduction by Timothy Leary, along with biographical and bibliographic information."

It also includes "an update on John Lilly's work with human/dolphin communication and the results of reintroduction of captive dolphins and other cetaceans to the wild."

___________. Communication Between Man and Dolphin: The Possibility of Talking with Other Species. New York: Julian Press, 1978.

Recounts the results of Lilly's research through 1978, describes the programs he was currently undertaking, and predicts potential future relationships between humans and dolphins.

Chapter titles include: The Development of the New Beliefs about Dolphins, The New Beliefs Arise in Experiments, Sciences Necessary to Interspecies Communication with Cetacea, Who are the Cetaceans (Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales)?, Why Are There No Large Brains in Small Bodies?, Communication by Means of Sound: The Twin Cases of Cetaceans and Humans, Nonvocal Communication with the Apes, Sonic Communication with Dolphins through JANUS: Sonipulation, The Evolution of the Scientific Observer and of Society and Its Laws, Current Laws and the Basic Assumptions about Cetacea, The Scientific Observer as a Participant in the Ecology of the Planet Earth, Proposal for New Laws for Cetaceans: Immediate Strategy, The Problem of Oceanaria/Aquariums and the Cetacea: A New Game, Projections into the Future: Nonhuman Participant Observers, Projections into the Future: Commercial Developments, The Rights of Cetaceans under Human Laws, and The Possible Existence of Nonhuman Language.

Also includes appendices on The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, Annotated Bibliography, Abstract of Scientific Research Program Proposal; Scientific Origins of Interspecies Communication (Project JANUS 1977), List of Organizations, List of Know Locations Where Tursiops are Held in Captivity, The Cetacean Brain, and The Dolphins Revisited.

Lilly, J. C. L'Intelligenza dei Delfini. Milano, Italy: SugarCo Edizioni, 1978. [In Italian.]

___________. Lilly on Dolphins: Humans of the Sea. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1975.

Includes Man and Dolphin (shortened version), The Mind of the Dolphin: A Non-Human Intelligence, his lecture on "Modern Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises, as Challenges to Our Intelligence, from The Dolphin in History, other scientific papers, extensive bibliographies, and an index.

___________. The Mind of the Dolphin: A Nonhuman Intelligence. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1967.

"Continues the progress report started six years [prior] in Man and Dolphin. In his earlier book, Dr. Lilly documented a dramatic first: the idea and basic first steps of epochal scientific experiments to find ways to communicate with another species. In [The Mind of the Dolphihn], he details the discoveries about the dolphin's abilities, current ideas about his intellect, and the paradoxes of inter-species communication, developed since 1961.

"That the bottlenose dolphin (or Tursiops truncatus) has a brain larger than [the human's], that it has a sophisticated form of vocal communication, that it, to a certain extent, 'understands' [humans] has become generally known. What has been virtually unexplored is the astonishing intricacy and nonhuman nature of the dolphin's intelligence and yet the profound relevance of that intelligence to man's place in Nature."

Chapters include: Mental Health and Communication, The Importance of Interspecies Communication, Differences between the Communication of Man and of Dolphin, Communication Is between Minds, The Mind of the Dolphin, New Findings: Double Phonation and Stereophonation, Consideration of the Spiritual Side, The Medical Problems of Dolphins and Man, Vocal Mimicry: A Key to and First Stage of Communication, Living with a Dolphin: Learning the Way, Living with A Dolphin: Seven Days and Nights with Pam, Program for a 2-1/2 Months' Preliminary Experiment: Living with Peter Dolphin in a Special Facility, Observations and Thoughts on Four Weeks' Experiences, Who Teaches Whom What: Mutual Trust, Vocal Exchanges between Margaret and Peter, and Conclusions about Living with a Dolphin. Also contains a general and a selected bibliography.

For a (positive) Russian commentary on this book, see A. V. Yablokov, "O knige Dzh. Lilli 'Mir del'fina'." Priroda, no. 5, pp. 61-62.

___________. Man and Dolphin. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1961/ London: Victor Gollancz, 1962.

In this work "Dr. Lilly [documents] a dramatic first: the idea and basic first steps of epochal scientific experiments to find ways to communicate with another species."

It is this work upon which the novel The Day of the Dolphinis based and in which Lilly made his famous prediction that: "Within the next decade or two the human species will establish communication with another species: nonhuman, alien, possibly extraterrestrial, more probably marine. And we may encounter ideas, philosophies, ways and means not previously conceived in the minds of men."

Chapters include: The Possibilities of Interspecies Communication, My Experiences with a Whale, My First Experiments with Dolphins, New Research Methods, Early Results, Avoiding Biased Assumptions, How Dolphins Are Trained, My Laboratory at St. Thomas, Lizzie and Baby, Elvar and Tolva, The Voices of the Dolphin, and Implications. Also includes appendices on Anatomical Contrasts: Anatomy and Physiology of Tursiops truncatus; Intellect, Intelligence, Language, and the Brain; Origins of Dolphins and Men; and a bibliography.

Lilly, John C., and Francis Jeffrey. John Lilly, so far. . . Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1990. For additional writings by John Lilly and Francis Jeffrey, write to: The Human Dolphin Foundation, P.O. Box 6847, Malibu, California 90264.

Lindquist, Ole. The North Atlantic Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus): An Historical Outline based on Icelandic, Danish-Icelandic, English and Swedish Sources dating from ca. 1000 A.D. to 1792. Centre for Environmental History and Policy, Occasional Paper 1. St. Andrews: Universities of St. Andrews and Stirling, 2000.

Ling, J. K., and M. M. Bryden, eds. Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes. Adelaide, Australia: South Australian Museum, [1986].

Liouville, J. Cetacés de l'Antarctique (Baleinopteres, Ziphiides, Delphinides). Paris, 1913.

Lipari, Paul. Dolphins. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 1997.

Trisha: Small-size (3x4 inches), brief introduction to dolphin facts and myths, with a chapter on Pelorus Jack. Many photographs.

Lockhart, Ryan. Ecco The Dolphin: Versus Books Official Perfect Guide Versus Books, 2000.

From the description at Amazon.com: "Ecco The Dolphin features dozens of levels, huge worlds, and awesome gameplay. The Versus Books Official Perfect Guide helps players complete every area of the game using swimming techniques, sonar, and exploration. The guide will offer insanely detailed full-color maps, secrets, strategies, boss tactics, a complete walkthrough, and everything about the world of Ecco. Every gameplay secret is revealed along with full appendices covering all characters and events. Incredible secret tricks and codes are also revealed but absolutely no story spoilers! "

Lockley, Ronald M. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1979.

"With his well-known blend of natural history expertise and personal experience, [the author] tells how the whales and dolphins . . . once lived on land and then returned to the sea, equipped with sophisticated means of survival in deep water, such as sonar and hydrophonics, which we are only just beginning to understand and imitate.

"For centuries, we have overexploited these creatures, and the need for world-scale conservation is urgent. This . . . thought-provoking book . . . explains what has been achieved and what must still be done if we are not to lose forever these fellow creatures from whom we can learn so much."

Chapters include: Folklore and Fact, Living in the Sea: Evolution and Anatomy, Sonar: Sound Navigation and Ranging, The Whale's Way: The Ecosystem, The Whale-Hunters, Modern Whaling, The Great Whales, The Little Whales: Dolphins and Porpoises, Saving the Whales. Also includes a checklist of living cetaceans in the world and a brief index.

Lodi, Liliane, and Bia Hetzel. Golfinhos-Rotadores do Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha (Spinner-Dolphins of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago). Fundacao O Boticario de Protecao a Natureza, 1994. In Portuguese. Available from Cetacean Society International, P.O. Box 953, Georgetown, Connecticut 06829, USA, (203) 544-8617, e-mail: 71322.1637@compuserve.com.

Booklet about the spinner dolphins of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago.

Loughlin, Thomas R., ed. Marine Mammals and the Exxon Valdez. London/ San Diego: Academic Press, 1994. (800) 321-5068.

From the publisher: "The oil spill disaster that occurred when the Exxon Valdez ran aground has become part of the iconography of ecological disaster. This book synthesizes confidential data only recently released by the U.S. government concerning the effects of this nightmarish spill on marine mammals (i.e. sea otters, harbor seals, killer whales, and humpback whales). Many of the contributors were on site within twenty-four hours of this 11-million-gallon catastrophe. Their results establish a baseline worst case scenario. This certain-to-be-influential data should assist marine biologists, pathologists, toxicologists, environmentalists, engineers, and coastal planners in assessing the nature of this now legendary disaster."

Contents include: Overview of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill; Response Activities; An Overview of Sea Otter Studies in Prince William Sound; Population Surveys of Sea Otters in Prince William Sound; An Intersection Model for Estimating Sea Otter Mortality along the Kenai Peninsula; Impacts on Distribution, Abundance, and Productivity of Harbor Seals; Impacts on Stellar Sea Lions; Status of Killer Whales in Prince William Sound, 1985-1992; Assessment of Injuries to Prince William Sound Killer Whales; Impacts on Humpback Whales in Prince William Sound; Sea Otter Foraging Behavior and Hydrocarbon Levels in Prey; Observations of Oiling of Harbor Seals in Prince William Sound; Health Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Release of Oiled Harbor Seal Pups; Effects of Masking Noise on Detection Thresholds of Killer Whales; Cetaceans in Oil; Pathology of Sea Otters; Gross Necropsy and Histopathological Lesions Found in Harbor Seals; Hydrocarbon Residues in Sea Otter Tissues; Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Harbor Seals in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska; Tissue Hydrocarbon Levels and the Number of Cetaceans Found Dead after the Spill; Conclusions; Appendixes; Index

Lusseau, D. Male and female bottlenose dolphins Tursiops spp. have different strategies to avoid interactions with tour boats in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Aug 2003, 257:267-274.

Abstract: [The author] assessed the short-term reactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiopsspp.) to interactions with tour boats and their long-term implications. Vertical avoidance of boats, showed by an increase in time spent underwater, is a typical response in cetaceans, and has been likened to predator avoidance strategies. This study looked at the variation in diving pattern of bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand in relation to boat interactions. An observing vessel was used to collect the data. A regressive approach showed that the research vessel did not have a significant effect on the diving pattern of the dolphins. The analysis would have allowed the detection of a small difference (6.35sec.) in dive interval (PV= 0.05) with a high certainty (power = 0.86). Dolphins avoided tour boats vertically by increasing their mean diving interval. Dolphins started to react before boats were in visual contact. An information theoretic approach indicated that the behaviour of the boat was the predominant factor affecting the diving interval. Males and females responded differently to interactions with boats. Males started to avoid boats as soon as they were present, while females switched to a vertical avoidance strategy only when interactions became intrusive. This difference in avoidance strategy may be related to the different metabolic regime of the sexes. Males would be more likely to match the cost of vertical avoidance of boats because of their greater energy stores. Females vertically avoid boats, an energetically expensive exercise for them, only when the risk incurred by interacting with boats is high.

Lowell, R. The Dolphin. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 1973.

Lowenstein, T. Ancient Land, Sacred Whale: The Inuit Hunt and Its Rituals. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1993.

From the dust jacket: "For the Tikigaq people of Point Hope, Alaska--the oldest continuously settled Native American site on the continent--the annual cycle of myth and magic that culminated in the spring [bowhead] whale hunt shaped every aspect of life for over 1,500 years . . . Ancient Land, Sacred Whale . . . gives an account of Tikigaq lives and culture, formed in part by a long sequence of poems detailing the ritual year and its stories, narrated by the Tikigaq storytellers who were the author's teachers . . ."

Contents: The Stories; The Whale; The Whale Hunt: A Sketch; The Land Whale Story; Sun and Moon Story; Tikigaq: Whale; The Name; The Land Grows and Dies; Iglus, Qalgis and Cyclic Change; Time and Stories: Playing Out Myth; Myth Roles; The Land Whale; The Ritual Year

Lusseau, D. The residency pattern of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) in Milford Sound, New Zealand, is related to boat traffic. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2005, 295:265-272. PDF reprints are available upon request from the author, d.lusseau@abdn.ac.uk, and from the journal's website: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v295/index.html.

Abstract: A population of bottlenose dolphins inhabits seven of the fourteen fjords that compose Fiordland, New Zealand. One of these fjords, Milford Sound, supports a large tourism industry that results in intense boat traffic. Bottlenose dolphins regularly visited Milford Sound and tour boats interacted with them during these visits. I studied the factors affecting the frequency of visits to Milford Sound by relating the residency pattern of dolphins in this fjord to oceanographic parameters and variations in boat traffic between December 1999 and February 2002. Boat traffic was the only variable that could explain the frequency of dolphin visits to Milford Sound. Dolphins spent less time in Milford Sound during seasons of intense boat traffic. Moreover, when dolphins visited this fjord they spent more time at the entrance of the fjord when boat traffic was intense, out of the reach of tour boats. It seems that dolphins avoid Milford Sound when traffic is heavy. This avoidance could have long-term implications for the demography of the population.

___________, and J. E. S. Higham. Managing the impacts of dolphin-based tourism through the definition of critical habitats: The case of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Tourism Management, 2004, www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02615177. Author email: d.lusseau@abdn.ac.uk

Abstract: Marine ecotourism in New Zealand presents a challenging tourism-environment management context. This is demonstrated in the case of Doubtful Sound (New Zealand) where the recent proliferation of tour operators has brought pressures to bear upon a population of bottlenose dolphins resident in the sound. Strict methodologies are necessary to objectively interpret responses to tourism-induced anthropogenic impacts upon cetaceans. Previous research in this field has established that boat interactions with dolphins in Doubtful Sound affect the behavioural budget of the dolphin population, and that dolphins are more sensitive to interactions with boats when they are resting and to a lesser extent when they are socialising. This article reports on a programme of research that employed observational data to explore the applicability of tourism management techniques grounded in spatial ecology. The data provided scientific evidence that determining critical habitat through spatio-ecological analysis is a powerful tool to protect marine mammals in New Zealand, and elsewhere, from biologically significant tourism-induced impacts. The delineation of multi-levelled marine sanctuaries may, therefore, be an effective approach to managing the impacts of tourism upon marine mammals.

Lydekker, Richard. Library of Natural History, Vol. III. New York: Saalfield Publishing, 1904. See section on cetaceans.

"A thorough summation of pre-20th century knowledge of the animal kingdom, strikingly illustrated with chromolithographic plates and text engravings."

___________. Guide to the Whales, Porpoises, and Dolphins--Order Cetacea. 2d ed. Revised by Sir Sidney Harmer. London, 1922.

Lynch, Dudley, and Paul Kordis. Your Dolphin High-Performance Business Brain--An Operator's Manual: 21st Century Thinking Skills for Ambitious People under Challenge or under Fire. Plano, Texas: Brain Technologies, 1993.

___________. DolphinThink: The Workbook: Mastering the Skills You need to Get Tough, Get Free, Get Focused & Get Going As a New Kind of Winner. Plano, Texas: Brain Technologies, 1989.

___________. Strategy of the Dolphin: Scoring a Win in a Chaotic World. New York: Fawcett-Columbine, 1988. Also published as Strategy of the Dolphin: Winning Elegantly by Coping Powerfully in a World of Turbulent Change, Arrow, 1990.

Trisha: On business strategy. IMO, this book stretches and exploits the dolphin metaphor to the point of inaccuracy.

See also Laura Laaman's The Dolphin Dynamic: Make a Splash in Today's Shark-Infested Business Waters.

Macaskie, Ian, ed. The Canadian Marine Mammal Journal and Directory, Vol. 3, 1997/98. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: West Coast Whale Research Foundation. E-mail: kate_ottnad@bc.sympatico.ca, snail-mail: West Coast Whale Research Foundation, 1348 Barclay St., Vancouver, BC V6E 1H7, Canada.

Contains a feature article about Canada and the International Whaling Commission, plus 15 briefs on some of the marine mammal research occurring in Canada, including research on belugas, right whales, bowhead whales, killer whales, sea otters, Steller sea lions, and other species. The directory section consists of addresses and research interest information for 112 Canadian researchers and educators, as well as location and trip information for 74 marine mammal watching companies in Canada.

Macdonald, D., ed. Sea Mammals. New York: Torstar Books, 1984.

MacDonald, Lachlan P. The Guide to Whale Watching: The Grey Whale. Arroyo Grande, California: Helm Publishing, 1990/Padre Productions, 2001.

Mache, Francois-Bernard. Music, Myth, and Nature, or the Dolphins of Arion (Contemporary Music Studies, Vol. 6). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Harwood Academic Publishing, 1992. (See also Arion & the Dolphin, a libretto by Vikram Seth in the Cetaceans in Science Fiction/Other Fiction.)

From a review by Jim Nollman in his publication The Interspecies Newsletter, Spring 2000: "During a recent trip to Europe, I spent time with ethnomusicologist, Dario Martinelli, an authority in the growing discipline of animal aesthetics. He recommended this essay written by the well-known French composer. Dario regards it as the best intellectual overview of interspecies communication.

"Myth and music are represented here as the best tools we have to express a deep longing to connect to nature. Mache's explication of several ancient myths--especially the dolphins who save humans from drowning--draws the intriguing conclusion that the historical evolution of musical thought is codependent on the human understanding of natural phenomena. It seems another way of saying that the environmental crisis is a crisis in human perception. Likewise, to grant myth a genuine power to guide our lives and our actions teaches us that nature and culture need not opposed on another.

"The book is sometimes clumsy in its language, which makes me wish for a better translation."

Magnolia, L. R. Whales, Whaling and Whale Research: A Selected Bibliography. Long Island, New York: The Whaling Museum, 1977. Publication number WM-1.

Presents 1,000 English-language references on cetacea, whaling techniques, research on cetaceans, and substitutes for whale-derived products. The majority of the references were published between 1946 and March, 1976. Included are other bibliographies and works that contain bibliographies.

Malcolm, Chris. Working title: The Evolution of Cetaceans in the Human Psyche. Project commenced in October 2001. Author email: cmalcolm@office.geog.uvic.ca.

Mallory, Kenneth, and Andrea Conley. Rescue of the Stranded Whales. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Manning, Janet, R. C. Connor, Peter L. Tyack, and Hal Whitehead, eds. Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

From the publisher's Web site: "Long-lived, slow to reproduce, and often hidden beneath the water's surface, whales and dolphins (cetaceans) have remained elusive subjects for scientific study even though they have fascinated humans for centuries. Until recently, much of what we knew about cetaceans came from commercial sources such as whalers and trainers for dolphin acts. Innovative research methods and persistent efforts, however, have begun to penetrate the depths to reveal tantalizing glimpses of the lives of these mammals in their natural habitats.

"Cetacean Societies presents the first comprehensive synthesis and review of these new studies. Groups of chapters focus on the history of cetacean behavioral research and methodology; state-of-the-art reviews of information on four of the most-studied species: bottlenose dolphins, killer whales, sperm whales, and humpback whales; and summaries of major topics, including group living, male and female reproductive strategies, communication, and conservation drawn from comparative research on a wide range of species.

"Written by some of the world's leading cetacean scientists, this landmark volume will benefit not just students of cetology but also researchers in other areas of behavioral and conservation ecology as well as anyone with a serious interest in the world of whales and dolphins."

Contributors: Robin Baird, Phillip Clapham, Jenny Christal, Richard Connor, Janet Mann, Andrew Read, Randall Reeves, Amy Samuels, Peter Tyack, Linda Weilgart, Hal Whitehead, Randall S. Wells, and Richard Wrangham.

Contents: Foreword (R. Wrangham); Introduction: The social lives of whales and dolphins (R. C. Connor, J. Mann, P. L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead); Part 1: History and Methods; Flukeprints: A history of studying cetacean societies (A. Samuels and P. L. Tyack); Unraveling the dynamics of social life: Long-term studies and observational methods (J. Mann); Studying cetacean social structure in space and time: Innovative techniques (H. Whitehead, J. Christal, and P. L. Tyack); Part 2: Four Species; The bottlenose dolphin: Social relationships in a fission-fusion society (R. C. Connor, R. S. Wells, J. Mann, and A. J. Read); The killer whale: Foraging specializations and group hunting (R. W. Baird); The sperm whale: Social females and roving males (H. Whitehead and L. Weilgart); The humpback whale: seasonal feeding and breeding in a baleen whale (P. J. Clapham); Part 3. Comparative Studies, Theory, and Conservation; Group living in whales and dolphins (R. C. Connor); Female reproductive strategies of cetaceans: Life history and calf care (H. Whitehead and J. Mann); Male reproductive strategies and social bonds (R. C. Connor, A. J. Read, and R. Wrangham); Functional aspects of cetacean communication (P. L. Tyack); Science and the conservation, protection, and management of wild cetaceans (H. Whitehead, R. R. Reeves, and P. L. Tyack); Epilogue: the future of behavioral research on cetaceans in the Wild (P. L. Tyack, R. C. Connor, J. Mann, and H. Whitehead).

The Marine Mammal Commission. Annual Reports of the Marine Mammal Commission. Available from: The Marine Mammal Commission, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009. For a copy of the 1995 report, contact Doretha White via e-mail (Doretha.White@noaa.gov), or for s-mail write to Robyn Angliss, Office of Protected Resources - F/PR2, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA, (301) 713-2322.

The 1995 report of the Office of Protected Resources includes chapters on the following topics:

- The new regime to govern interactions between marine mammals and commercial fisheries

- NMFS' marine mammal stock assessment program and stock assessment reports

- Dolphin interactions with commercial tuna fisheries in the eastern tropical Pacific

- Marine mammal interactions with other human activities (includes information on small take authorizations, the Herschel-steelhead conflict, and incidental harassment)

- Updates on conservation and recovery programs

- A description of ecosystem activities

- Details of the Alaska Native take of marine mammals

- 1995 activities of the permit programs

- A description and update on the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program

- Updates on international programs and activities

- Updates on ongoing and new legal actions

___________. The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 As Amended. Washington, D.C.: The Marine Mammal Commission, February 1995. Available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, (301) 713-2322.

___________. Marine Mammal Names. Washington, D.C.: The Marine Mammal Commission, 1976.

The Marine Mammal Commission Compendium of Selected Treaties, International Agreements, and Other Relevant Documents on Marine Resources, Wildlife, and the Environment. Available from: Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. Stock number: 052-003-01368-1.

Marine Mammal Fund. Great Whales. San Francisco: Marine Mammal Fund, 1983. (Booklet.)

Chapters include: Whales, The Evolution of Whales, Whale Sounds--Meaningless Noise or Communication?, Whale Echo-Location, The Physiology of Whales, Nature's Largest Brains, Whales as Social Animals, Gentle Giants, Mothers and Calves, How Do Whales Feed?, Whale Migration, What Causes Whales to Strand?, Why Are Whales Hunted?. Also includes an appendix containing descriptions of various species, a taxonomical classification, a glossary, and a bibliography.

Marine Mammal Fund and Lifeline Marine Research. Dolphins. San Francisco: Marine Mammal Fund and Lifeline Marine Research, 1980. (Booklet.)

Introductory booklet on dolphins containing the following chapters: Dolphins, Dolphin Evolution, How Do Dolphins Make Sounds?, Echo Location, Are Dolphins and Porpoises Different?, Are Dolphins Intelligent?, Dolphin Physiology, Dolphin Physiology, Dolphins as Social Animals, Mothers and Calves, Killer Whales (Orcas), Are Orcas Dangerous?, The Orca's Menu, Dolphin and Human Encounters, What Causes Dolphins to Beach Themselves?, Why Do People Kill Dolphins?, and Taxonomical Classification. Also includes a brief bibliography and glossary.

Marine Science Activities on a Budget. J. Michael Williamson, MICS, 20 Moynihan Rd., So. Hamilton, Massachusetts 01982, USA.

Marine Science Bibliography. J. Michael Williamson, MICS, 20 Moynihan Rd., So. Hamilton, Massachusetts 01982, USA.

Marino, Lori. "Cetacean Brain Evolution: Multiplication Generates Complexity." Comparative Psychology (2004), 17: 1-16. Reprint requests: lmarino@emory.edu.

Abstract: Over the past 55-60 million years cetacean (dolphins, whales and porpoises) brains have become hyper-expanded so that modern cetacean encephalization levels are second only to modern humans. At the same time, brain expansion proceeded along very different lines than in other large-brained mammals so that substantial differences between modern cetacean brains and other mammal brains exist at every level of brain organization. Perhaps the most profound difference between cetacean and other mammal brains is in the architecture of the neocortex. Cetaceans possess a unique underlying neocortical organizational scheme that is particularly intriguing in light of the fact that cetaceans exhibit cognitive and behavioral complexity at least on a par with our closest phylogenetic relatives, the great apes. The neurobiological complexity underlying these cognitive capacities may involve the extreme multiplication of vertical structural units in the cetacean neocortex.

Marino, Lori, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. "Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: Flawed Data, Flawed Conclusions." Anthrozoos, 1999, 11(4), 194-200.

Trisha: Marino and Lilienfeld provide an in-depth critique of the only extant peer-reviewed research (conducted by David Nathanson et al.) on dolphin-assisted therapy. Nathanson's studies fail to meet multiple criteria for valid research, and thus, as Marino and Lilienfeld state, "a plethora of serious threats to validity and flawed data analytic procedures render the findings of Nathanson and colleagues uninterpretable and their conclusions unwarranted and premature."

Marino, Lori, Mark D. Uhen, Nicholas D. Pyenson, and Bruno Frohlich. "Reconstructing Cetacean Brain Evolution Using Computed Tomography." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist, 2003, 272B(1):107-117. Author email: lmarino@emory. edu.

Abstract: Until recently, there have been relatively few studies of brain mass and morphology in fossil cetaceans (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) because of difficulty accessing the matrix that fills the endocranial cavity of fossil cetacean skulls. As a result, our knowledge about cetacean brain evolution has been quite limited. By applying the noninvasive technique of computed tomography (CT) to visualize, measure, and reconstruct the endocranial morphology of fossil cetacean skulls, we can gain vastly more information at an unprecedented rate about cetacean brain evolution. Here, we discuss our method and demonstrate it with several examples from our fossil cetacean database. This approach will provide new insights into the little-known evolutionary history of cetacean brain evolution. (c) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Martin, Anthony R. (Tony). Beluga Whales. World Life Library. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press/Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Raincoast Books/ Grantown on Spey, Great Britain: Colin Baxter Photography, 1996.

"Learn where, when and how to get close to belugas in their natural environment in this engaging introduction. Anthony Martin--who has been studying belugas for more than seventeen years--will acquaint you with the beluga's physical characteristics and behavior, along with conservation issues, and the practical and moral issues raised by keeping belugas in captivity. In addition, you can enjoy more than fifty spectacular pictures of this photogenic whale known for its wide range of facial expressions."

___________. Whales and Dolphins. London/New York: Salamander Books, 1990.

___________, et al. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Whales and Dolphins. New York: Portland House, 1990.

Martin, R. Les mammifères marins. Paris: Elsevier, Nature, 1978.

Martin, Tony. Beluga Whales. WorldLife Library. Stillwater, Minn.: Voyageur Press, 1996.

From the back cover: "Learn where, when and how to get close to belugas in their natural environment . . . Anthony Martin--who has been studying belugas for more than seventeen years--will acquaint you with the beluga's physical characteristics and behavior, along with conservation issues, and the practical and moral issues raised by keeping belugas in captivity." Includes more than fifty photographs.

Contents: Introduction, What is a Beluga?, Patterns of Life, Distribution and Abundance, Making a Living, Getting Close, Belugas and Man, Beluga Whale Facts

Martinez Fernandez, Montserrat. Delfinoterapia en Pacientes con Sindrome de Down [Dolphin Therapy in Patients with Down Syndrome]. Mexico: Trillas, 1999.

Marx, Wesley. The Frail Ocean. New York: Ballantine Books, 1967.

Scott: A work covering ocean pollution and its effects on the whales, especially gray whales.

Matkin, C. An Observer's Guide to the Killer Whales of Prince William Sound. Valdez, Alaska: Prince William Sound Books, 1994.

Matthews, Leonard Harrison. The Natural History of the Whale. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

Chapters include: Cetology from Its Beginning to 1945; The Cetacean Diversity; Food and Feeding; Breeding and Growth; Swimming and Diving; Migration; Communication with Echolocation; Behaviour and Social Relations; and Parasites, Diseases and Enemies. Also included are a list of the living species of cetacea, references, and an index.

___________, ed. The Whale. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1968/Crescent Books, 1983.

"From earliest times, [humans have] been fascinated with the whale--that huge, mysterious and enigmatic creature, about which humans have developed an unending body of legend and story, and toward which they still retain an enduring sense of wonder.

"The Whaleis the ultimate expression of that eternal fascination. [Beautifully] illustrated, . . . varied, . . . authoritative, it is in part romantic--for it deals with the myths and stories of whales and whaling throughout history--and in part descriptive, for it contains a complete natural history of every species of whale and dolphin, each one illustrated with a color painting made especially for this volume.

"The text, written by a group of international experts, deals with every aspect of whales and whaling--the folklore of the whales, the literature of the whale from Jonah to Moby-Dick, the whale's habits and characteristics, the [stories] of the men who have hunted whales throughout recorded history, once with fear and . . . difficulty, now with efficiency and ruthlessness . . . "

Chapters include: Whales in Mythology and Folklore, The Biology of Whales, The Different Kinds of Whales, several chapters on whaling, Whale Products, The Life of Whales, and Some Books About Whales. Also includes a glossary and a bibliography, but alas no index.

May, John, ed. The Greenpeace Book of Dolphins. New York: Sterling Publishing Company/London: Century Editions, 1990.

"The book's hundreds of photographs, . . . along with dozens of maps and charts, showcase a . . . report on the dolphin's awesome, sometimes shocking, sometimes inspiring, increasingly threatened existence.

"Everything you'd want to know about the dolphin family's natural history you'll find here, from its evolution and kinship to whales and narwhals to its capacity for communication within its own species and with ours. But you can also wade right into the current controversy over the threats from drift-net tuna fishing. Or peer into reports of the military's secret training of dolphins to detect mines and attach explosives to enemy ships, even to kill frogmen. Or hear people argue whether training dolphins to do circus tricks is harmless and educational or an exploitive way to entertain and mislead people.

"And . . . Greenpeace spells out things you can do to protect [dolphins]-- to guarantee that future generations can be assured of the joy of a world where dolphins will always frolic in the sea."

Scott: An activists' book, with numerous pictures and articles on the dark side of human-cetacean relations. The first half provides an excellent overview of the evolution, lives, and species of dolphins. Very well illustrated.

Mayer, Sue. A Review of the Scientific Justification for Maintaining Cetaceans in Captivity. Bath, England: The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, February 1998. Available by e-mail from Frances Clarke, fclarke@wdcs.org.

Summary: "Increasingly, zoos and marine parks are arguing that research is an important part of their role and that knowledge acquired in this way is essential for conserving cetaceans in the wild. This report reviews the research that has been conducted on whales and dolphins in captivity. It documents the information that has been gathered on haematology and blood chemistry; disease; physiology; experimental psychology and cognition; behaviour; reproduction; captive breeding; and environmental protection. The report questions the relevance of these studies to free-living whales and dolphins, their conservation and the justification for experiments on captive animals.

"Normal ranges for haematology and blood biochemistry have been established for the majority of commonly held whales and dolphins. Whilst these data are useful for monitoring the health of captive animals, their relevance to free-living animals is limited because captivity leads to alterations in basic haematology and blood biochemistry. In addition, considerable individual variation exists in haematology and blood biochemistry such that individual baselines are needed to interpret their significance and this is not feasible for wild animals.

"Some similarities exist between the types of disease seen in captive and wild cetaceans. Bacterial pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both categories. However, important differences exist which make captive animals a poor model for disease in free-ranging populations. For example, captive animals do not carry a parasite burden as they are routinely treated with anthelmintics. In contrast, parasitic disease is ubiquitous in wild cetaceans. In addition, knowledge from captive studies of disease has given little insight into the recent outbreaks of morbillivirus disease and large scale mortality of some species of dolphins.

"Exercise and respiratory physiology has been studied using animals trained to undertake tasks in a pool or to accompany boats to sea. Whilst these have provided interesting knowledge about comparative physiology, they have been limited by the physical dimensions of pools (precluding studies on diving) together with the relatively sedentary life style and abnormal diet of captive animals. If such data were to be used uncritically in management programmes, it could be misleading.

"Experimental psychology and cognition has dominated the research agenda on captive cetaceans. Bottlenose dolphins have been the primary species for these studies because of their relatively small size and ease with which they can be trained. Research on the visual, auditory and echolocation systems has been driven, in large part, by the US Navy's interest in the application of such knowledge to improving underwater detection systems. These studies have revealed that dolphins have extensive cognitive abilities and sophisticated sensory systems for exploring their environment. However, the extrapolation of this information to conservation issues, such as entanglement in nets, is limited by the barren acoustical and visual environment of captivity. This is further constrained by the large element of learning that takes place in the use of these senses. Learning in captivity may give a false impression of animals' abilities in the wild.

"The social organisation of animals in captivity is controlled by dominance hierarchies. In contrast, the situation in natural environments is more dynamic, and aggressive behaviours are much less a feature of the description of free-living cetaceans. Confinement also results in stereotyped behaviours such as uni-directional circling of the pool. Studies of the behaviour of wild animals have been used to improve the conditions of animals kept in captivity by indicating appropriate group size and sex composition. However, studies of behaviour in captivity do not seem to have the potential to improve the conservation of wild cetaceans in the same way as they are too artificial.

"Zoos and marine parks have improved their survival and breeding records for some species such as the bottlenose dolphin and orca. Other species, such as the river dolphins, have extremely poor survival records in captivity. Basic reproductive data on calving intervals and age at sexual maturity has been obtained for some species. It would be dangerous to apply this information directly to the conservation and management of wild populations as it may overestimate their reproductive capacities. Feeding has a marked effect on these parameters and the unnatural composition and idealised nature of zoo diets mean that animals may be growing more quickly and reproducing earlier and more frequently than in the natural environment.

"The captive bred populations which exist to date cannot be considered as self-sustaining populations. No scientifically based plans to conserve genetic diversity exist. If a plan were to be designed to maintain 90% of the genetic diversity of the original population over 200 years this could require several thousands of animals to be kept. Rather than having any such justifiable target, breeding programmes have consciously and unconsciously selected for an a captivity adapted population which may soon be better thought of as 'domesticated'.

"It has been suggested that the knowledge gained from species which breed well in captivity could be used in developing captive breeding plans for endangered species such as the baiji. However, species behave very differently in captivity and what is appropriate to one species may be misleading for others. Comparing the rather robust bottlenose dolphin to the shy baiji may prove counterproductive. Understanding a species' ecology and behaviour in the wild to shape conservation efforts will provide more relevant knowledge.

"Some research has been conducted which aspires to be directly relevant to addressing environmental harm including oil pollution and entanglement in fishing gear. The effects of oil pollution have been studied on captive bottlenose dolphins which show that there is little physical evidence of harm but that animals try to avoid oil sheens if possible. This has been interpreted as meaning oil spills are of little significance to dolphins. However, such information may be of little use to the policy maker who should know of the considerable harm that oil spills have on other wildlife.

"Experiments to attempt to reduce the problem of entanglement in fishing gear have taken place. The extent to which porpoises can detect nets of different thickness and whether they can be deterred using sound or reflectors has been investigated, for example. Noise as a deterrent shows the most promise but the same sorts of experiments have been conducted directly in the wild. These studies are obviously more realistic and have also detected effects on prey, something not identified in laboratory studies.

"The report concludes that the physically restricted conditions of captivity, together with animals' behaviour being learnt in a unnatural environment, the small numbers of highly trained animals involved and the changing genetic basis of the captive cetacean population means that the scientific basis for captive animals acting as a models of wild animals is in increasing doubt. The increased sophistication of studies on free-living animals and the greater relevance of data from those studies further throws the justification for research on captive cetaceans into doubt."

Mayo, Charles, Carole Carlson, Phil Clapham, and Dave Mattila. Humpback Whales of the Southern Gulf of Maine. Provincetown, Massachusetts: Center for Coastal Studies, 1985.

Mayol, Jacques. Homo Delphinus: The Dolphin within Man. Idelson-Gnocchi, 1999.

Synopsis: "Jacques Mayol is a sea researcher, a world-famous diver widely acclaimed for his pioneering work in deep breath-hold diving and dolphins, . . . mostly known for his historic, record-setting dive of 330 feet (100 meters) during a program of experimental and medical research. He was the first man to reach this depth, diving the way dolphins do, with one breath, defying the predictions of physiologists! Therefore, he became the father of free-diving and later he plunged 344 feet deep (105 meters) when he was 56 years old. He developed his physical performance with Yoga and an intimate knowledge of oriental philosophies.

"Throughout this book Jacques Mayol develops the concept 'Homo Delphinus.' Does man really have an aquatic origin? If so, how can man reawaken his dormant mental, spiritual faculties and physiological mechanism to develop the potential of his aquatic origins?

"Mayol shows the similarity of man's 'inner-ocean' with the primordial ocean. He develops the validity of the concept of underwater birth. This book is about 'The Way' of man's spiritual connection to the sea.

Jacques Mayol's life was the subject of Luc Besson's film The Big Blue. [His] book Homo Delphinus was an immediate success in Italy, France, Russia, and most recently in Japan where it has become a bestseller. It is considered to be the bible for all breath-hold divers."

Trisha: A remarkable, exquisitely produced, oversize volume, ranging from dolphins to environmentalism to yogic pranayama and breath-hold diving.

McCarthy, Elena. International Regulation of Underwater Sound: Establishing Rules and Standards to Address Ocean Noise Pollution. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.

From the publisher: Concern over the effects of noise on marine life, particularly marine mammals, has emerged as a topic of considerable interest to both professionals and laypersons alike. The controversy has been fueled by a series of international events that suggest a relationship between man-made sound and marine mammal behavior, resulting in mass strandings and death. International Regulation of Underwater Sound offers a refreshingly objective and responsible look at how ocean noise should be addressed given the lack of regulatory structure and the considerable scientific uncertainty that exists over the effects of noise on marine life.

This book will interest policymakers, acousticians, marine mammal biologists, environmental activists, lawyers, oceanographers, and those in the shipping, engineering, and offshore oil and gas industries. It is an essential text for government agencies, regional institutions, universities, and international governmental organizations. Dr. McCarthy offers a comprehensive examination of a timely and controversial subject that has aroused interest in the scientific, legal, and environmental communities.

McCoy, J. J. The Plight of the Whales. New York: Franklin Watts, 1989.

From the dust jacket: "In October 1988, one of the headline stories for over a week involved the fate of three California gray whales trapped off the coast of Alaska on their annual migration to the warmer waters of Mexico. The story of the plight of these whales and the unprecedented international efforts to rescue them presented one of the greatest ironies of this century.

"For hundreds of years, whales have been mercilessly hunted, for their oil, their meat, and for other commercial products that could be made from their carcasses. Many species of these gentle giants are now in serious danger of becoming extinct. Yet some nations continue to hunt whales, including Japan, Norway, and until recently, the Soviet Union.

"But it was icebreakers went out by the Soviet Union that ultimately freed the whales, and it was Eskimos, even though they still hunt whales for their survival, who worked day and night to keep the whales alive, while the superpowers, spending hundreds of thousands of dollars and using the most sophisticated available equipment, attempted to cut a path to freedom for them.

"What does this story tell us about ourselves and about the future fate of the greatest mammals of the ocean? What laws and treaties have been passed to stop the carnage? How effective have they been? Is it too late for whales to make a comeback? These and other issues are addressed by J. J. McCoy in his examination of whale hunting today and the various efforts of nations and animal rights' organizations such as Greenpeace to save the creatures from extinction."

McCulloch, Stephen D., Gregory D. Bossart, and Marilyn S. Mazzoil. Dolphin Research for the New Millennium. Idelson-Gnocchi, 2000.

On research on the Indian River dolphin population in Florida.

McDonald, L., J. L. Laake, and D. G. Robertson, eds. Marine Mammal Survey & Assessment Methods: Proceedings of the Symposium on Marine Mammal Survey & Assessment Methods, Seattle, WA, 21-25 February 1999. Balkema Publishers, 1999.

From Book News, Inc.: "Presents proceedings of a February 1998 symposium, "Surveys, Status and Trends of Marine Mammal Populations," held in Seattle, Washington. Papers discuss state-of-the-art methods and theories for estimating marine mammal abundance for determining population status and trends, and present both survey design and analysis procedures for a variety of cetacean, pinniped, and carnivore species. Papers are organized in sections on survey design and application, visibility bias and missed observations, and modeling, and examine areas such as survey planning, combining line-transect and capture-recapture techniques, and Bayesian population dynamics modeling. -- Copyright (c) 1999 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR. All rights reserved.

McDonough, John. And God Created Great Whales: Whales and Whaling in the Manuscript Collections of the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, forthcoming December 2001.

Mchedlidze, Guram Andreevich. Fossil Cetacea of the Caucausus. Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1989/Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation/Rotterdam: Balkema, 1988. Translated from Russian by P. M. Rao (title in Russian: Iskopaemye Kitoobraznye Kavkaza).

___________. General Features of the Paleobiological Evolution of Cetacea. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema/Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Co./New Delhi: Oxonian Press/Rotterdam: Balkema, 1984. Translated from Russian by R. Chakravarty.

McIntyre, Joan. The Delicate Art of Whale Watching. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1982.

"The urge to approach and observe the great marine mammals, whales and dolphins, seems to come from somewhere deep within us. A pilgrimage to watch whales is as much an internal voyage of discovery as an expression of objective, scientific curiosity. But many of those who go on whale-watching expeditions find themselves misled by their expectations and burdened by the impedimenta of observation--cameras, binoculars, tape recorders, and the like. Somehow the search for whale is emblematic of the frustrated desire that characterizes our relationship with the natural world.

"Joan McIntyre is a whale watcher who has spent a large part of her life practicing the delicate art. For five years she headed a well-known group working to understand and protect cetaceans [Project Jonah]; then, wanting to be physically closer to her subjects, she moved to a remote Pacific island, a place where whales and dolphins are seasonal visitors. Living at the edge of the sea, she learned much of wind and weather, tides and currents, the fine grain of life around her." She shares many of her experiences in this book . . . "But the chief subject of her musings is the immense mystery the natural world presents, however hard we study it."

Scott: An achingly beautiful little book by one of the founders and major figures in the "Save the Whales" movement. She retired to an island in the Pacific to mend her wounds and soften her anger about all that she had experienced, and then wrote this book. Beautiful. Highly recommended.

___________. Mind in the Waters: A Book to Celebrate the Consciousness of Whales. New York: Scribners/San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1974.

"Mind in the Waters convincingly presents the engaging theory that whales and dolphins are aware, can think, have consciousness. Drawing on mythology as well as the most advanced scientific finds, on poetry as well as natural history, on statistics as well as photographs, it is a basic compendium of information about whales and dolphins and their capabilities. Richly designed, filled with passion and urgency, [it] is a book of revolutionary force. It asks readers to reconsider both themselves and the life in the waters around them and to examine what may be a common thread of consciousness."

Trisha: Published in 1974, it remains one of the most intriguing collections of art, myth, science, and speculation about the consciousness of dolphins and whales and our relationship to them.

McKenna, Virginia. Into the Blue. New York: HarperSanFrancisco/ HarperCollinsPublishers, 1992.

Beautifully produced book discussing myths and legends about dolphins, their life and threats in the wild, the starkness of life in captivity, the rehabilitation and release of Joe, Rosie, Rocky, Missie, and Silver, and the human-dolphin relationship. Exquisitely illustrated and elaborated with cetacean art, artifacts, photos, poetry, and quotations.

McMorrow, Annelisa. Whales. Monday Morning Books, 2000.

McNally, Robert. So Remorseless A Havoc: Of Dolphins, Whales and Men. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1981.

McNulty, Faith. Whales: Their Life in the Sea. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. ___________. The Great Whales. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1974.

The author tells the story of the natural history of whales in "simple, but imaginative language that captures the poetry as well as the facts of their lives. The Great Whales is as much sonnet as science.

"Originally published as a Profile in The New Yorker, the book also describes the author's experiences on whale-watching trips, one of them to Bermuda to record whale songs and another to Scammon Lagoon in Baja California . . . The story of Gigi, the first great whale to be kept in captivity, rounds out the book."

Mead, James G. Biological Observations on Mesoplodon carlhubbsi (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology no. 344. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.

On Hubb's beaked whale.

___________, and Joy P. Gold. Whales and Dolphins in Questions: The Smithsonian Answer Book. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002.

From the publisher: "This comprehensive book is a collective response to thousands of letters and phone calls received annually by the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. Students, teachers, and scientists all have amazingly varied questions about whales and dolphins, and the most revealing inquiries are presented here with detailed answers."

Mead, Tom. Killers of Eden: The Story Killer Whales of Twofold Bay. North Ryde, NSW, Australia/London: Angus and Robertson, 1961, 1985.

From the back cover: "The 'killers of Eden' were killer whales, known for their ferocious attacks on the giant whales of the deep oceans. At only one place in the world--Twofold Bay on the south coast of New South Wales--have killer whales ever co-operated with men to hunt whales; and then it was mainly with one family of whalemen. In Killers of Eden, Tom Mead tells this extraordinary story of a bizarre contact between man and one of nature's most dangerous creatures.

"Each year for more than a century, as autumn moved into winter, the killers would return to Eden from the Antarctic and lie in wait there until the last of their prey had journeyed south again from the breeding grounds hundreds of kilometres up the coast. Three generations of the Davidson family used these killers almost as drovers would use sheep dogs to round up the whales, and the skeleton of the pack leader, old Tom, is preserved to this day at Eden, on Twofold Bay."

Scott: The story of the orcas who cooperatively "fished" with the Davidson family of Eden, Australia, from around 1850 until 1932. The orcas would harass large whales and corral them into the bay, or keep them from swimming off until the men could arrive in their whaleboats to harpoon the larger whales, which were then left for the orcas to feed on for a day or two. The whale carcass was then towed to shore where it was rendered. A slow read, but a thorough telling of the lifestyle and issues of the time. There is a museum today in Eden, with the skeleton of Old Tom, the leader of the orcas.

Trisha: Although the subject (whaling) is repugnant, the story provides a remarkable testimonial to orcan intelligence, especially that of Old Tom.

Mebust, Larry E. Gray Whales, a Bird's-Eye View: A Fieldguide for Boat Skippers and Whalewatchers. Long Beach, California: Offshore Publishing, 1992.

Melteff, B. R., and D. H. Rosenberg. Proceedings of the Workshop on Biological Interactions among Marine Mammals and Commercial Fisheries in the Southeastern Bering Sea. 1984. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

Michaud, Robert. Rencontres avec les baleines du Saint-Laurent. Tadoussac, Quebec, Canada: The Group for Education and Research on Marine Mammals (GREMM), 1993. In French. Available via the Web site or from GREMM, C.P. 223, 108, de la cale sèche, Tadoussac, Quebec G0T 2A0, Canada, voice: (418) 235-4701, fax: (418) 235-4325, e-mail: info@gremm.org.

Written specifically with the St. Lawrence in mind, this book presents the whales and the scientific efforts to understand them better. It includes an identification guide and 40 photos.

Michell, Chris, and Sophie Michell. Dolphin Love, Sixty Ways to Live and Love Like a Dolphin. Illustrated by Sophie Michell. Bath: Delphi books, 1994. (New Age)

Mickelson, Belle. Marine Mammals: Coastal and River Issues, Grade 6. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, 1984.

This volume concentrates on marine mammals in Alaska and also introduces a broad range of marine and wetland topics to students, including community planning, weather, pollution, oil development, and the connections among logging, fishing, and wildlife.

Midgley, Mary. Utopias, Dolphins and Computers: Some Problems in Philosophical Plumbing. New York: Routledge, forthcoming October 1996.

"In Utopias, Dolphins and Computers Mary Midgley offers a way to solve some highly contemporary problems through philosophical means. She proposes that philosophy can be brought into the real world by using it to consider environmental, educational and gender issues. From 'Freedom, Feminism and War' to 'Artifical Intelligence and Creativity,' this book searches for what is distorting our judgement and helps us to see more clearly the dramas which are unfolding in the world around us.

"Utopias, Dolphins and Computers aims to counter today's anti- intellectualism, not to mention philosophy's twentieth-century view of itself as futile. Mary Midgley explains the point of philosophy: how to do it, why it is needed, what difficulties control it and what topics need its attention."

Trisha: I have always found Mary Midgley's no-nonsense approach thoughtful, thought-provoking, and a pleasure to read, and this work is no exception. It is a collection of previously published essays (plus one new essay) dealing with both "the inner, philosophical difficulties and the outward aspect, the current state of these particular topics in the world."

The relevant chapter for this bibliography is "Is a Dolphin a Person?" previously published in 1985 in the book In Defense of Animals (edited by Peter Singer) under the title "Persons and Non-Persons." It examines the interplay, fluidity, and politics of the legal and moral aspects of defining personhood and concludes that "emotional fellowship," as indicated by social and emotional complexity, and not intellectual capacity, should be a central issue in the recognition of persons.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A., G. M. Toyos-Gonzalez, J. Perez-Padilla, R. Montoya-Ospina, and E. H. Williams. "First Osteological Collection of Marine Mammals for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands." Caribbean Journal of Science 33 (3-4) (1997), pp. 288-292. Reprints may be obtained electronically by clicking here and selecting "The CJS Online!" to download an Acrobat Reader copy of the publication. Otherwise, reprints may be obtained by contacting the lead author, Dr. Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni, Scientific Coordinator-Caribbean Stranding Network, Assistant Professor-University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 38030, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00937 USA, voice: 787-766-0000 x4878, 787-767-8009, fax: 787-764-2610, 787-767-8009, emergencies: 787-399-8432, 787-402-2337 (unit 990-0440), e-mail: mignucci@caribe.net, Web site: click here.

Summary provided by Dr. Mignucci-Giannoni: An osteological collection of marine mammals provides a source of valuable information for researchers and is often used for academic teaching and education. Skeletal remains are used in systematics to determine the physical maturity of specimens, and in documenting injuries, illnesses, and abnormalities. This contribution notifies the scientific and academic community of the establishment of such a collection at the University of Puerto Rico Biology Museum, Rio Piedras Campus. To create the collection, the Caribbean Stranding Network (CSN) collected between 1989 and 1995 skeletal remains from animals stranded in the waters of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Additionally, location and catalog numbers of previously collected specimens were requested from other museums and collections to prepare a list of skeletal voucher material available from the Northeastern Caribbean. We collected 79 marine mammal specimens and found a total of 25 specimens from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands catalogued in collections throughout the world, including 32 West Indian manatees, 71 cetaceans, and one phocid. Of the specimens listed, 32 are complete skeletons, 72 are partial skeletons or skeletal parts, and 77 are skulls. In the University of Puerto Rico collection, 18 species and 74 specimens are catalogued, including 25 West Indian manatees, 53 cetaceans, and 1 phocid. Of the specimens listed, 29 are complete skeletons, 50 are partial skeletons or skeletal parts, and 58 are skulls. The collection at the University of Puerto Rico is the first dedicated and curated marine mammal collection for the Caribbean. It will help researchers and the scientific community, both local and international, to study and better understand this protected and endangered Caribbean fauna.

Miles, P. R. The Acoustic Environment and Noise Exposure of Humpback Whales in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Bolt Beranek & Newman, 1983. Techanical memorandum no. 734.

Millais, J. G. The Mammals of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 3: Cetacea. London, 1906.

Miller, Lana. Call of the Dolphins. Portland, Oregon: Rainbow Bridge Publishing, 1989. (New Age)

From the cover: "Dolphins in the desert? Dolphins calling people to the desert? What is going on here? I had to know. I sold and gave away nearly everything I owned to pursue the mystery . . . Dolphin spirits and ascended masters lured me to ancient ruins, vortex sites and dolphin conscious people from Florida to Hawaii . . . Businessmen, psychologists, musicians, artists, nurses, laborers, dolphin trainers, a political science professor and many others told me how 'pod consciousness' transformed their lives . . . I learned about Homo Delphinous, the evolving human/dolphin; . . . the healing power of sonar; underwater birthing with dolphins; . . . and more."

Miller, Perry. The Raven and the Whale. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1997.

On Poe, Melville, and the New York Literary Scene.

Miller, Tom. The World of the California Gray Whale. Santa Ana, California: Baja Trail Publications, 1975.

From a review in the May 1975 issue of Oceans magazine: "Tom Miller's book is a fascinating bouillabaisse of whale facts and fancy, pictures, illustrations--even a flip chart of sequential drawings depicting a whale, followed by three playful dolphins, swimming toward the reader. He has chapters on the history of whaling, the routine of the California gray whale, on marine mammals such as porpoises and otters, places to observe whales, and what to look for. This is not just a picture book, but an informative, lively overview."

Chapters include, How It Began, How They Survive, What They Eat, Whales and Man, Primitive Whaling, American Whaling, Modern Whaling, The World of the California Gray Whale, The Gigi Story, Identification of Marine Mammals, The Cetaceans, Ideintification of the Cetaceans: Large Whales With Dorsal Fins, Large Whales Without Dorsal Fins, Medium Whales With Dorsal Fins, Small Whales and Porpoises With Dorsal Fins, Small Whales and Porpoises Without Dorsal Fins, The Pinnipeds, Identification of the Pinnipeds, The Sea Otters, Look to the Sea, Excursions, Expeditions, Museums, Colleges and Universities, and Organizations. Also includes a bibliography and index.

Millson, Peter, and Martin Freeth. Deaf Whale, Dead Whale: Text Adapted from the [Horizon] Programme Transmitted 7th November 1994. London: BBC Broadcasting Support Services, 1994. (See also the video Deaf Whale, Dead Whale. Narrated by Cheryl Campbell. Produced by Martin Freeth. BBC Horizon, 1994. Horizon, P.O. Box 7, London W3 6XJ, Great Britain.)

Explores the acoustic sense and its primacy in cetaceans, as well as humanmade threats to it, including ATOC, underwater explosions, and ship noise.

Minakuchi, Hiroya. Kyogei. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1990.

Minasian, Stanley. Whales of Hawaii. West Linn, Oregon: Hamilton Publishing, 1991.

___________. The Great Whales. San Francisco, California: Marine Mammal Fund, 1980.

Chapters include: Whales, The Evolution of Whales, Whale Sounds--Meaningless Noise or Communication?, Whale Echo-Location, The Physiology of Whales, Nature's Largest Brains, Whales as Social Animals, Gentle Giants, Mothers and Calves, How Do Whales Feed?, Whale Migration, What Causes Whales to Strand?, Why Are Whales Hunted?, Also includes identification charts, taxonomical classification, a glossary, and a bibliography.

Minasian, Stanley M., Kenneth C. Balcomb III, and Larry Foster. The Whales of Hawaii and Other Marine Mammals. Aiea, Hawai'i: Island Heritage Publishing, 1999.

Species include: Fin Whale, Bryde's Whale, Minke Whale, Humpback Whale, Right Whale, Sperm Whale, Pygmy Sperm Whale, Dwarf Sperm Whale, Baird's Beaked Whale, Blainville's Beaked Whale, Cuvier's Beaked Whale, Short-finned Pilot Whale, False Killer Whale, Melon-headed Whale, Pygmy Killer Whale, Killer Whale, Risso's Dolphin, Bottlenose Dolphin, Rough-toothed Dolphin, Striped Dolphin, Spinner Dolphin, Spotted Dolphin, Blue Whale, Ginkgo-toothed Beaked Whale, Fraser's Dolphin, Southern Bottlenosed Whale, and Hawaiian Monk Seal

___________. The World's Whales: The Complete Illustrated Guide. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 1984.

From the dust jacket: ". . .The World's Whales presents all 76 generally recognized species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises in hundreds of photographs (most in full color, many never before published), drawings, and thousands of carefully verified facts and figures."

Contents: The Taxonomy of Whales; Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises; BALEEN WHALES: Rorqual Whales; Gray Whale; Right Whales; TOOTHED WHALES: Sperm Whales; Beaked and Bottlenose Whales; Oceanic Dolphins; Beluga and Narwhal; Freshwater Dolphins; Porpoises; Glossary; Selected Readings

Scott: An extraordinary collection of information and photos of almost every species of Cetacean. A very few are not represented by pictures, but all are treated with thoroughness. Beautiful.

Mobley, Joseph R., and Burgess A. Dell. Humpback Whales in Hawaii: Guide for the Amateur Whale-Watcher. University of Hawaii at Manoa Sea Grant College Program, 1985.

Modzelewski, Michael. Inside Passage: Living with Killer Whales, Bald Eagles, and Kwakiutl Indians. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

"After graduating from college, Modzelewski met a true wilderness pioneer, Will Malloff, who led him to an island in the Blackfish Sound in the Inside Passage, the coastline between Seattle and Alaska. In Inside Passage, Modzelewski chronicles the adventure of an eighteen-month stay on this island, during which time he spent only $240 . . . [He] not only met the challenge to survive, but also became immersed in the mysticism of the land, the inspiration of nature, and the satisfaction of thriving in the wild."

Moffett, Robert Knight, and Martha L. Moffett. The Whale in Fact and in Fiction. London: Harlan Quist, Inc., 1967.

Chapters include: The Largest Giant, The Baleen Whales, The Sperm Whale, The Smaller Toothed Whales, The Hunt for the Whale, The Birth of Modern Whaling, and A Gam of Whales (first-person accounts and fictional passages).

Trisha: The fictional passages are regrettably all related to whaling, except one, and it is equally unfortunate, quoting from Arthur C. Clarke's The Deep Range about herding whales, like huge cattle, as a food source.

Mohan, R. S. Lal. Report on the River Dolphin Awareness Programme in Assam, 1993-94. Calicut: Conservation of Nature Trust, 1994.

Montagu, Ashley, and John C. Lilly. The Dolphin in History . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California at Los Angeles, 1963.

Contains papers delivered by Montagu and Lilly at a symposium at the Clark Library, October 13, 1962. Montagu's paper, "The History of the Dolphin", discusses Greek writings on dolphins, the lone wild dolphin Opo, reports of dolphin rescue, cooperation between dolphins and fishermen, and includes an appendix of dolphin species and their distribution. Lilly's paper, "Modern Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises, as Challenges to Our Intelligence", discusses the cetacean brain, cetacean intelligence and communication, the position of cetaceans in the competitive environment of the sea, and our attitudes toward them.

Montgomery, Sy. Journey of the Pink Dolphins: An Amazon Quest. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

From the publisher: "Scientists call them Inia geoffrensis, an ancient species of toothed whale whose origin dates back about 15 million years. To the local people of the Amazon, pink river dolphins are 'botos,' shape shifters that, in the guise of human desire, can claim your soul and take you to the Encante, an enchanted underwater world.

"As tributaries braid into a single river, Journey of the Pink Dolphins weaves ancient myth and modern science into one woman's search for these exclusive creatures. With their melonlike foreheads and tubular snouts, pink dolphins look eerily familiar, like people in watery beginnings. No one knows for certain what gives the dolphins their distinctive coloring. They may glow pink with exertion, or with age, or their color might change with the temperature of the water. With their flexible bodies -- stretching to eight feet long and weighing up to four hundred pounds -- and finely tuned echolocation abilities, the pink dolphins perform their water ballet on handlike, five-fingered flippers, in a habitat no other dolphin could colonize.

"Since these mysterious creatures appear mostly at dusk and dawn, and their migration patterns are unknown, Sy Montgomery's Amazon quest encompasses four separate journeys. In the Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo region, she follows the pink dolphins to the spirit realm, where shamans commune with the powers of the plants and visit the Encante. With paleontologist Gary Galbreath, she follows them back in time, tracing the history of the species. At Mamiraua, the pink dolphins illuminate the Amazon's present-day conservation dilemma. And in a final, glorious burst, Montgomery follows the dolphins back, down, deep, to the watery womb of the world, touching the very soul of the Amazon.

"'There are so many stories of botos, you will die writing,' says one river guide. Ancient legends tell us that dolphins have guided humans for millennia, and in Journey of the Pink Dolphins Montgomery answers their call, taking us to that perfect place where the Amazon melts into the forest, dolphins swim among treetops, and the twenty-first century dissolves into the beginning of time."

Donna Seaman for Booklist, February 15, 2000: "Naturalist Montgomery, a Boston Globe columnist and author of such superb books as Spell of the Tiger (1995), recounts her adventures and observations with the lyricism and penetrating insights of a poet as well as the logic and factual accuracy of a scientist. Determined to study the famously elusive, hence little-known freshwater pink dolphin, Montgomery travels to the Amazon, where they are called botos. The subject of legend more than of biology, botos, it is believed, are shape-shifters that often fall in love with and seduce humans. Indeed, Montgomery feels a 'shock of recognition' when she finally encounters them and, unsatisfied with fleeting glimpses, gamely swims in dangerous waters and climbs high up into the jungle canopy for an aerial view, besieged by pesty and poisonous creatures. She even attempts to contact the botos on the spiritual plane with the guidance of a shaman. Mesmerizing accounts of her daring feats are linked to hard-hitting disclosures of the cruel human history of this bewildering and beautiful realm, but Montgomery's most impressive accomplishment is her illumination of the overlay of story and science. There is truth in myth, Montgomery reveals, and magic all around us."

"Surely one of the most brilliant books of our time, this enthralling account of the rare and beautiful pink river dolphins of the Amazon is clearly in a class by itself. Montgomery weaves zoology with myth, natural history with poetry, anthropology with the supernatural, and the result is perfection, a picture not only of animal life but also of human life the Amazon Basin. Montgomery has found a new and very perceptive way to present the natural world." -- ELIZABETH MARSHALL THOMAS

"It's a breathtaking book. This account of a naturalist's experiences in the Amazon turns its own pages, drawing the reader deep into the world of pink river dolphins...Exhilarating, vivid, and often horrifying, this is a serious report on the real and mythical life of an enchanting Amazon species and the sumptuous flooded rain forest that provides its several habitats." -- KATY PAYNE

Trisha: A lushly beautiful account of the teeming, voracious Amazonian environment (and its endangered status) and the author's encounters--factual, actual, and mystical--with pink river dolphins.

From the book: "Photographs of the pink river dolphins looked eerily familiar. They resembled no other dolphin I had ever seen, with their melonlike foreheads and long tubular snouts. Yet they reminded me of something. Then I realized: It's us they look like, but in another form. These pink dolphins look like a fetal human, a person in a watery beginning."

Moon [rest of name unknown]. Whales and Dolphins in the Wild. Chelsea House Publishing, 1984.

Mooney, Jerye. Captive Cetaceans: A Handbook for Campaigners. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

From a review by William Rossiter in Whales Alive!, April 1988: "A complete resource guide to the facts and issues of the captive display of whales and dolphins . . . Using data from all available resources this document provides inventories and histories of many facilities, primarily in North America, and outlines the evolution of our society's attitude about displaying cetaceans in captivity. It will clarify the issue to all readers and empower those who choose to become involved. Sample excerpt: 'The difference between confining cetaceans and terrestrial species lies in our inability to provide appropriate conditions to accommodate the physiological, social and environmental needs of a wholly aquatic species. Cetaceans are large, complex mammals which maintain close family bonds, travel long distances together, and feed and communicate as a cohesive group. Captivity severely compromises their quality of life to an unacceptable degree, through confinement in minuscule tanks. Such confinement is often characterised by forced associations, sensory deprivation and adverse intrusion by visitors. Marine parks can no longer justify their captivity under the false premise of education, conservation and research. Today's society is sophisticated enough to recognise these facilities as aquatic circuses, but the public must be encourage to openly express its growing unease.'"

Moore, Gerry. Beluga. Apple Valley, Minn.: Minnesota Zoological Garden, 1978.

Trisha: A pictorial essay romanticizing the capture of a beluga whale for the Minnesota Zoological Garden.

Mortenson, Joseph. Whale Songs and Wasp Maps: The Mystery of Animal Thinking. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1987.

"Do animals think? What do we know about their minds? And what might animal thoughts be like? With perceptive humanism and hard scientific evidence, [the author] answers these questions by leading us into the mysterious world of animal intelligence. With him we watch the enigmatic signals of the octopus in its lair, visit the leafy dens of apes and chimpanzees, reconstruct the inner workings of a rattlesnake's brain, and explore the highly developed nervous systems of the great cetaceans--whales, dolphins, and porpoises . . .

" . . . In the author's words, . . . 'The maps of wasps, the songs of whales, and the signs of apes compel us to consider the possibility of animal mind. Reflection on the brain and how it works convinces us that there must be cnsciousness in other life forms. But once we accept animal consciousness, our attitude toward science and toward material reality must also change.'"

Morton, Harry. The Whale's Wake. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1982.

Mörzer Bruyns, W. F. J. Field Guide to the Whales and Dolphins. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Uitgeverij Tor N.V. Uitgeverij V.H.C.A. mees Zieseniskade 14, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1971.

Mountcastle, Andrew M. "The Cultural Response to Stranded Whales and Dolphins." Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine. Phone: 207-721-5198, email: amountca@bowdoin.edu.

From the author, March 27, 2001: " I have recently been awarded a Thomas J. Watson Fellowship to study 'The Cultural Response to Stranded Whales and dolphins' in several locations, including the Azores, Scotland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and New Zealand. This is a 12-month project of independent study and travel abroad, beginning in August of this year.

"A major goal of this project is to examine how marine mammal strandings affect local communities (both scientific and public) and how each community responds. To this end, one aim is to collect regional data on both single and mass cetacean strandings, including frequency of occurrence, species involved and the possible causes. I also hope to gather information on current and past research on strandings in each study location. Furthermore, I intend to document and compare the rescue and rehabilitation procedures of various conservation organizations around the world."

Moutou, Francois. Whales, Dolphins and Seals. Collins Watch Guides series. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

Mowat, Farley. Sea of Slaughter. New York: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1984. (See Part IV, "Lost Giants of the Sea.")

___________. A Whale for the Killing. Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books, 1973.

From a review by Donald Rutherford in the May 1973 issue of Oceans magazine: ". . . This is a book about the great whales, slaughtered to the brink of extinction, and Mowat's personal battle to save an eighty-ton pregnant finback stranded in a tidal pond near his Newfoundland home. Woven through the book is a sense of tension and deep concern for the ultimate destruction, by man, of all whales."

Moyer, Jack T. The Mikura-jima Dolphins (Mikura-jima ni iruka). Photography by Yusuke Yoshino. Tokyo: Kaiyusha Publishers, 1997. ISBN: 4-905930-03-0. In Japanese. English edition forthcoming late 1998.

Mullane, Stephan. Discovering Whales of the East Coast. Elan Pub., 2000.

Mulvaney, Kieran. Whale Warriors: Fighting to Save the Whales. New York: Bearsville Press, 1998.

From a review in the July 1998 issue of Whale World: "In 1991, Kieran Mulvaney, formerly co-founder and director of the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society and then an oceans campaigner with Greenpeace International in Amsterdam, set off with twenty-sven others on a voyage to Antarctica. Their mission: to find and intercept the Japanese 'scientific' whaling fleet, operating somewhere in three million square kilometres of storm-tossed, iceberg-strewn ocean, and try to stop them from killing whales. It was to be one of the longest, most arduous and most ambitious voyages ever undertaken by Greenpeace. For over eighty days, Mulvaney and the crew of the MV Greenpeace were at sea, including sixty spent chasing after--or even being chased by--the whalers.

". . . The following season, the MV Greenpeace returned, only to be battered by seemingly endless Antarctic storms anbd confronted by ill fortune at every turn . . .

"A highly personal account, Whale Warriors traces Mulvaney's evolution into a campaigner, the founding of WDCS, his work with Greenpeace, and a series of personal struggles while living in Amsterdam. It covers the highs and lows of the first two voyages, a dramatic and decisive third voyage, and the political aspects of the International Whaling Commission and the Southern Ocean Sanctuary.

"Extensively illustrated throughout . . ."

M.U.N. Whale Research Group. Getting Along: Fish, Whales and Fishermen. Independent Publishers Group, 1987.

Nachtigall, Paul, Jon Lien, Whitlow Au, and Andrew Read, eds. Harbour Porpoises: Laboratory Studies to Reduce Bycatch. Woerden, The Netherlands: De Spil Publishers, 1995.

Describes entanglement in fishing nets, effects of acoustic alarms in nets, and behavior in response to ropes, acoustic signals, and source level in both light and dark conditions. Studies wee carried out in the Harderwijk Marine Animal Park Research Institute.

Nachtigall, Paul E., and P. W. B. Moore.Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance. NATO ASI Series Vol. 156. New York: Plenum Press, 1988.

Ninety papers from a symposium held in Helsingor, Denmark, in 1986 on echolocation in cetaceans and bats.

Subjects include: echolocation signals and their production, auditory systems of echolocating animals, performance of animal sonar systems, natural history of echolocation, and echolocation theory and applications.

Naitob, Hidehara. Whale Carton Craft. New York: Japan Publications (U.S.A.), 1993.

Nakamura, Tsuneo. Dolphins. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1997.

"If you've always wanted to swim with dolphins in their natural habitat, but can't afford to go to the Bahamas, Tsuneo Nakamura will bring them to you. Although he is modest enough to state that he was sometimes lucky to press the shutter at the right moment in taking these pictures, it is impossible to find fault with a single image. There's little point in trying to interpret the behaviors and motivations of dolphins through our human perspective, says Dr. Randall Wells, a renowned dolphin researcher. We can admire and appreciate their beauty, grace, and intelligence on its own terms, he notes, and even the aquaphobic will get to know them intimately through Nakamura's viewfinder."

___________. Kujira: Wachingu & Tachingu. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1991. In Japanese.

___________. Gentle Giant: At Sea with the Humpback Whale. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1988.

"Here is the humpback whale as rarely seen, in stunning photographs [it is an exquisite collection--Trisha] taken from both above the water and below its surface. Photographer Tsuneo Nakamura has captured these gentle behemoths in all of their variety: swimming serenely through the aquamarine depths off the coast of Hawaii, making breathtaking displays by breaching and slapping their powerful tails against the water, surging to the surface to engage in titanic struggles with one another."

National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Fishes, Whales & Dolphins. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983, 1995.

Includes descriptions and thirty photographs and forty-five paintings of whales and dolphins found in North American waters, plus brief whale-watching guidelines.

National Geographic Society. Blue Whale. New York: Random House, 1995.

___________. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1995.

"Only a century ago many people viewed whales more as a resource ripe for plunder and profit than as intelligent fellow mammals worthy of study. Some still do even today. Yet a growing appreciation of these creatures has inspired worldwide conservation and has led to numerous scientific breakthroughs. The National Geographic Society has supported and chronicled much of the work leading to these discoveries.

"In this book, renowned biologists and longtime associates of the society explore the enigmatic world of cetaceans."

Chapters and authors include: The Past, by Ken Norris; Deep Divers, by Hal Whitehead; Seiners of the Sea, by James Darling; Realm of Dolphins, by Bernd Würsig; and The Future, by Flip Nicklin. Also included are life history data on cetaceans, additional reading, whale-watching sites, and an index.

Trisha: Beautifully produced oversize work with superb photographs, in the tradition of National Geographic publications. Profiles the eighty known species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

National Marine Fisheries Service. Environmental Assessment of Proposed Regulations to Govern Interactions between Marine Mammals and Commercial Fishing Operations, Under Section 118 of the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Silver Spring, Maryland: National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, June 1995. Available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, (301) 713-2322.

___________. Recovery Plan for the Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Prepared by the Humpback Whale Recovery Team for the National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland. 1991. Available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, (301) 713-2322.

Contents include: Natural History, Current Status of North Atlantic Populations, Current Status of North Pacific Populations, Known and Potentional Impacts (Subsistence Hunting, Entrapment and Entanglement in Fishing Gear, Collisions with Ships, Acoustic Disturbance, Habit Degradation, Competition for Resources with Humans), Recommended Recovery Actions, and Existing Regulations and Protective Measures.

___________. Recovery Plan for the Northern Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Prepared by the Right Whale Recovery Team for the National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland. 1991. Available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, (301) 713-2322.

Contents include: Natural History, Protective Legislation, Human Impacts (Vessel Interactions, Entrapment and Entanglement in Fishing Gear, Habitat Degradation, Hunting), and Recovery Actions for the North Atlantic and North Pacific Populations.

National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Reducing Porpoise Mortality from Tuna Fishing. Dolphins and the Tuna Industry. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1992.

Chapters include: Introduction, Some Policy and Economic Considerations, Background on Fishing Gear, Biology and Ecology of Yellowfin Tuna, The Behavior of Dolphins and Tuna in the ETP, Dolphin Mortality and Abundance, Techniques for Reducing Dolphin Mortality, and Recommendations. Also contains a bibliography, optional regulations for tuna fishermen from the Code of Federal Regulations, October 1990, forms and data format for documenting flotsam locations and characteristics, notice sent by the IATTC to tuna-seiner owners and operators in 1987 asking for their cooperation in tracking tagged flotsam, and an index.

The Nature Conservancy Council. A World Review of the Cetacea. London: The Nature Conservancy Council, 1980.

Nayman, Jacqueline. Whales, Dolphins and Man. New York/London: Hamlyn, 1973.

Contents include: Introduction, The Whale and Dolphin in Myth and Story (includes color and black-and-white photos of ancient artifacts), Biology and Evolution, The Whale--Hunter and Hunted, Heyday of Whaling, The Whale Today: The Importance of Conservation, The Playful Dolphins, and an index.

Neff, J. M., and J. W. Anderson. Response of Marine Mammals to Petroleum and Specific Petroleum Hydrocarbons. New York: Halstead Press, 1981.

Nerine, Mary. "A Review of Gray Whale Feeding Ecology." Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, 1984. (800) 321-5068.

Nickerson, Roy. The Friendly Whales: A Whalewatcher's Guide to the Gray Whales of Baja California. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1987.

From the back cover: Describes "the California Gray [and encounters with it] and the placid, turquoise lagoons of Mexico's Baja Californa. [The author] also introduces the sea birds, seals, and sea lions, the elephant seals that inhabit the rocky islands of the Sea of Cortez, the playful dolphins, and a remarkable assortment of exotic plants and animals indigenous to Mexico's unique desert peninsula. In a special section, Mr. Nickerson discusses whalewatching tours and other nature expeditions available to the public. The Friendly Whales is a richly illustrated and very readable natural history of one of he most fascinating regions of North American and its amazing inhabitants."

___________. Brother Whale: A Pacific Whalewatcher's Log. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1977.

"Brother Whale gathers together what is known--from recent research, from the diaries of New England whalermen of the past, and from the author's personal observations--to provide an informal introduction to the world of whales. The emphasis is on those the average person has the most chance of seeing: the humpbacks and grays . . . and the killer whales . . .

"In this book you will find answers to many of the questions you may have about these largest and least understood of mammals. Do whales 'sing'? How intelligent are they? How do they spout? What is 'spyhopping'?"

Chapters include: Beginnings, Some Basic Cetology, Intelligence and Communication, Migration, Whalewatching off Maui, and Protection and Enforcement. Also includes a bibliography and an index.

Nickerson, Thomas. The Loss of the Ship Essex Sunk by a Whale, and the Ordeal of the Crew in Open Boats. Nantucket, Rhode Island: Nantucket Historical Association, 1984. Renamed The Loss of the Ship Essex, Sunk by a Whale: First-Person Accounts. New York: Penguin Classics, 2000. (See also entry above for Chase, Owen.)

From the publisher: " In 1820, the Nantucket whaleship Essex, thousands of miles from home in the South Pacific, was rammed by an angry sperm whale. The Essex sank, leaving twenty crew members floating in three small boats for ninety days. The incident was the Titanic story of its day, and provided the inspiration for Melville's Moby-Dick. The Narrative of the Wreck of the Whaleship Essex, by the ship's first mate, Owen Chase, has long been the fundamental account of the Essex's doomed voyage. But in 1980, a new account of the disaster was discovered, penned by Thomas Nickerson, the fifteen-year-old cabin boy who was steering the ship when the whale attacked. Now, Nickerson's harrowing tale can be read alongside Chase's in one authoritative edition, which includes more than a dozen other accounts from articles and newspapers, many of which have never appeared in book form."

Nicklin, Flip. With the Whales. Text by James Darling. Minocqua, Wisconsin: NorthWord Press, Inc., 1990.

From the dust jacket: "In word and image, Darling and Nicklin have captured the substance and symbols of these compelling creatures. Taken throughout the world's oceans, most of the 130 arresting photographs were taken by Nicklin free-swimming with the whales. Called by National Geographic magazine one of the 'world's leading whale photographers," Nicklin has collected amazing underwater photographs of most of the world's whales including the intriguing belugas, the improbable narwhals . . . , the powerful sperm whale, the playful humpbacks and the immense blue whale . . .

"In his preface to With the Whales, Kenneth Norris . . . summarized the impact of the book: 'Above all this is a true book about whales. You learn what we really know about whales. And then you see it, up close, and you too may feel the swish of the giant animal's flukes and wonder at the unknown that still surrounds us just beyond the land's edge.'"

Nicol, C. J. A. The Biology of Marine Animals. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd., 1960.

Nielsen, Ashleea. Dolphin Tribe: Remembering the Human-Dolphin Connection. 2d ed. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii: Dancing Dolphin Press, 1994. (New Age)

A brief introduction to the New-Age dolphin/whale phenomenon/mythology. Includes exercises for "tuning in to dolphins and whales," a consideration of captivity, and a resource guide.

Nielsen, Ashleea. Dolphins, Angels and Mermaids. Forthcoming from Dancing Dolphin Press. (New Age)

Niethammer, Jochen, and Franz Krapp, eds. Handbuch der Saugetiere Europas (Handbook of European Mammals). Volume 6: Meeressauger (Ocean Mammals), Part I: Wale und Delphine - Cetacea (Whales and Dolphins - Cetacea). Part IA: Daniel Robineau, Raymond Duguy, and Milan Klima, eds., Delphinidae, Monodontidae. Part IB: Daniel Robineau, Raymond Duguy, and Milan Klima, eds., with the cooperation of Alex Aguilar et al., Ziphiidae, Kogiidae, Physeteridae, Balaenidae, Balaenopteridae. (Part IB contains the subject index and name index for both parts IA and IB). Wiesbaden, Germany: AULA-Verlag, 1995. In German.

Nievo, Stanislao, and Gaetano Rando. The Blue Whale. Picas Series, no. 14. Guernica Editions, 2000.

Nishiwaki, Masaharu. Distribution and Migration of Marine Mammals in the North Pacific Area. The Eleventh Pacific Science Congress--Symposium No. 4 (August 24, 1966). In English. ___________. Whales and Pinnipeds. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1965. In Japanese.

Niskern, Diana. Dolphins Bibliography. Washington, D.C. (10 First St. SE, Washington, D.C. 20540): Science Reference, Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress, 1991. Gov't Doc. no. LC 33.10:91-10; GPO item no. 0818-A-02; shipping list no. 91-0744-P.

No Biodome Belugas, Backgrounder. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Zoocheck Canada, 1995. Available from Zoocheck Canada, Inc., 3266 Yonge Street, Suite 1729, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3P6, Canada, (416) 285-1744, email: zoocheck@idirect.com.

From Zoocheck's Web site: "An overview of the Montreal Biodome's plans to acquire beluga whales for public display, and a discussion of marine mammal captivity issues."

Nogg, Sharon M. A Whale Watcher's Cookbook: Views from the Galley. Omaha, Nebraska: Actors Etc., Ltd., 1990.

Publisher's annotation: "This naturalist's gourmet cookbook celebrates a mix of cultures and cuisines. The more than 200 easy-to-prepare dishes were compiled and tested while Nogg was on board the Delphinus, a boat out of southeast Alaska studying whales. Her photographs of whales, and information about whales, are sprinkled throughout the book."

Nollman, Jim. The Beluga Café: My Strange Adventure with Art, Music, and Whales in the Far North. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press (A Sierra Club Book), 2002.

From the author: "It's the best thing I've written so far, an irreverent true story of three working artists trying to deal with the psychological issues of spending a month in an intense Arctic wilderness."

From the publisher: "Animal communication expert Jim Nollman has sung with orcas, plucked a Jew's harp in waters teeming with humpback whales, and shaken rattles in the company of bottlenose dolphins. Now, in this heartfelt and quirky true adventure story, Nollman and two artist friends set out for Canada's vast Mackenzie Delta, electric guitar and underwater sound equipment in tow, to make music with belugas -- the elusive white whales of the Arctic. Traveling the expanses of this beautiful northern land, the three friends unwittingly find themselves at the center of a heated controversy over the Beaufort Sea belugas: Why have the whales stopped coming into the Mackenzie Delta, possibly jeopardizing their own calves, who live the first part of their lives in these shallow, warm waters? As they attempt to unravel the mystery, they encounter various intriguing characters now laying claim to the resources of the Mackenzie Delta region-Native people (who are allowed to hunt the whales), wildlife officials, and oil company engineers -- all vividly described by Nollman. Along the way, he also conveys boththe wonders and the realities of being deep in the wilderness-experiencing the connectedness of all living things while scratching the bites of the world's most fearsome mosquitos. With its rich and passionate nature writing evoking lovely and remote landscapes, The Beluga Café suggests profound metaphors for our time about animal rights and animal intelligence, the role of science in conservation, the politics of extinction, and the place of art in the epic struggle to save the natural world.

___________. The Man Who Talks to Whales: The Art of Interspecies Communication. Sentient Publications, 2002. (Reprint of Dolphin Dreamtime, with the additions described below. See also the citation for Dolphin Dreamtime.)

From the publisher: "l;Includes a new chapter, 'Interspecies Protocol,' on the idea that an animal is an individual with its own personality, deserving of respect from humans. There is also a substantial new epilogue that brings readers up to date on the current state of dolphin research."

___________. The Charged Border: Where Human Nature Meets Whales and Dolphins. New York: Henry Holt, 1999.

Trisha: Keep an eye out for this one, folks. Combining myth and fact and Jim Nollman's acute observations, this promises to be the first book-length, in-depth consideration of the nature of humans' attraction to cetaceans.

___________. Spiritual Ecology. New York: Bantam, 1990.

Contains chapters on cetaceans.

___________. Dolphin Dreamtime: The Art and Science of Interspecies Communication. New York: Bantam, 1987. (Reprinted with some additions as The Man Who Talks to Whales. See citation above.)

In this book, Jim Nollman, "an internationally known pioneer in interspecies communication, vividly describes his experiences of forging new relationships with animals and the environment. Using music as a common language, this musician and ecologist has been able to 'talk' with dolphins, seagulls, whales, buffalo, bears, and even a mosquito."

"From a 'jam session' with howler monkeys in the Panamanian jungle to 'dancing' with dolphins off the coast of Australia and gray whales off northern California, Nollman offers dramatic examples of our evolving relationship with the animal kingdom and draws on ecology, zoology, mythology, and shamanism to challenge us to rethink our ideas about animal consciousness."

From the Preface: "If you ask an Australian aborigine what his 'dreaming' is, he will most likely give you the name of some animal, a feature of the landscape, a plant, or a constellation. This is his origin, the place from where his Spirit came . . . The Dreamtime pertains to the stories and creation myths that accompany this relationship between a person, his totem, and the environment. The book People of the Dreamtime, an Australian account of the life and times of these aboriginal people, describes it so:

Until recent times these stories constituted a total system of belief for the aboriginal people--an explanation of the universe, of the tribal territories, and of the animate and inanimate features of the countryside, a validation and reinforcement of the workings of aboriginal society, a book of rules for conducting normal and abnormal circumstances, a promise of the continuance of life for one's children and one's children's children.

". . . Dolphin Dreamtime also describes a relationship between a person, myself, and an environment, in this case both natural and human. You will also meet several other characters, both human and nonhuman; all sentient, all original, and all with stories of their own. These include dolphins, sea gulls, mosquitoes, buffalo, bears, and mitochondria, to name just a few. I have taken that old concept of the Dreamtime and its 'promise of the continuance of life' very much to heart in this writing. If we can properly dream our future, then certainly it has a much better chance of becoming reality."

Trisha: I always enjoy reading Jim Nollman's writings. I find his eclectic blend of ideas creative and thought-provoking.

Norman, J. R., and F. C. Fraser. Field Book of Giant Fishes, Whales and Dolphins. New York: Putnam, 1937/W. W. Norton, 1938. 2d ed. Published as Giant Fishes, Whales and Dolphins in London in 1948. Published in German as Riesenfische, Wale und Delphine: Ein Taschenbuch fur Biologen, Sport- und Berufsfisher und fur Naturfreunde, Hamburg: Verlag Paul Parey, 1963.

Norris, Kenneth S. Dolphin Days: The Life and Times of the Spinner Dolphin. New York/London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1991.

"Focusing on the spinner dolphins off Hawaii, Norris carries us through his earliest contacts with these graceful animals (including work with Gregory Bateson), his attempts with teams of students to learn about their complex lives in the sea, and finally to the tragic dolphin kill in the yellowfin tuna industry.

"Along the way he tells us how the dolphins swim, find food, breathe in rough weather, and how they protect themselves in an underwater world totally without places to hide. Norris shows us how his scientific ideas evolve, takes us on a hair-raising trip aboard a tuna vessel where he and his colleagues dive in the net to search for solutions to the kill, and finally suggests how the 'magic envelope,' the dolphins' group protection system, might be the key to releasing them unharmed.

"'There is no seam between the doings of wild animals and human affairs,' Norris asserts. 'We can't go on losing them and not lose part of ourselves.'"

___________. The Porpoise Watcher: A Naturalist's Experiences with Porpoises and Whales. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1974/London: John Murray, 1976.

___________, ed. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1966.

This book contains the results of the work of the scientists who attended the International Symposium on Cetacean Research, the first global meeting of whale zoologists, which was held in Washington, D.C., in 1963 and conducted by the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Norris, K. S., B. Würsig, Randall S. Wells, and Melany Würsig, with Shannon M. Brownlee, Christine Johnson, and Jody Solow. The Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1994.

Northridge, Simon P. An Updated World Review of Interactions Between Marine Mammals and Fisheries. Fisheries Tech Papers no. 251, Supplement 1. Unipub, 1991.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., and M. Demma. Guida dei Mammiferi Marini del Mediterraneo. Padova, Italy: Franco Muzzio editore, 1994. [In Italian.]

O'Barry, Ric, with Keith Coulbourn. To Free a Dolphin: A Dramatic Case for Keeping Dolphins in Their Natural Environment. Los Angeles, Calif.: Renaissance Books, 2000.

From the publisher: ". . . in To Free a Dolphin, [O'Barry] discusses his continuing campaign to release captive dolphins back into the wild. He introduces readers to dolphins . . . that he has helped over the past decade. He also chronicles the extreme opposition he has faced, including bureaucratic red tape, the captive dolphin industry, rival wildlife groups, and well-meaning but misinformed individuals who had other plans for the animals . . . "

___________. Behind the Dolphin Smile. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books, 1989/Los Angeles, Calif.: Renaissance Books, 2000.

How O'Barry became involved in working with dolphins, including his employment as Flipper's trainer, and why he came to realize that "it was wrong to remove them from their normal environment for casual commercial exploitation."

Novak, Barbara. The Ape and the Whale: An Interplay between Darwin and Melville in Their Own Words. Homestead Publishing, 1995.

Nozaki, Yurika. What Dolphins Told Me. Tokyo: Kodansha, 2000. Originally published in Japanese. Available from the author, Yurika Nozaki, DL Communications, 3-3-3 Kasuya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-0063, Japan, email: love@dolphin.or.jp. (New Age)

___________. A Book to Feel Fine, Like Swimming with Dolphins. Tokyo: Daiwa. In Japanese.(New Age)

Obee, Bruce, and Graeme Ellis. Guardians of the Whales: The Quest to Study Whales in the Wild. Bothell, Washington: Alaska Northwest Books/Vancouver and Toronto: Whitecap Books, 1992.

From the back cover: "In the early 1970s a new breed of whale scientist began to shun the collect-and-dissect research methods of the day. They left behind the spurious environments of public oceanaria and the slimy slipways of whaling stations to share the seas with wild whales. Now they have photo-identified thousands of individual whales from the subtropics to the Arctic Ocean. They have radio- tracked the incredible migrations of Pacific gray whales; they have recorded the eerie songs of courting humpbacks and the complex dialects of orca families.

"Guardians of the Whales is the story of their fascinating discoveries. It tells of people and whales, of our historical uses and abuses, and of our relentless quest to understand the world's most intriguing animals. Through a fact-filled narrative text by environmental writer Bruce Obee and the stunning photographs of Graeme Ellis, Guardians of the Whales conveys the excitement and adventure of studying wild whales and unravels many of the mysteries surrounding the largest creatures on Earth."

Includes chapters on killer whales, Pacific gray whales, and humpbacks. Also mentions minkes and Pacific white-sided dolphins.

Trisha: If you are interested in wild-whale research and wild-whale/human interaction, this is an excellent resource.

O'Brien, Esse Forrester. Dolphins--Sea People. Naylor Co., 1965.

Ocean, Joan. Dolphins into the Future. Kailua-Kona, Hawaii: The Dolphin Connection, 1997. (New Age)

___________. Dolphin Connection: Interdimensional Ways of Living. Kailua-Kona, Hawaii/Fitzroy, Australia: Dolphin Connection/Spiral, 1989. (New Age)

"This . . . book is about [the author's] intimate friendships with cetaceans, as she '. . . creates a field of innocence where the dolphin is the teacher.'

"Swimming in the ocean, she experiences a human-dolphin communication that releases expansive, multi-sensory knowledge in the entire body and its thoughtforms. With the simplicity and elegance of the dolphins, she is linked to the Infinite wisdom of Love."

The Oceanic Society Field Guide to the Orca. Seattle, Washington: Sasquatch Books. [Author and date unknown.]

Oceans Blue Foundation/La Fondation Oceans Bleus (Canada) Responsible Whale Watching Meeting, April 28 - 30, 2003, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. A report.

Oceans Blue Foundation is initiating the cooperative development of an International Whale Watching Charter for the Baja California to Bering Sea Region. The Charter aims to strengthen the whale watching industry's stewardship of the marine environment by developing a voluntary program to develop industry standards and practices that exceed regulatory guidelines and ensure local communities are supported in the development of policies and practices that provide for responsible marine mammal viewing.

The above report provides a summary of Oceans Blue Foundations' Initiative Meeting, at which there were 38 attendees representing 37 different organizations and whale-watching companies.

Oden, ViAnn. Dialog with a Dolphin: A Journey in Self-Awareness. Goleta, California: Anvipa Press, 1991. (New Age)

"In this . . . metaphysical narrative, [the author] discovers the image of her soul in the spiritual connection between humans and dolphins."

Odent, Michel. Water and Sexuality. New York: Penguin/Arkana, 1990.

See Chapter 24, "Man and Dolphin," for an interesting comparison of humans, apes, and dolphins which shows that humans have many characteristics more similar to dolphins than to apes. For further discussion of these characteristics, see Elaine Morgan's The Scars of Evolution: What Our Bodies Tell Us About Human Origins, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

O'Donnell, Mabel. From Dolphins to Dunes. New York: HarperCollins, 1981.

Oe, Kenzaburo. The Day the Whale Becomes Extinct. In Japanese.

O'Hara, Kathryn, Natasha Atkins, and Suzanne Iudicello. Marine Wildlife Entanglement in North America. Washington, D.C.: Center for Environmental Education, 1986.

Oharada, Yasihisa. Dolphin Healing. In Japanese. ISBN 584-18169-1 C0047.

O'Leary, M. A. "Whale Origins." Science, 9 April 1999, 284(5412).

Oliver, Guy W. Right Whale, Balaena glacialis, Bibliography. Prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Alaska OCS Region, by Coastal Ecology Research Laboratory, the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore. Anchorage, Alaska: The Region, 1989.

___________. Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus, Bibliography. Prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Alaska OCS Region, by Coastal Ecology Research Laboratory, the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore. Anchorage, Alaska: The Region, 1987.

___________. Gray Whale, Eschrichtius robustus, Bibliography. Prepared for U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Alaska OCS Region, by Coastal Ecology Research Laboratory, the University of Maryland, Easterh Shore. Anchorage, Alaska: The Region, 1987.

Oliver, Rice D. Lone Woman of Ghalas-Hat: The True Story of the Island of the Blue Dolphins. California Weekly Explorer, 1993.

Oliver, Rupert. Whales and Giants of the Deep. Avenal, New Jersey: Random House Value Publishing, 1989.

Olivera Santos, Marcos César de. Baleias e Golfinos. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Série Investigando, Editora Atica S.A., 1996. In Portuguese.

From a review by William Rossiter in the October 1996 issue of Whales Alive!: ". . . the first modern cetacean book written in Portuguese for the general reader . . . Marcos has demonstrated extraordinary maturity and skill at a young age, and his book is excellent science written as a work of art, a culturally astute description of creatures he knows well and cares deeply about, and a remedial and certain influence on public attitudes for the future . . . "

Ommanney, F. D. Lost Leviathan. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1971.

Orams, Mark. Why dolphins may get ulcers: Considering the impacts of cetacean-based tourism in New Zealand. Tourism in Marine Environments, 2004, 1(1):17-28. Author email: M.B.Orams@massey.ac.nz.

Abstract: The growth of tourism based upon cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) has been relatively recent -- but spectacular. Thus, these marine mammals have now become valuable as a tourism resource. Accompanying this growth are concerns regarding the potential impacts on "target" species. In New Zealand, marine mammal tourism has grown rapidly and a variety of studies have shown that dolphins and whales are affected by these activities. However, these impacts vary greatly with the species, location, and type of tourism activity. Thus, these studies show, not surprisingly, that generic management regimes are seldom appropriate. It can be concluded from what has been learned in the New Zealand situation that sound management of marine mammal tourism must be based on solid research that provides information regarding the needs and sensitivities of specific species and particular locations. A conservative approach is essential given the difficulties in accurately assessing the long-term implications of this growing industry for cetaceans.
___________, and Vicky Binedell. Interactions of Cetaceans with Whale Watching Boats: Implications for the Management of Whale Watching Tourism. Fabian Ritter, 2004. Author email: M.B.Orams@massey.ac.nz.

Ordonnay, Wilfred. All You Must Know about the Whales and Their Secret Life. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Gloucester Art Press, 1991.

Organisation Cetacea. ORCA No. 1: A Report on the Whales, Dolphins and Seabirds of the Bay of Biscay and English Channel. England: Organisation Cetacea, 2001.

" This 105-page report reveals the exceptional diversity of whales and dolphins that can be seen relatively close to the shores of western Europe, detailing the distribution, current knowledge, and behaviour of an incredible 20 species of cetacean recorded in the English Channel and Bay of Biscay during 1999.

"The systematic list contains a distribution map of each species and there are colour photographs of Blue Whale, Fin Whale, Common Dolphin, Long-finned Pilot Whale, White-sided Dolphin, Harbour Porpoise and all of the North Atlantic Beaked Whales taken at sea."

Orr, Robert. T., and Roger C. Helm. Marine Mammals of California. California Natural History Guides: 29. Revised ed. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1989.

Descriptions, line drawings, and a few color and black-and-white photos of whales, dolphins, porpoises, sea otters, seals, and sea lions of California.

Orwell, George. Inside the Whale: And Other Essays. London: Gollancz, 1940.

Osborne, Richard. "Trends in Whale Watching and Its Management in the International Waters of Haro Strait" Poster at the American Cetacean Society Conference, San Pedro, California, USA, November 8-9, 1996. Abstract in Whalewatcher (1996) 30(1):28.

Osborne, Richard, John Calambokidis, and Eleanor M. Dorsey. A Guide to Marine Mammals of Greater Puget Sound, Including a Catalog of Individual Orca and Minke Whales. Anacortes, Washington: Island Publishers, 1988. Produced under the auspices of The Whale Museum, Friday Harbor, Washington.

Includes sections on whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals, sea lions, and otters, as well as chapters on marine mammal conservation, whale-watching guidelines, reporting stranded marine mammals, guides to individual orcas and minke whales, classification of Greater Puget Sound marine mammals, and further reading. Unfortunately, there is no index.

Benjamin Franklin Award Winner

Otsuki, Seijun. Geishi-ko. 1808.

According to the book The Whale, this work "is more accurately scientific" than the following book by Yosei Oyamada.

Owen, Weldon. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Eyewitness series. Checkmark Books, 1999.

From Book News, Inc.: This highly illustrated book's subjects range form evolution, biology, and behavior to the history of commercial whaling and legends of whales and dolphins. Chapters discuss whale watching, conservation, anatomy, the origin of the whale, social behavior and intelligence, whales in art and literature, strandings, and the potential for communication between humans and whales. -- Copyright (c) 1999 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR All rights reserved

Oxenhorn, Harvey. Turning the Rig: A Journey to the Arctic. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1990.

Oyamada, Yosei. Isana-tori-ekotoba. 1829.

According to the book The Whale, this work "describes the differents sorts of whales and their structure."

Pacheco, A., and S. Smith. Marine Parks and Aquaria. New York: Lyons & Burford, 1989.

Pacheco, Jose Angel Sanchez. "Regulations on Whale Watching in Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio Lagoons, Reserva de la Bisfera 'El Vizcano,' Baja California Sur, Mexico." Poster at the American Cetacean Society Conference, San Pedro, California, USA, November 8-9, 1996. Abstract in Whalewatcher (1996) 30(1):28.

Packard, Earl L. Fossil Baleen from the Pliocene of Cape Blanco, Oregon . . . . Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press, 1947.

Paine, Stefani. The World of the Arctic Whales: Belugas, Bowheads, and Narwhals. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1995. Also published as The Nature of Arctic Whales: Belugas, Bowheads, and Narwhals. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Douglas and McIntyre, 1995.

Offers insights on the natural history of the only three whale species who live their entire lives surrounded by ice, explores their role in the lives of the peoples of the northern world, and considers their precarious future.

Contents: WINTER: Living in a World of Ice, The Challenge of Cold Water, Size As a Defence against Cold, Fat As Insulation; SPRING: Springtime Courtship, Migration, Dangers; SUMMER: An Amazing Tooth, Birth of a Whale, A Whale Calf's First Days, Summer Distribution, Bowheads in Watery Pastures, Beluga Banquet, The Mystery of Narwhal Feeding, Summertime Predator; FALL: A World of Sound, Surface Activities, Another Migration; EARLY INUIT WHALING: Hunting the Narwhal, Bountiful Whales, Hunting the Huge Bowhead; COMMERCIAL WHALING: Bowhead Whaling, The End of Commercial Bowhead Whaling, Beluga Hunting, The Narwhal Tusk Trade; THE ARCTIC WHALES TODAY: Quotas, Whalers versus Antiwhalers, Human Disturbance, Other Effects of Industrial Development, Outsiders Are Watching, Who Will Speak for the Whales?

Palazzo, José Truda, Jr., Marcel Ruschel, and Paulo Andre Flores. Mamiferos marinhos do Sul do Brasil/Marine Mammals of Southern Brazil. Florianopolis, SC, Brazil: Editora Mares do Sul. E-mail: revista@maresdosul.com.br, voice/fax: (048) 234 8544. In English and Portuguese.

From a review in the July 1998 issue of Whale World: "With text in English and Portuguese, and beautifully illustrated with colour photographs throughout, this 48-page booklet is a worthwhile addition to any cetacean-lover's library. In particular, the book focuses on the southern right whale, dolphins such as the tucuxi and bottlenose dolphin, and southern sea lions and South American fur seals. The 18 pages on the right whales, for example, as well as including many first-rate photographs, examine the species' migration, exploitation and recovery, and discuss the growth of whale-watching in the area.

"Predictably, given the authors' track record, the booklet is strong on the need for conservation. As the authors point out, 'To meet, and learn to respect these companions of our evolutionary journey, is the best way to enjoy this invaluable marine heritage that even today we know very little about, acknowledging that its protection is an urgent responsiblity for us all.'"

Parker, Melanie. At a Glance Guide 2000. East Yorkshire, England: International Dolphin Watch, 2000.

From the foreword: "Having a dolphin encounter is a wonderful experience, the memory of which will almost certainly stay with you for the rest of your life. The aim of the guide is to help you have just such a memorable moment. However, organisations offering dolphin watching and swim facilities are constantly changing. The accuracy of the information in this guide cannot therefore be guaranteed. We try to update constantly. . . ."

Parsons, E. C. M., and A. Woods-Ballard. Acceptance of voluntary whalewatching codes of conduct in West Scotland: The effectiveness of governmental versus industry-led guidelines. Current Issues in Tourism, 2003, 6: 172-182. Author email: ecm-parsons@earthlink.net.

Abstract: During the tourist season of 2000, thirty whalewatching tour-operators were interviewed as to whether they referred to a whalewatching code of conduct or guidelines during their activities. Eighty-six percent stated they referred to a code of conduct. The most frequently used code was one produced by a tour operators' association (43%). Three codes of conduct produced by environmental non-governmental organisations were also used frequently to occasionally. Only 27% of the operators surveyed were aware of whalewatching guidelines produced by the UK government and none of the operators referred to these guidelines when watching whales. This study indicates that the majority of whalewatching tour operators had accepted codes of conduct but preferences were for locally, or operator-produced, codes. It is suggested that in West Scotland whalewatching tour operators should be actively involved, alongside statutory bodies, in the monitoring and managing of whalewatching.

Parsons, E. C. M., C. A. Warburton, A, Woods-Ballard, A. Hughes, and P. Johnston. The value of conserving whales: The impacts of cetacean-related tourism on the economy of rural West Scotland. Aquatic Conservation, 2003, 13:397-415. Reprints available from Chris Parsons, Department of Environmental Science & Policy, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA (e-mail: cparson@gmu.edu).

Abstract: 1. During the tourist season of 2000, interview surveys were conducted with those involved in whale-watching in West Scotland. The groups included in the study were boat operators (32), visitor-centre managers (8), tourists on whale-watching trips (324), general tourists to West Scotland (673) and local residents (189). The latter two groups were interviewed for comparison of responses of those engaged in whale-watching against the views of the local community and tourism in general. From the data provided by these interviews, estimates for the economic value of this specialist sector of the Scottish tourism industry were calculated. 2. Extrapolating from the surveys, in the year 2000, an estimated total of approximately 242,000 tourists were involved in cetacean-related tourism activities in West Scotland. 3. In 2000, fifty-nine full-time and one part-time jobs were estimated to be created as the direct result of cetacean-related tourism, with 38% of these positions being seasonal. 4. Cetacean-related tourism was estimated to account for 2.5% of the total income from tourism in the region. In remote coastal areas, cetacean related tourism may account for as much as 12% of the area's total tourism income. 5. The direct economic income (i.e. expenditure on excursion tickets) from cetacean tourism activities was estimated to be 1.77 million pounds sterling per annum. 6. 23% of surveyed whale-watchers visited West Scotland specifically to go on whale-watching trips. The associated expenditure (accommodation, travel, food etc) from tourists being brought to rural West Scotland solely due to the presence of whales represented an additional 5.1 million pounds sterling in additional tourism income for region. 7. In addition to the above tourists, 16% of surveyed whale-watchers stayed in West Scotland an extra night as a result of going on a whale-watching trip. Extrapolating from these tourists who stayed in the region extra nights as a result of whale-watching, a further 0.9 million pounds sterling of additional associated expenditure (extra accommodation, food etc) is generated. 8. The total gross income generated (directly and indirectly) by cetacean-related tourism in rural West Scotland was estimated at 7.8 million pounds sterling. 9. In comparison with established whale-watching industries (in countries such as the USA, Canada and New Zealand) the total expenditure by tourists on whale-watching in West Scotland is low. However, cetacean tourism in West Scotland is still a relatively young industry and still developing. 10. The value of the non-consumptive utilisation of cetaceans (i.e.whale-watching) to rural, coastal communities in West Scotland was three times greater than the value of the consumptive utilisation of cetaceans (i.e. commercial whaling) for rural, coastal communities in Norway. 11. This study demonstrates that live cetaceans in Scotland can provide notable financial benefits and, therefore, their conservation has an economic value.

Paul, Dameriolus. Psychological Peculiarities of Whales, Whaling, Whalers and the Dangers from the Sea. Albuquerque, New Mexico: American Institute for Psychological Research, 1992.

Payne, Roger. Among Whales. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995/Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1993.

". . . Roger Payne is a scientist, first, last, and always--the world's leading cetacean biologist. But he is more. He is an activist and a romantic, an explorer, and a musician. And just as Barry Lopez's classic Of Wolves and Men was more than a simple treatise on wolves, so is this work much more than a book about whales . . . Among Whales presents the state of our most advanced knowledge about whales, but in doing so also embraces a rich variety of subjects and disciplines. It is a work of biology--cetacean, marine, and human; of exploration, of sociology, of cultural mythology, of philosophy, and most certainly, of literature. As Payne takes us on a journey from the home territory we thought we knew and across the spectrum of life forms, we realize we are also on a journey of the heart, of discovery about the larger questions of life on earth.

"Among the Whales addresses a broad scope of important and penetrating questions: How will the evolving composition of seawater affect life on earth? What is the device by which whales sing, and why do they do it? How can we know that whales use rhyme if we don't understand their language? For what purposes do dolphins use their unparalleled large and complex brains? What is the purpose of the human brain? What is the nature of wildness? How and why do creatures come together in peace?"

Trisha: A fine book.

___________, ed. Communication and Behavior of Whales. American Association for the Advancement of Science Selected Symposium 76. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983.

"This volume documents some of the core studies that ushered in a dramatic change in focus and methodology. Research on dead whales gave way to studies of live populations in which identifications of natural markings of individual animals made possible long-term observations of communication and behavior. The authors present new findings on the changing songs of humpback whales, now considered evidence for the vocal transmission of a cultural trait in a non-human animal; the population dynamics of southern right whales, including the discovery of an unexpected function of callosities; the pod-specific vocalizations of killer whales; the behavior of gray whales and how it relates to tides; the behavior and migratory destinations of humpback whales; and several proven benign techniques for studying the biology of free-ranging marine mammals. An exhaustive annotated bibliography covers the literature on humpback and right whales from 1864 to the present. The volume demonstrates how broader knowledge of whales can come from these new research techniques, knowledge that is vital for preservation of the vast habitats required for the survival of these animals."

Peet, Gerard, Hugo Nijkamp, Piet-Hein Nelissen, and Frits-Jan Maas. Bruinvissen, dolfijnen en walvissen van de Noordzee. Weert, The Netherlands: M&P Uitgeverij, 1992. In Dutch.

Jaap: Review of the porpoises, dolphins, and whales in the North Sea.

Penfound, Holly, and Brian McHattie. Distorted Nature: Exposing the Myth of Marineland. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Zoocheck Canada, 1998. Available from Zoocheck Canada, Inc., 3266 Yonge Street, Suite 1729, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3P6, Canada, (416) 285-1744, email: zoocheck@idirect.com.

From the executive summary: "Distorted Nature . . . is a critique by 13 wildlife experts [John Hall, marine mammal scientist; Naomi Rose, marine mammal scientist; Doug Cartlidge, former dolphin trainer; Paul Spong, orca scientist; Hugo Castello, marine mammal scientist, CITES scientific authority; Ronald Orenstein, zoologist, lawyer, CITES specialist; Samantha Lindley, veterinarian, animal behaviorist; John Gripper, verterinarian, zoo inspector; Brendan Price, biologist, former zoo keeper; Richard Farinator, former zoo keeper, director Captive Wildlife Protection Program, The Humane Society of the United States; Dragos G. Filoti, former veterinarian, Bucharest Zoo; Mike McIntosh, bear rehabilitation specialist; Lloyd Brown, wildlife/dolphin rehabilitation specialist] regarding the conditions experienced by animals exhibited at Marineland [of Canada in Niagara Falls, Ontario], the conservation/education merits of the facility, and broader wildlife concerns.

. . . "Five recurrent themes which emerge throughout this report about Marineland of Canada are concerns about: the well-being of the animals; Marineland's failure to play a legitimate conservation role; the facility's negative educational value; inadequate public health and safety measures; and the absence of adequate legislation governing the capture, trade and maintenance of captive wildlife.

"In considering these problems, the reader should keep in mind what is increasingly believed to be the main justification for keeping wild animals in captivity, i.e., the advancement of legitimate conservation/education programs that substantially benefit wild species and the environments in which they live. In contrast, Zoocheck believes the artificial, commercialized representation of nature provided within an amusement park setting like Marineland is counter-productive to these aims.

"Further, no captive wildlife facility should keep animals whose physical, psychological and social needs cannot be meet. The aberrant behaviours produced in many captive animals by inadequate care and housing result in a distortion of wild nature."

The report closes by providing recommendations to Marineland of Canada and to several levels of government.

Contents include: Background, Methodology, Expert Reports, Conclusions and Recommendations, and Historical Inventory: Killer Whales.

Perera, Victor. Of Whales and Men. New York: Random House, 2000.

Trisha: See also Perera's moving essay of the same title in William H. Shore, ed., The Nature of Nature: New Essays from America's Finest Writers on Nature. New York/London: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994.

Perlberg, Rose. Dolphins & Whales: Their Magic . . . Their Message . . . Their Teaching . . . A Sharing for All Humans. By Teacher Dolphin and the Whale Consciousness as told to Rose Perlberg, Ph.D. Los Angeles, California: NAZZ, 1993.

Perrin, William F. Biology and Conservation of the River Dolphins: Proceedings of the Workshop on Biology and Conservation of the Platanistoid Dolphins Held at Wuhan, People's Republic of China, October 28-30, 1986. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1989. Occasional papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission no. 3.

___________. Variation of Spotted and Spinner Porpoise (Genus Stenella) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and Hawaii. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

___________. Chronological Bibliography of the Tuna-Dolphin Problem, 1941-2001. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-356, 2004.

___________, R. L. Brownell, Jr., and D. P. DeMaster. Reproduction in Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 6. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1984.

"The 38 peer reviewed papers cover the following topics: reviews of cetacean reproduction; problems and new approaches in methodology; case studies of populations; density dependence; morphology, behaviour and physiology."

___________, M. L. L. Dolar, and M. N. R. Alava, eds. Report on the Biology and Conservation of Small Cetaceans and Dugongs of Southeast Asia. UNEP(W)/EAS WG.1/2. Bangkok: UNEP, 1996. Ordering information available from Ms. Unchalee Kattachan at kattachan.unescap@un.org.

Report of workshop in Dumaguete, Philippines, 27-30 June 1995.

___________, Gregory P. Donovan, and Jay Barlow. Gillnets and Cetaceans. Cambridge: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 15. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1994.

"This volume presents the most complete and current account of the world-wide problem that probably represents the most serious threat to cetaceans today. It represents the culmination of over four years work, beginning with the organisation of a Symposium and Workshop held in La Jolla in 1990. The volume includes the report of the Workshop, the IWC Scientific Committee's report on [populations] of small cetaceans that are subjected to 'significant' directed and incidental takes as submitted to the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and a total of over 50 peer-reviewed papers presented to the Workshop, subsequent IWC Scientific Committee meetings or requested to address important relevant issues not covered by the presented papers. The papers in the volume are organised into the following sections: North Atlantic (incl. Baltic and Mediterranean), Central America and Caribbean, Western South Atlantic, Africa and Indian Ocean, Asia and North Pacific Pelagic, Eastern North Pacific, Southeastern Pacific, Causes and Solutions."

___________, and A. C. Myrick, Jr. Age Determination Age of Toothed Whales ans Sirenians. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue No. 3. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1980.

"Age determination is a tool central to the development of life history parameters. This essential reference volume examines the practical problems in age determination of toothed whales and Sirenians and reviews current and new techniques of specimen preparation and reading. In addition to an extensive report agreed to by over 50 experts from around the world, the 16 papers included cover theoretical, histological and practical aspects of this topic, including case studies for a number of species. Over 15 years after its appearance it remains the leading volume on this subject . . . "

___________, and U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales: An Action Plan for the Conservation of Biological Diversity, 1988-1992. 2d ed. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1989. (See revised edition at Reeves, Randall.)

Chapters include: The Problems Faced by Cetaceans, Status of the Species and Populations, Recommended Conservative Action, and Other Issues and Projects to be Monitored. Also includes appendices on members of the Cetacean Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission; a list of agencies, research institutions, and conservation organizations in problem areas; and a progress report.

___________, Bernd Wursig, and J. G. M. Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, 2002.

From the publisher: ". . . a comprehensive, scientifically accurate work devoted to all aspects of marine mammals, including their anatomy, physiology, evolution, behavior, reproduction, ecology, and disease, as well as issues of exploitation, conservation, and management. Special emphasis is given to marine mammal interaction with humans. "Articles provide definitive facts about seals and sea lions, whales, dolphins and porpoises, and manatees and sea cows, as well as sea otters and polar bears. Each article is authoritative and up to date, prepared by one or more internationally recognized experts on the topic. In addition to providing information for scholars and researchers, the entries offer material for a high school or university level student, or even an interested general reader. ". . . includes the following features: Over 1,400 pages of informative articles arranged alphabetically for convenient location of information; 283 separate articles commissioned especially for this volume and thoroughly peer-reviewed for accuracy; articles written by the leading authorities on marine mammology from 20 different countries around the world; 840 figures and tables to support and amplify the written text, including 16 pages of special color plates; 1,700 cross references within the articles, providing links to other articles elsewhere in the book that amplify the subject at hand or give information about a related subject; approximately 3,000 bibliography entries that accompany the articles, presenting sources chosen by the authors to provide additional material on the article topics; extensive appendix including biographies of famous scientists, definitive list of all marine mammal species, and glossary of more than 1,000 terms; comprehensive subject index that directs the reader to specific subjects discussed within the articles."

Perrow, M., ed. The Mammals of Norfolk. Forthcoming 2000.

See cetacean chapter by Graeme Creswell, Norfolk Mammals 2000, c/o 35 Melrose Road, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7PN, U.K., Tel + 44 (0)1603 222765, Fax + 44 (0)1603 223219, email: graeme.cresswell.pt@norfolk.gov.uk.

Peterson, Brenda. Singing to the Sound. Troutdale, Ore.: NewSage Press, 2000.

From the publisher: "Singing to the Sound reveals darker and more troubled waters [than Peterson's earlier works] - from the Makah whale hunt to the feared extinction of Northwest salmon. For the first time in book form, Peterson unravels the complexities of the highly controversial Makah whale hunt - the first off U.S. mainland shores in nearly a century. As mediator and reporter (Seattle Times) of this international story for five years, Peterson now writes as historian with an eye for the future of both people and whales. She moves beyond the polarized view of 'Indians versus environmentalists' to portray a multi-faceted, human drama with no easy answers to a story that is still unfolding."

Also includes an interview with OrcaLab researchers in B.C. who study orcas through underwater hydrophones, and a discussion of water pollution, contaminated cetaceans, and possible environmental solutions.

___________. Living by Water: True Stories of Nature Spirit. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1990, 1994.

The following essays are about, or contain references to, dolphins or whales: Introduction: Soundings from the Sea; Animals as Brothers and Sisters; Watching for Whales in Winter; On Drowning. Includes accounts of the author's swims with dolphins at the Dolphin Research Center and Dolphins Plus in Florida.

___________, and Toni Frohoff, eds. Dolphins: A Literary and Scientific Exploration (working title). Sierra Club Books/Random House, forthcoming.

La Petite Encyclopedie des Baleines. Bordas editions. Originally published by Weldon Owen Pty Limited Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1990.

___________, and Linda Hogan. Sightings: The Gray Whales' Mysterious Journey. National Geographic Society, 2002.

From the publisher: "For 50 million years, the gray whale -- the most ancient of all great whales -- has evolved along the western shores of North America. Its 10,000-mile migration from its summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea to its winter birthing lagoons in Baja, Mexico, represents a timeless story -- one that exceeds the rational boundaries of science and speaks to many worlds, both human and cetacean.

"In Sightings,celebrated Chicksaw writer Linda Hogan and acclaimed novelist and naturalist Brenda Peterson look at the rich past and divisive present of the gray whale, including the conflict between environmentalists who seek to protect the species and Native American tribes who traditionally hunt them. The authors illuminate as never before the complex and fascinating perspectives that surround this monumental migration -- from tribal members, scientists, and fishermen to eco-warriors, businessmen, and historical whalers. Suffused with the authors’ lyricism and clear-eyed passion, Sightings is a revelatory, often haunting, and altogether triumphant amalgam of accessible science, compelling history, incisive anthropology, and powerhouse storytelling."

La Petite Encyclopedie des Dauphins et Marsouins. Bordas editions. Originally published by Weldon Owen Pty Limited Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1990.

Phillips, Marion. The Whale: Going . . . Going . . . Gone?. Fort Lauderdale, Florida: Exposition-Phoenix Press, 1988.

Pike, Gordon Chesley. Guide to the Whales, Porpoises and Dolphins of the North-East Pacific and Arctic Waters of Canada and Alaska. Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada: Fisheries Research Board of Canada Biological Station, Circular No. 32 Revised, August 1956.

Trisha: A 16-page booklet with some general descriptive illustrations of cetacean body parts and blowing and diving characteristics, followed by illustrations and one-paragraph descriptions of blue, fin, sei, minke, humpback, gray, North Pacific right, bowhead, sperm, pygmy sperm, Atlantic bottlenosed, Baird's beaked, Stejneger's beaked, Cuvier's beaked, Pacific killer, pilot, false killer, and white whales; Risso's, Pacific striped, Baird's, long-snouted, spotted, right whale, and Atlantic bottlenose dolphins; harbour and Dall porpoises; and narwhals. Closes with a form for recording observations of cetaceans at sea and a form for recording measurements and observations of stranded cetaceans.

Pike, Gordon Chesley, and L. B. McCaskie. Marine Mammals of British Columbia. Canada: Fisheries Research Board, Bulletin 171, 1969.

Pilleri, Giorgio. The Oligo-Miocene Cetacea of the Italian Waters, with a Bibliography of the Fossil Cetacea of Italy (1670-1986). Ostermundingen: Brain Anatomy Institute, 1986.

___________. Cetaceans in Captivity. Berne, Switzerland: Brain Anatomy Institute, 1983.

___________. Forschungsreise nach China zum Studium der Delphine des Chang Jiang (Yang Tze Kiang) (Expedition to China to Study the Dolphins of the Yangtze). Waldau-Bern: Verlag des Hirnanatomischen Institutes, 1980.

___________. Secrets of the Blind Dolphins. Karachi: Sind Wildlife Management Board, 1980. Also in German: Die Geheimnisse der blinden Delphine, Berne: Hallway Verlag, 1975.

Pilleri, Giorgio, and O. Pilleri. Zoologische Expedition zum Orinoco und Brazo Casiquiare 1981. Ostermundigen, Schweig: Hirnanatomischen Institutes, 1982.

Dolphins of the Orinoco River, Venezuela and Columbia.

Pinney, Terry. Dolphins: Angels of the Sea. Available only in Japanese and German (Dolfijnen: Engelen van de Zee).(New Age)

Plourde, Suzie. The St. Lawrence and Its Belugas. Sainte-Foy, Quebec: Societe Linneenne du Quebec, 1990.

Poikalainen, Väino, and Enn Ernits. Rock Carvings of Lake Onega: The Vodla Region. Estonian Society of Prehistoric Art, 1998.

Rauno Lauhakangas: Contents include cetacean rock carvings (petroglyphs) within thousands of rock carvings from the Neolithic age, dated 6,000-7,000 ago. Carvings of whales, swans, deer, and other animals are arranged in some kind of constellations, which one might conclude are meant to convey symbolic messages. (Lake Onega is located at 63 N 37 E, Northeast from St. Petersburg, Russia).

Pörtner, H. O., and R. C. Playle, eds. Cold Ocean Physiology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

"The majority of marine mammals live in temperate or polar oceans so it is important to know something of the ecology and adaptations of species other than the seals and whales that most of us spend the majority of our time thinking about. This volume contains papers on both general concepts as well as specific mechanisms of adaptations, from the molecular level to reviews of the diving response in phocids and otariids and the physiology of polar birds. Among other subjects, there are overviews of subjects such as cold ocean physiology, contrasts between polar and deep-sea animals, antifreeze proteins and other molecular adaptations in fish, and metabolism in Antarctic marine ectotherms. This is another book that should be in the libraries of labs and universities with marine programs and one that is well worth a look by good . . . marine mammal biologists as well."

Postle, Deb, and Mark Simmons, Encounters with Whales '93: A Conference to Further Explore the Management Issues Relating to Human/Whale Interactions. Townsville, Queensland: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 1994. Workshop series ISSN: 0156-5842; no. 20.

Proceedings of a conference held at Lady Eliot Island, Australia, September 6-10, 1993.

Power, Dale. Carving Dolphins and Whales. A Schiffer Book for Woodcarvers. Schiffer Publishing, 1994.

From the publisher: "All of the techniques necessary for capturing the sleek beauty and strength of dolphins and whales in wood are presented here. In direct and basic language and color photographs Dale Power takes the carver through each step in the process of creating a dolphin from basswood with a combination of hand and power tools.

"Once the dolphin is carved, woodburning and painting techniques are explored in detail to add life to the work. Helpful hints for mounting the finished work are included as well. Patterns for three dolphins and two whales are provided as well as a color gallery showing a variety of dolphins and whales in groupings which are sure to inspire."

Prins, Gwyn. Top Guns and Toxic Whales: The Environment and Global Security. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Marine Mammals of the Black Sea. To order, contact Dr. Bayram Ozturk, Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu Cad. No:200, Laleli - Istanbul, Turkey, voice/fax: +90-216-323-9050, e-mail: ozturkb@doruk.com.tr.

Proceedings of the symposium held in Istanbul in 1994, involving representatives from all the Black Sea riparian countries. The subjects ranged from pathology to dolphin fisheries, monk seal conservation to marine pollution.

Proctor, S. J. Whales: Their Story. Vancouver Public Aquarium Newsletter, Volume XIX, Number 4, July-August, 1975. Vancouver, British Columbia: Vancouver Public Aquarium Association.

Pryor, Karen. On Behavior: Essays and Research. North Bend, Washington: Sunshine Books, 1995.

See chapter "Why Porpoise Trainers Are Not Dolphin Lovers."

___________. Lads Before the Wind: Adventures in Porpoise Training. New York: Harper & Row, 1975; Sunshine Books, 2000, rev. ed.

"In this book the reader learns almost as much about human behavior as about porpoise behavior. Starting from scratch, with a report on operant conditioning in one hand and a bucket of fish in the other, Karen Pryor learned to train porpoises, learned to train trainers, and gradually came to be recognized as an international authority on whale and porpoise behavior and training."

From a review in the November-December 1975 issue ofOceans magazine: "Karen Pryor is a highly expert porpoise, whale, and horse trainer. Her approach is Skinnerian . . . Her style is breezy, informative and entertaining. She describes the founding of her husband's Sea-Life Park on Oahu, Hawaii, and her training of porpoises and whales for research purposes and for their marine shows."

___________. A Dog & A Dolphin 2.0: An Introduction to Clicker Training. Sunshine, 1996.

Excerpt: "The first thing to understand about dolphin training is that we are working with animals you can't punish. No matter how mad you get -- even if the animal makes you mad on purpose, by splashing you from head to foot, say -- you can't retaliate. You can't use a leash or a whip or even your fist on an animal that just swims away. You can't starve a dolphin into being cooperative. Dolphins get their fresh water from the fish they eat; if you take away the fish, they rapidly become dehydrated, they lose their appetites altogether, and then they die. Finally, you can't even yell at a dolphin, because they don't care. Maybe you're thinking 'I bet I could think up a way to punish a dolphin . . .' and I bet you could; but it doesn't matter, because dolphin trainers don't need it."

Trisha: Retaliate, whip, fist, punish, etc. -- what an aggressively horrifying way to present your thoughts. Since it is all claimed irrelevant, why even go there?

Pryor, Karen, and Kenneth S. Norris, eds. Dolphin Societies: Discoveries and Puzzles. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1991. For a review of this title by Danny Yee, click here.

From the dust jacket: "In this unusual anthology, two of America's best-known scientists in the marine mammal field have assembled an astonishing variety of discoveries about dolphins. The contributions range from students' first published research to senior scientists' summarizing of a lifetime of work. The dolphins studied are a diverse mix, including tiny spinners, majestic pilot whales and killer whales, and the familiar bottlenose dolphins.

"The research tactics vary widely: the researchers have followed dolphins in boats, tracked them from shore, dived among hundreds of dolphins (and a few sharks) in tuna fishing nets. They have used computers and airplanes, sailboats and bicycles, genetic analysis and artificial language. They have learned to read the life history of a dolphin from the cross-section of a single tooth.

"Pryor and Norris are distinguished writers as well as scientists, and the book includes entertaining essays, by one or both editors, on the intriguing history and significance of dolphin research. Dolphin Societies is ingeniously put together so that both specialist and lay reader will find it appealing. It not only surveys the most interesting recent research on dolphin behavior but also provides a fascinating record of the scientific mind at work."

Chapters include: FIELD STUDIES: Herd Structure, Hunting, and Play: Bottlenose Dolphins in the Black Sea; Dolphin Movement Patterns: Information from Radio and Theodolite Tracking Studies; The Feeding Ecology of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Pacific Northwest; The Interactions between Killer Whales and Boats in Johnstone Strait, B.C.; Social Structure in Spotted Dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in the Tuna Purse Seine Fishery in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; The Role of Long-Term Study in Understanding the Social Structure of a Bottlenose Dolphin Community [Sarasota, Florida, bottlenose population]; Using Aerial Photogrammetry to Study Dolphin School Structure; LABORATORY STUDIES: Mortal Remains, Studying Dead Animals; Some New and Potential Uses of Dental Layers in Studying Delphinid Populations; An Overview of the Changes in the Role of A Female Pilot Whale with Age; Some Thoughts on Grandmothers; CAPTIVES STUDIES: THE KEY TO UNDERSTANDING WILD DOLPHINS: Looking at Captive Dolphins; Changes in Aggressive and Sexual Behavior between Two Male Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in a Captive Colony; Use of a Telemetry Device to Identify which Dolphin Produces a Sound; The Domestic Dolphin; What the Dolphin Knows, or Might Know, in Its Natural World; Dolphin Psychophysics: Concepts for the Study of Dolphin Echolocation; Dolphin Politics and Dolphin Science. Each chapter concludes with a bibliography of references, and the book is indexed, although not in depth.

Purves, P. E., and G. E. Pilleri. Echolocation in Whales and Dolphins. New York/London: Academic Press, 1983. (800) 321-5068.

Quayle, Louise. Dolphins and Porpoises. New York: Gallery Books, 1988. Published in French as Dauphins and marsouins, Minerva, 1990.

This is a richly illustrated volume that "provides a close up look at [dolphins and porpoises] in stunning, revealing, and sometimes controversial text and photographs."

Chapters include: Of Gods and Dolphins, Origins of the Odontocetes, Dolphin Biology: Aquatic Adaptations, Families in the Clan, Community Living, Intelligence and Communication, In Training, A Peaceful Coexistence? (explores dangers of tuna industry and pollutants). Also contains a selected bibliography and a brief index.

Rabinovitch, Melitta. Der Delphin in Sage und Mythos der Griechen. (The Dolphin in Greek Legend and Myth.) Dornach, Germany/Basel, Switzerland: Hybernia-Verlag, 1947. In German.

For a twenty-five page excerpt translated into English by Richard M. Brown, see the article "The Dolphin in Greek Legend and Myth" in Alexandria, volume 2 (1993), edited by David Fideler, Phanes Press, P.O. Box Box 6114, Grand Rapids, MI 49515, USA, e-mail: phanes@aol.com.

Radway, Allen K. Conservation and Management of Whales. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Pres, 1980.

Jaap: History of whaling; population estimates and population dynamics, population models, management procedures. Gives a good overview of population modeling techniques and the associated mathematics.

Ramirez, Ken. Animal Training: Successful Animal Management through Positive Reinforcement. Chicago, Illinois: Shedd Aquarium Press, 1999.

From the review in The Society for Marine Mammology newsletter, Winter 1999: "[This] book [written by the director of training and husbandry, Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois] is designed for professional animal trainers in a zoological setting. It discusses animals as diverse as the smallest pet puppy to the largest elephant, while drawing on Mr. Ramirez' extensive background with marine mammals and many other species. The book is a manual describing the practical application of positive reinforcement for training animals, a text book for the serious student of applied behavior analysis in a zoo setting, and a reader for professional trainers featuring articles by over 150 authors."

Ranneft, D. M., H. Eaker, and H. and R. W. Davis. A guide to the pronunciation and meaning of cetacean taxonomic names. Aquatic Mammals, 2001, 27(2):183-195.

"Taxonomic names, frequently made-up of Greek and/or Latin elements, are mysterious and difficult to pronounce for those who never studied ancient languages. This simple guide is designed to help English speakers understand and pronounce the scientific names used to classify cetaceans . . . The Appendix shows how orders, suborders, superfamilies, families, and subfamilies may be distinguished by their endings."

Rare Animal Relief Effort. Vanishing Giants: The History, Biology and Fate of the Great Whales. Rare Animal Relief Effort, 1975.

This 24-page booklet features the following species: Sperm, gray, minke, Bryde's sei, fin, blue, humpback, and right whales.

Rawles, C. J. G., and E. C. M. Parsons. Environmental motivation of whale-watching tourists in Scotland. Tourism in Marine Environments, 2005, 1(2):129-132.

Abstract: In 2001 and 2002 a survey was conducted to investigate levels of environmental awareness and motivation in Scottish whale watchers. Eighty-three percent of respondents regularly recycled items, 60% used energy-saving light bulbs, and 42% used other energy-saving devices in their homes. Forty-six percent regularly purchased organic or environmentally friendly products and 73% only purchased cosmetic/hygiene products that had not been tested on animals. Nearly half (46.6%) were members of environmental or animal welfare organizations, with 27.1% having participated in voluntary work for such organizations. The results demonstrate that Scottish whale watchers are much more environmentally motivated than the general public, and furthermore demonstrated higher levels of environmental motivation than whale-watching tourists studied in other parts of the world.

Read, Andrew J. Porpoises. Grantown on Spey, Great Britain: Colin Baxter Photography, forthcoming.

Read, Andrew J., Piet R. Wiepkema, and Paul E. Nachtigall, eds. The Biology of the Harbour Porpoise. Woerden, The Netherlands: De Spil Publishers, 1997. e-mail: despil@pi.net.

On the husbandry and rehabilitation, as well as morphology, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and sensory systems of (stranded) harbor porpoises.

Sections and chapter titles include: Introduction: The Harbour Porpoise (HP); Rehabilitation: The Rehabilitation and Release of Stranded HP, A Method of Tube-feeding Juvenile HP; Anatomy: An Anatomical Atlas of an Adult Female HP, Blubber Thickness in HP; Physiology: Respiration in HP, Food Consumption and Body Weight of HP, Swimming Behaviour of HP under Different Conditions in Human Care, Skin Surface Temperature Changes in a HP While on Land, Passage Time of Carmine Red Dye through the Digestive Tract of HP; Biomechanics: Pressure Changes in the Mouth of a Feeding HP; Acoustics: Low-Frequency Aerial Hearing of HP, Detection of Bone Conductor Signals by a HP, The Ability of a HP to Discriminate between Objects Buried in Sand, Structure of HP Click Train Signals, Interactions with Fisheries, The Effect of Various Sounds on HP, The Response of a HP to Nets of Various Sizes, with and without Deterring Sounds.

Recchia, Cheri Anne. Social Behaviour of Captive Belugas, Delphinapterus leucas. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1994. Ph.D. thesis.

Reactions of Beluga Whales and Narwhals to Ship Traffic and Ice-Breaking Along Ice Edges in the Eastern Canadian High Arctic, 1982-1984. Environmental Studies Series No. 37. Prepared under contract for the Northern Oil and Gas Action Program. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1986. (Also in French under the title: Reactions des Narvals et des Belugas a la Circulation Maritime et au Passage des Bries-Glaces le long de la Banquise dans l'Est de l'Extreme-Arctique Canadien de 1982 a 1984.)

___________. The Problem of Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) Harassment at the Breeding Lagoons and During Migration. Report MMC-76/06 for U.S. Marine Mammal Commission, NTIS No. PB-272506, 1977.

Reed, Missy M. Swimming with Dolphins in Paradise: A Guide to Professional Wild Dolphin Swims. Forthcoming.

From the author: ". . . lists 20 popular destinations worldwide to swim with dolphin in the wild. Through 2 years of . . . research Missy has [collected] valuable information on locations, the dolphin experience, professional operators, dolphin etiquette, dolphin statistics, FAQs, insider tips, resources, and more . . ."

Reeves, Randall R. "Conservation Status of the Indus River Dolphin in Pakistan." IBI Reports (1998) no. 8: 1-9.

Reeves, Randall R., Robert J. Hofman, Gregory K. Silber, and Dean Wilkonson. Acoustic Deterrence of Harmful Marine Mammal-Fishery Interactions: Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Seattle, Washington, 20-22 March 1996. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-10. December 1996.

Examines "problems and uncertainties related to the use of acoustic deterrents in the conservation and management of marine mammals. Acoustic deterrent devices have been used to help solve two distinct types of fishery-marine mammal conflict: (1) bycatch of marine mammals in fishing gear, and (2) depredation by marine mammals on fish caught in fishing gear, confined in aquaculture enclosures, or aggregated or constrained at 'choke points' in river systems. Acoustic alarms (mainly small, low-intensity sound-generators called 'pingers') have been developed for 'alerting' marine mammals to the presence of fishing gear, with the goal of reducing bycatch rates. High-intensity acoustic 'harassment' devices (AHDs) have been used widely to reduce depredation on fish, especially by pinnipeds.

"The workshop's main objectives were to: (a) evaluate experimental and other evidence concerning the efficacy of acoustic deterrents in preventing or reducing interactions between marine mammals and fisheries, including aquaculture operation; (b) identify critical uncertainties about the effectiveness of acoustic deterrent devices and their effects on marine mammals and other biota; (c) identify and establish priorities for relevant research; and (d) develop guidelines for when, how, and under what conditions acoustic deterrents should be incorporated into management. Workshop participants included representatives of the fishing industry, environmental groups, and manufacturers of acoustic deterrent devices, staff members from government agencies in the United States, Canada, and Australia, and scientists from seven countries and twenty-one institutions. Participants broke into working groups with specific terms of reference, and the reports of the working groups are included as part of the overall workshop report."

Reeves, Randall R., and R. S. Lal Mohan. A Future for Asian River Dolphins. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1993. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

Report from a seminar on the conservation of river dolphins in the Indian subcontinent.

Reeves, Randall R., and Stephen Leatherwood. Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales: 1994-1998 Action Plan for the Conservation of Cetaceans. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1994. (Revised edition of Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales, by William F. Perrin, 2d ed.,1989.)

___________. The Sea World Book of Dolphins. San Diego/New York/London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987.

The authors survey the habits and history of dolphins in an "engaging and readable text highlighted by dozens of . . . full-color photographs."

Chapters include: The Remarkable Dolphin, How Dolphins Evolved, How Dolphins Have Adapted, River Dolphins, Coastal Dolphins, Dolphins of the Continental Shelf, Oceanic Dolphins, Captive Dolphins, Conservation of Dolphins, Scientific Names, Chart of Dolphins and Porpoises. Also includes suggestions for further reading and an index.

Reeves, Randall, and Edward Mitchell. Distribution and Migration, Exploitation, and Former Abundance of White Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Baffin Bay and Adjacent Waters. Ottawa: Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 1987.

Reijnders, P. J. H., A. Aguilar, and G. P. Donovan. Chemical Pollutants and Cetaceans. Special Issue 1 of the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management.

This volume traces the work of the IWC (International Whaling Commission) Scientific Committee on the issue of chemical pollutants and cetaceans. It culminates in the major research initiative, POLLUTION 2000+, agreed upon by the Committee and the Commission at the 1999 Annual Meeting held in Grenada.

Contents: Introduction, Report of the Workshop on Chemical Pollution and Cetaceans, Practical Guidelines for Postmortem Examination and Tissue Sampling of Cetaceans for Ecotoxicological Purposes, Proposal to the IWC on Furthering the Recommendations of the Pollution Workshop, Planning Workshop to Develop a Programme to Investigate Pollutant Cause-Effect Relationships in Cetaceans: "Pollution 2000+," Biological Factors Affecting Variability of Persistent Pollutant Levels in Cetaceans, Biomarkers as Pollution Indicators with Special Reference to Cetaceans, An Overview of the Concentrations and Effects of Metals in Cetacean Species, Summary of Temporal Trends in Pollutant Levels Observed in Marine Mammals, Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofarans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in New Zealand Cetaceans, Organochlorine Levels in Cetaceans from South Africa: A Review, A Note on Concentrations of Metals in Cetaceans from Southern Africa, A Review of Organochlorine and Metal Pollutants in Marine Mammals from Central and South America, Induction of Biotransformation Enzymes by Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PHAHs): Potential Impact on Animal Physiology and Health, Environmental Pollutants and Marine Mammal Health: The Potential Impact of Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Hydrocarbons on Immune System Dysfunction, Cancer in Beluga Whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada: A Potential Biomarker of Environmental Contamination, Morbilliviral Infections in Marine Mammals

Rein, Betty Brothers. Dolphins Love Our Florida Keys Home!. Big Pine Key, Florida: Litoky Publishing, 1982.

Reiss, Diane Lynn. Pragmatics of Human-Dolphin Communication. 1983.

___________, and Lori Marino. "Mirror Self-Recognition in the Bottlenose Dolphin: A Case of Cognitive Convergence." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, May 2001, 98(10).

Abstract: Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is an exceedingly rare capacity in the animal kingdom. To date, only humans and great apes have shown convincing evidence of MSR. In this study we present the first conclusive evidence for self-recognition outside of the primate domain in a species phylogenetically distant and neuroanatomically different from primates, the bottlenose dolphin. Two dolphins were exposed to reflective surfaces under conditions of control, sham-mark and marking of the body. Analysis includes measures of frequency, duration, and latencies of behaviors under different experimental conditions. Behaviors were categorized as either mark-directed or not. Results demonstrate that both subjects are capable of using a mirror to investigate parts of their own body. These results indicate that bottlenose dolphins possess the capacity for self-recognition. These findings provide a striking example of evolutionary convergence in cognitive capacity.

Relei, Carolyn. Marine Animals Stained Glass Pattern Book. (Contains dolphins and humpback whales.)

Rendell, Fred, and Tricia Watterson. Whale. New York: State Mutual Book and Periodical Service, 1989.

Rendell, Luke, and Hal Whitehead. "Vocal Clans in Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus)." Proceedings: Biological Sciences, February 2003.

Abstract: Cultural transmission may be a significant source of variation in the behaviour of whales and dolphins, especially as regards their vocal signals. We studied variation in the vocal output of "codas" by sperm whale social groups. Codas are patterns of clicks used by female sperm whales in social circumstances. The coda repertoires of all known social units (n = 18, each consisting of about 11 females and immatures with long-term relationships) and 61 out of 64 groups (about two social units moving together for periods of days) that were recorded in the South Pacific and Caribbean between 1985 and 2000 can be reliably allocated into six acoustic "clans," five in the Pacific and one in the Caribbean. Clans have ranges that span thousands of kilometres, are sympatric, contain many thousands of whales and most probably result from cultural transmission of vocal patterns. Units seem to form groups preferentially with other units of their own clan. We suggest that this is a rare example of sympatric cultural variation on an oceanic scale. Culture may thus be a more important determinant of sperm whale population structure than genes or geography, a finding that has major implications for our understanding of the species' behavioural and population biology.

Renjun, Liu, et al. "Analysis on the Capture, Behavior Monitoing and Death of the Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) in the Shishou Semi-nature Reserve at the Yangtze River, China." IBI Reports (1998) no. 8: 11-21.

Report of the International Workshop on the Special Aspects of Watching Sperm Whales: Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica, East Caribbean, 8th January - 11th Janaury 1996. East Sussex: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1997.

Report of the Workshop on the Scientific Aspects of Managing Whale Watching: Montecastello di Vibio, Italy, 30th March - 4th April 1995. East Sussex: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1996.

Report on a Workshop on Problems Related to Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaii: Final Report to U.S. Marine Mammal Commission. NTIS, 1978.

Reynolds, John Elliott, and Daniel K. Odell. Marine Mammal Strandings in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Technical Report NMFS 98, 1991.

Reynolds, John Elliott, and Sentiel A Rommel, eds. Biology of Marine Mammals. Washington, D.C./London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999. Reviewed by G. R. VanBlaricom in Marine Mammal Science, 2001, 17(1). Review by M. Vieregg in Aquatic Mammals, 2001, 27(1): 70-71.

"This volume serves as an introduction for upper level undergraduate and graduate students, a reference for professionals, and a comprehensive resource for marine mammal biologists and managers. It takes an integrated approach to the biology of marine carnivores, cetaceans, and sirenians, comparing marine mammals with one another, and with terrestrial mammals, providing a framework for fundamental biological and ecological concepts, including functional morphology, physiology, sensory systems, population biology, behavioral ecology, and feeding ecology."

Reynolds, John Elliott, Randall S. Wells, and Samantha D. Eide. The Bottlenose Dolphin: Biology and Conservation. University Press of Florida, 2000. University Press, 1-800-226-3822. Review by M. E. dos Santos in Aquatic Mammals, 2001, 27(1): 67-69.

Contents: A Crisis at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century?, Bottlenose Dolphins: Special or Not?, Dolphin Evolution: Origins and Outcomes, Function and Structure, Life History Strategies, The Daily Lives of Dolphins, Intelligence and Cognition, Human Interactions with Dolphins, The Stock Question: Lumpers vs. Splitters, Conservation Strategies and Legislation, Glossary, Notes, Bibliography, Index

From the publisher: "The Bottlenose Dolphin presents for the first time a comprehensive, colorfully illustrated, and concise overview of a species that has fascinated humans for at least 3,000 years. After reviewing historical myths and legends of the dolphin back to the ancient Greeks and discussing current human attitudes and interactions, the author replaces myths with facts--up-to-date scientific assessment of dolphin evolution, behavior, ecology, morphology, reproduction, and genetics--while also tackling the difficult issues of dolphin conservation and management.

"Although comprehensive enough to be of great value to professionals, educators, and students, the book is written in a manner that all dolphin lovers will enjoy. Randall Wells's anecdotes interspersed throughout the work offer a first-hand view of dolphin encounters and research based on three decades working with them. Color photographs and nearly 100 black and white illustrations, including many by National Geographic photographer Flip Nicklin, beautifully enhance the text.

"Readers of The Bottlenose Dolphin will better appreciate what dolphins truly are and do, as well as understand some of the controversies surrounding them. While raising compelling questions, the book provides a wealth of information on a legendary species that is loved and admired by many people."

From a review by William Rossiter, Cetacean Society International, in Whales Alive!, July 2001, pp. 12-13: "I was eager to learn from The Bottlenose Dolphin, thinking it an update of the 1980 classic of the same title edited by Leatherwood and Reeves. The authors declared that '[t]o help people, the dolphins, and the issues we wrote this book.' But I puzzled who the book was really written for from the start, as it stumbled into surprising turf on page two, asking if 'people want to release captive dolphins into the wild to make themselves feel virtuous or do what is most humane for the captives and the wild populations?' By page four they fell off the wall, with '[i]s the natural world a healthier place to live than the captive environment?' With seven dolphins cooking in the Mexican sun, another two abandoned in the mountains of Guatemala, and a Japanese drive fishery scheduled to kill many and sell a few to Asian dolphinariums, I felt some chagrin that the authors didn't seem aware of the realities of dolphin captivity today, at least beyond Florida and the captive dolphins they rely on for much of their research.

"Too many examples were polarized or incomplete. For example, while it is true that a wild dolphin killed a man, it might have been added that the man was drunk, trying to stub out a cigarette in the dolphin's blowhole, and had a heart attack as the dolphin reacted to escape. He died waiting for the Brazilian ambulance. Perhaps I'm just upset because they even misused an out-of-context quote from CSI's 1983 Whales Alive Conference.

"The better title for this book would The Bottlenose Dolphin and Us, referring in part to the personal experiences that shaped the authors' opinions, and in part for the problems humans are causing this species. These three eminent scientists, with so much to tell us about this species, instead spent much effort on an agenda to defame those who oppose captivity, and to deflower anyone with a delight in myths. But they didn't do very well at either. Their agenda only got in the way of the reason most people would want to read this book., unless it was required reading. That's it! Suddenly the language, style and presentation made sense; this book is like a series of lectures, aimed at a captive audience. But the serious lay student of dolphins is not captive, and expects better of science.

"The core of the book finally does get down to basics. There is much to learn from it. The review of scientific research and conservation issues is superb. The many references could take a serious student very far. But then the authors began a section on intelligence and cognition, including a vengeful review of Lilly's now ancient ideas as a basis for cetology's failure to understand the real dolphin's cognitive adaptations and abilities. To be blunt, the innovation and inquiry necessary for today's science to advance our knowledge of what dolphins might think about is stunted at the top. These authors are among the senior peers of the discipline, and should be aware that many aspiring graduate students have been culled for considering cognition an interesting dissertation subject. Perhaps they truly don't know of the perception by students that a small number of established scientists have declared and limited what is acceptable in cognitive studies. I was there when they did it, and watched the defeated faces of grad students eager to explore. Dolphin cognition deserves better study, if only to gently put away the myths. After all, the core fault is our inability to ask the right questions.

"This is an expensive book that doesn't meet its promise."

Rice, Dale W. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy special publication no. 4. Lawrence, Kansas: Society for Marine Mammalogy, 1999.

___________. A List of the Marine Mammals of the World. 3d ed. NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-711, 1977.

___________, and V. B. Scheffer. A List of the Marine Mammals of the World. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report--Fisheries No. 579, 1968.

___________, and Allen A. Wolman. The Life History and Ecology of the Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Stillwater, Oklahoma: American Society of Mammalogists Special Publication No. 3, 1971.

Richardson, W. John, Charles R. Green, Jr., Charles I. Malme, and Denis H. Thomson, eds. Marine Mammals and Noise. San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc., 1995, (800) 321-5068.

From Dolphin Data Base News, Winter 1995/1996: "Review of the known and potential effects of human-made noise on marine mammals, with an emphasis on underwater noise. Sources include boat, aircraft, and offshore oil and gas industry noise, as well as the effects of other noise sources, including icebreaking, sonar, marine construction, and explosions. Written for both specialists and non-specialists."

Richter, C.F., S. M. Dawson, and E. Slooten. Sperm whale watching off Kaikoura, New Zealand: Effects of current activities on surfacing and vocalisation patterns. Science for Conservation, 2003, 219. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Abstract: Off Kaikoura, South Island, New Zealand, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are the focus of a whale watching industry which uses boats and aircraft to view the animals year-round. This study employed boat-based and shore-based observations to determine the impacts of current whale watching activities on the whales. Over four years (1998-2001), we recorded 1676 sightings from the research vessel and 435 from shore. Several aspects of whale behaviour were significantly affected by the presence of whale watching vessels. Blow interval (mean and median) decreased in the presence of the research vessel and/or whale watching boats. Whale watching boats and aircraft, individually or together, caused increases in the time whales spent at the surface and in the frequency and amount of heading changes. Boats caused a decrease in the time to the first click. Aerial behaviours were more frequent when only the research vessel was present. Two groups of sperm whales are distinguishable off Kaikoura: resident whales, which typically stay in the study area for weeks or months at a time, often returning in different seasons and/or years; and transients, which are seen on one day only. Transients reacted more frequently and more strongly to boats. However, they are rarely visited by whale watching trips because of their further offshore distribution. Residents reacted less and received most of the whale watching activity. Our study showed that whale reactions to whale watching boats varied significantly among different individuals. Some whales were very tolerant. Whale reactions also varied with season. Our survey indicates that effects of whale watching on resident whales, while statistically detectable, appear to be sustainable, and of no serious biological consequence. However, current whale watching effort on residents is high, and some individual whales may spend approximately half of their surfacings during the busy summer season accompanied by one or more boats. Given management options of reducing, maintaining or increasing the level of permitted whale watching activities, we recommend that the current level be maintained.

Ridgway, Sam. The Dolphin Doctor: A Pioneering Veterinarian Remembers the Extraordinary Dolphin That Inspired His Career. New York: Ballantine, 1987.

"In 1962, Dr. Sam Ridgway, a native Texan just two years out of medical school, knew nothing about dolphins. Drawn by the mystery of the sea and a love for its creatures, he moved to California. There, over the next eight years, he formed a remarkable partnership with a pugnacious dolphin he came to call Tuffy. [Tuffy was a dolphin who worked with the aquanauts in the Sea Lab II program in 1965.] With Tuffy's intelligent cooperation, Ridgway made major advances in the understanding of dolphin physiology. Man and dolphin also put their heads together to explore the ocean's new frontiers.

"This . . . memoir captures the scientific adventure as well as the intimate relationship that developed between these two mammals."

Documents the author's personal experiences in the early days of the U.S. Navy program at Point Mugu, California.

___________, ed. Mammals of the Sea: Biology and Medicine. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1972.

Ridgway, Sam H., and Richard J. Harrison, eds. Handbook of Marine Mammals: Volume 3: The Sirenians and Baleen Whales. London/San Diego: Academic Press, 1985. (800) 321-5068.

Chapters include: Dugong, Dugong dugon; Manatees: Trichechus manatus, Trichechus senegalensis, and Trichechus inunguis; Gray Whale, Eschrichtius robustus; Minke Whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata; Bryde's Whale, Balaenoptera edeni; Sei Whale, Balaenoptera borealis; Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus; Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus; Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae; Right Whales: Eubalaena glacialis and Eubalaena australis; Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus; Pygmy Right Whale, Caperea marginata.

___________. Handbook of Marine Mammals: Volume 4: River Dolphins and the Larger Toothed Whales. London/San Diego: Academic Press, 1989. (800) 321-5068.

Chapters include: Amazon River Dolphin, Boto: Inia geoffrensis (de Blainville, 1817); Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Miller, 1918; Franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844); Susu: Platanista gangetica (Roxburgh, 1801) and Platanista minor Owen, 1853; Irrawaddy Dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris (Gray, 1866); The White Whale, Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776); Narwhal, Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758; Pygmy Sperm Whale, Kogia breviceps (de Blainville, 1838), and Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia simus Owen, 1866; Baird's Beaked Whale, Berardius bairdii Stejneger, 1883, and Arnoux's Beaked Whale, Berardius arnuxii Duvernoy, 1851; Cuvier's Beaked Whale, Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823; Shepherd's Beaked Whale, Tasmacetus shepherdi Olivier, 1937; Bottlenose Whales: Hyperoodon ampullatus (Forster, 1770) and Hyperoodon planifrons Flower, 1882; Beaked Whales of the Genus Mesoplodon.

___________. Handbook of Marine Mammals: Volume 5: The First Book of Dolphins. London/San Diego: Academic Press, 1994. (800) 321-5068.

Chapters include: Rough-toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis (Lesson, 1828); Humpback Dolphins: Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765), Sousa plumbea (G. Cuvier, 1829), and Sousa teuszii (Kukenthal, 1892); Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853); Pantropical Spotted Dolphin, Stenella attenuata; Spinner Dolphin, Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828); Striped Dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833); Clymene Dolphin, Stenella clymene (Gray, 1846); Atlantic Spotted Dolphin, Stenella frontalis (G. Cuvier, 1829); Common Dolphin, White-bellied Porpoise, Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758; Fraser's Dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser, 1956; Commerson's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède 1804); Chilean Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia (Gray, 1846); Heaviside's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii (Gray, 1828); Hector's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori (van Beneden, 1881); Right Whale Dolphins: Lissodelphis borealis (Peale, 1848) and Lissodelphis peronni (Lacépède 1804); Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephala electra Gray, 1846; Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874.

___________. Handbook of Marine Mammals: Volume 6: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises. London/San Diego: Academic Press, 1998. (800) 321-5068.

From the publisher: "Volume 6 covers the remaining dolphins and porpoises in a series of seventeen chapters, each written by a specialist author with extensive personal research experience of the species. Each chapter provides a description of the species, and includes sections on the aspects of distribution and abundance, anatomy, physiology, behavior, reproduction, parasites and diseases, and the impact of human activity on the animal's population and well-being. Numerous maps, photos and drawings illustrate the text."

Key features: A standard reference work on all of the world's marine mammals, their anatomy, distribution, ecology, and behavior; the most up-to-date research in a concise reference form; numerous photos of live and specimen animals, skulls, and anatomical details, plus distribution maps; text specifically deals with conservation and management issues

Contents include: White-beaked Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris; Atlantic White-sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus; Pacific White-sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens; Dusky Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus; Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus australis; Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger; Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus; False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens; Pilot Whales, Globicephala; Killer Whale, Orcinus orca; Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena; Vaquita, Phocoena sinus; Spectacled Porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica; Burmeister's Porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis; Finless Porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides; Dall's Porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli; index

Riedman, Sarah, and Elton Gustafson. Home Is the Sea: For Whales. New York: Rand McNally & Co., 1966. London/New York/Toronto: Abelard-Schuman, 1971.

Chapters include: What About Whales?; Early Ancestors and Living Relatives; Weighing a Whale; Swimming, Diving, Blowing; Heartbeat under the Sea; Living off the "Fat of the Sea" Always Warm, but Never Hot; The Private Life of a Whale; The Sea Through Their Senses; Whistles, Clicks, Echoes; Of Brains and "Talking" Dolphins; What's Ahead for Whales; Which Whale Is Which? Also contains suggestions for further reading and in index.

Ritter, Fabian. Interactions of Cetaceans with Whale Watching Boats: Implications for the Management of Whale Watching Tourism. M.E.E.R. e.V., Berlin, Germany, 2003. URL: www.m-e-e-r.org. To order, write to: meer@infocanarias.com.

From the publisher: "This report presents the results of six years of research conducted off La Gomera (Canary Islands), revealing cetacean abundance, distribution and their behavioural interactions with whale watching boats.

"Through the collaboration between the German NGO M.E.E.R. and a local operator, sighting and behavioural data were collected during regular whale watching trips.

"The responsiveness of different species was quantified by measuring the occurrence of boat-related behaviours (e.g. bowriding, approaches, etc.). Sightings were classified into four categories reflecting the general reaction of cetaceans to boats. Results (1995-2001) revealed a significant difference in the responsiveness of the six most abundant odontocetes species. In the bottlenose dolphin and the Atlantic spotted dolphin, a significant difference in responsiveness according to behavioural states was found.

"On this basis, species- and behaviour specific whale watching guidelines are proposed. Furthermore, a model of a marine protected area (MPA) especially designed for the sustainable use of cetaceans is outlined. Specific recommendations are made for the design of the MPA, as for example the implementation of species- and behaviour-specific guidelines, a maximum number of licensed boats, a general speed limit, good-quality public education, user group regulation, a levy for the [financing] of research, monitoring and enforcement, and others.

"This . . . approach constitutes an example for the reconciliation of tourism and conservation, bringing together economic development and ecologic sustainability."

Robbins, Dianne (lailel@aol.com). The Call Goes Out: Messages from the Earth's Cetaceans. Livermore, California: Oughten House Publications, 1997. Available via the publisher's Web site or (888) ORDERIT, (510) 447-2332, fax: (510) 447-2376, e-mail: oughten@oughtenhouse. com. (New Age)

The Call Goes Out consists of "a series of messages channeled from the cetacean species" concerning their purposes and needs.

Roberts, Richard. Save the Whales!. Illustrated by Andrew Annenberg. San Anselmo: Vernal Equinox Press, 1991.

Robertson, Dougal. Survive the Savage Sea. New York: Sheridan House, 1994.

Synopsis: In June 1972, the 43-foot schooner Lucette was attacked by killer whales and sank in 60 seconds. The book recounts the thirty-seven days Robertson and his family spent, using every technique available, surviving harsh seas and lack of rations in a 9-foot fiberglass dinghy.

Robinson, Nigel. Free Willy: The World of Killer Whales. London: Fantail, 1994.

From the cover: "Following the amazingly successful film, here is your guide to the world of killer whales."

Robson, Frank. Strandings: Ways to Save Whales, a Humane Conservationist's Guide. Johannesburg, South Africa: The Science Press Pty Ltd, 1984. Available from Animal Welfare Institute, P.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

Includes step-by-step instructions for assisting stranded marine mammals, and also presents "a carefully documented, logically coherent account of the factors that contribute to strandings, dispelling the notion of suicide and presenting solid evidence for the existence of altruistic behaviour in species other than man."

From a review by Tom Garret in the Summer 1984 issue of AWI Quarterly: "Strandings puts to rest the illogical notion of mass suicide. Robson found that strandings of toothed whales and large dolphins fall into four categories: individual strandings of aged and inform whales; strandings of otherwise healthy whales with localized parasite infections; mass strandings of herds made up of family groups; and strandings from bachelor sperm whale herds migrating from the Antarctic. He provides perfectly logical, although sometimes surprising, explanations for each behavior."

___________. Thinking Dolphins, Talking Whales. Wellington, New Zealand: A. H. & A. W. Reed, Ltd., 1976.

"Can dolphins and men communicate? How are dolphins born? Why do whales strand? How can we communicate with our cousins of the sea?

"Man's interest in the Cetaceans--dolphins and whales--has never been greater, and extraordinary stories such as Frank Robson's remind us that our intelligence has its match in the ocean. Nowadays, when these friendly creatures' existence is threatened by polluted waters and world-wide over-fishing, observations of natural Cetcean behaviour in their wild, ocean habitat and studies of their ability to learn--and teach--antics and routines in captivity become all the more valuable.

"Written for the interested layman, the book has anecdotes and new scientific findings presented in a form that will appeal to young and old alike.

"Particularly exciting are occasions of nonverbal, including mental, communication between man and dolphin . . .

"The New Zealand coast has unusual numbers of whale strandings. Tackling the age-old questino of why they strand has led Frank Robson into some formidable situations . . . and he's got some unpredictable answers for his readers."

___________. Pictures in the Dolphin Mind. Auckland, New Zealand: Reed Methuen/Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Sheridan House, 1988.

"Frank Robson's personal account of human association with dolphins, extending from the Napier Marineland in his native New Zealand to the friendly, free-spirited dolphins of Monkey Mia in Western Australia; from the Dolphin People of Aboriginal dreamtime to the horrors of Iki Island in modern Japan. From the helplessness of his early encounters with stranded leviathans to his close friendship with Horace, a 'wild and wayward dolphin' who befriended boaters and bathers at a popular beach, Frank Robson brings a wealth of observation and experience with these gentle and friendly creatures of the sea.

"As well as new ideas about the causes of mass strandings and practical advice on assisting beached cetaceans, this book offers a tantalizing glimpse of the possibilities of interspecies communication . . . "

Scott: A nicely written account of the author's life and work with cetaceans; a life of loving attention to the inner side of his much-loved friends. A gentle man, thoughtful and kind. He pioneered the use of mental communication with dolphins . . .

___________. My Friends the Dolphins.

Roever, J. Whales in Danger. Steck-Vaughn Co., 1975.

Rogers, C. A., B. J. Brunnick, D. L. Herzing, and J. D. Baldwin. The social structure of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the Bahamas. Marine Mammal Science, 2004, 20(4):688-708. Article available online in the library of the Wild Dolphin ProjectGoodsearch.

Rogers, Joel W. The Hidden Coast. Alaska Northwest Books, 1991.

Debbie: This is a beautiful book about kayaking from Alaska to Baja. The chapter called "Orca" gives me chills. It contains quite a bit of general orca information, a section on Paul Spong and Skana, etc., but the great part is the narrative of a Northern Lights Expeditions kayak trip and their encounter with C pod in Johnstone Strait. I was ready to pack up and leave right then! You have to read it!

Rogers, M. The Dolphins Swim Free. Kenthurst, NSW, Australia: Kangaroo Press, 1994.

About the reintroduction of captive dolphins into the wild.

Rose, Naomi. The Social Dynamics of Male Killer Whales, Orcinus orca, in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1992.

Rose, Naomi, and Ricahrd Farinato. The Case Against Marine Mammals in Captivity. Washington, D.C.: The Humane Society of the United States, 1995.

Rose, Tom. Freeing the Whales: How the Media Created the World's Greatest Non-Event. New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1989.

About the international cooperative effort to free the gray whales trapped in ice in Barrow, Alaska. A "rather terrible book" according to Richard Ellis. Ellis also gives a synopsis of the events on pages 382-385 of his book Men and Whales.

Ross, Alexander C. Jonah and the Whale: Mystic Interpretation. Devorss, 1938.

Contents: Jonah, Jonah and the whale, Mastering your emotions, Application of the principles, Meditations, Discouragement, Self-Pity, Individuality, Meditation hour, A sunset meditation, Jonah the whale

Rudolph, P., C. Smeenk, and S. Leatherwood. "Preliminary Checklist of Cetacea in the Indonesian Archipelago and Adjacent Waters." Zoologische Verhandelingen 312 (1997): 1-48. Reprints can be ordered from W. Backhuys, Warmonderweg 80, NL-2341 KZ Oegstgeest, The Netherlands.

Abstract: Records of 29 species of cetaceans from the Indonesian Archipelago [Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore] have been gleaned from published and unpublished sources, representing five families: Phocoenidae (1 species), Delphinidae (16), Ziphiidae (3), Physeteridae(3), and Balaenopteridae (6). The presence of 26 species could be confirmed by material in museum collections, photographs or documentation by specialists. The occurrence of three species is still unconfirmed.

Russell, Constance Lorraine. Tales of whales: Whalewatching as environmental education? Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Curriculum Teaching and Learning, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada, 2001. Author email: email: constance.russell@lakeheadu.ca. Dissertation available for purchase via the University of Michigan's dissertation service.

Abstract: "This dissertation, based on a case study conducted in 1996 in Tadoussac, Quebec, critically examined the educational potential of whalewatching. Data collection consisted of participant observation, interviews with thirty-one whalewatchers, and pre-trip, post-trip, and follow-up questionnaires given to these same whalewatchers. The first three chapters are introductory in nature. The first provides an overview of different approaches to environmental education as well as the role of nature experience and the social construction of nature within critical or transformative approaches to environmental education. The second chapter reviews the ecotourism and whalewatching literature. The third describes the research site and methods. The fourth chapter is a presentation of the results and focuses on three central themes: Learning Outcomes and Desires; The Social Construction of Whales; and Opinions on Whalewatching. Although there was diversity in responses, many whalewatchers were dissatisfied with the learning opportunities available during whalewatching and most desired more emphasis be placed on holistic, critical, and activist-oriented interpretation. As well, many were concerned that whalewatching, despite its educational potential, was harming the whales. Overall, the whalewatchers constructed whales in exceedingly positive and general ways (Superwhales), were moved by the opportunity to get close to whales (Intimates), and were in awe of their size and behaviours (Spectacle). The educational implications of these findings are discussed in the fifth chapter, and the dissertation concludes with a sixth chapter containing recommendations for whalewatching practice in Tadoussac and a call for future research."

From the author's preface: "At first glance, whalewatching and ecotourism may appear to be an ideal blend of conservation and environmental education. On one hand, governments and local communities, encouraged by the potential income to be made, tend and protect the wildlife and natural features that are attractive to tourists. In so doing, the reap both economic and environmental benefits. On the other, environmental activists and educators, looking for ways to introduce others to the wonders of nature, take advantage of opportunities to provide direct, moving experiences. Upon closer examination, however, it becomes obvious that the benefits of ecotourism need to be interrogated further; neither the economic or educational benefits are as straightforward as proponents contend.

"My dissertation has, then, a number of closely related purposes. First, I wish to problematize some of the assumptions underlying the widespread belief that ecotourism is inherently educational. Second, I wish to shed light on an understudied phenomenon, that is, the educational aspects of whalewatching. My third purpose supersedes, or more accurately, provides the rational and motivation for the first two: I wish my research to be of use to the whales themselves. From the moment I began graduate work in 1990, I have understood my scholarly endeavours to be a form of service to nature."

___________. Why study whalewatching? Environmental education, nature experience and the social construction of nature. In D. Hodson, ed., OISE Papers in STSE (Science-Technology-Society-Environment) Education. Toronto: Imperial Oil Centre for Studies in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2001, pp.49-74. Author email: email: constance.russell@lakeheadu.ca.

"In this chapter (excerpted from my dissertation 'Tales of Whales: Whalewatching as Environmental Education?'), I offer a rationale for my study of the educational aspects of whalewatching. I provide an overview of environmental education, focusing on the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of nature experience. I also discuss the ways in which the evolving literature on the social construction of nature influenced my study. I do NOT report results in this chapter."

___________. http://flash.lakeheadu.ca/~crussell/pdf/RJA2002Russell&Hodson.pdf Russell, C.L. & Hodson, D. "Whalewatching as Critical Science Education?" Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2002, 2(4):485-504. Author email: constance.russell@lakeheadu.ca.

Abstract: While the educational value of whalewatching has often been proclaimed, there has been little research on the topic. This article, based on a case study conducted in Tadoussac, Quebec, focuses on whalewatching's ability to act as a form of critical science education. Discussion of learning outcomes and learning desires of 31 whalewatchers forms the core of the article. Key issues that emerge include the need for interpreter training, epistemic responsibility of scientists, and the role of conservation and advocacy in whalewatching interpretation. While the whalewatching experience described in this case study did not live up to its potential as a form of critical science education, we believe that such goals are worth pursuing and may enhance whalewatching interpretation in the future.

Russell, Dick. Eye of the Whale: Epic Passage from Baja to Siberia . New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

From the author (dickrusl@aol.com): "The book covers natural history, history (Scammon primarily), current topics such as the San Ignacio Lagoon saltworks controversy and the Makah hunt, and my travels along the gray's migration trail, from Baja to Russia."

From the publisher: "Eye of the Whale focuses on one great whale in particular -- the coastal-traveling California gray whale. Gray whales make the longest migration of any mammal -- from the lagoons of Baja California to the feeding grounds of the Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia (nearly 6,000 miles). That the gray whale exists today is nothing short of miraculous. Whaling fleets twice massacred the species to near extinction -- first during the nineteenth century and again during the early part of the twentieth century. As they moved in for the kill, whalers claimed their prey by naming it: 'Hard-Head'; 'Devil-fish'; 'sea-serpent crossed with an alligator.'

"These ominous tags suggest a fearsome creature, yet today the grays are most commonly known as the friendly whale, the species that inspired the whale-watching industry. Eye of the Whale shows the life-changing effect the gray whale has had upon people past and present -- whalers, hunters, marine scientists, whale watchers, and even businessmen -- who have looked into the eye of a whale and have come away transformed. Over the course of this astonishing book, the gray whale emerges as a millennial metaphor, mirroring a host of ecological, political, and social issues concerning our relationship to nature.

"The book also traces the remarkable story of Charles Melville Scammon, the whaling captain responsible for bringing gray whales to the brink of extinction after discovering the Baja lagoons in the 1850s to 1860s. Paradoxically, he went on to become one of the most renowned naturalist writers of his time, and in 1874 authored and illustrated a still-definitive work, The Marine Mammals of the North-Western Coast of North America.

"More than a hundred years later, author Dick Russell sets out to track the migration of the gray whale and to retrace Scammon's own path. This epic journey stretches from Mexico to California, Oregon, Washington, Vancouver Island, Alaska, and into Siberia and even remote Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East. In these exotic locales see the current controversies surrounding the gray whale: an effort by Mitsubishi and the Mexican government to build a massive new salt factory within its pristine nursery area; the Makah tribe's renewed hunting of gray whales after a hiatus of seventy years; Japan's recruitment of the Makah and other indigenous peoples in their quest to resurrect commercial whaling.

Eye of the Whale is a . . . work of scientific reporting and travel writing that greatly advances our understanding not only of the gray whale but of the natural world. While it may be impossible to know for certain the fate of this majestic creature, with Russell's sage guidance we may glimpse it -- in the eye of the whale."

From a review by Judith B. Barnett, , Pell Marine Science Lib., Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston for Library Journal: "This engaging account of the remarkable migration pattern of the gray whale from its breeding area in the lagoons of Baja California, Mexico, to feeding grounds 5000 miles away in the Bering Sea will elicit in the reader a deep respect and empathy for these mammals. Russell, an environmental journalist and activist, draws on scientific, historical, and geographical sources as he follows the whales' migration path by land, sea, and air along the Pacific coast. Along the way he describes meetings with individuals who are involved in conservation and environmental efforts, interspersing his encounters with fishermen and scientists with excerpts from the writings of Charles Melville Scammon, a 19th-century whaling captain and naturalist who was the first to describe the whale migration in detail. Serge Dedina's Saving the Gray Whale: People, Politics, and Conservation in Baja California (Library Journal 2/15/00) covers the Baja California phase in the whales' lives, and a PBS video, Gray Whales with Christopher Reeve (1995), is also pertinent to the subject. Russell's work covers communication among the gray whales, their interactions with the orcas who prey on them, the role of whaling in Native American tradition, and the scientific apparatus used to track whales. It includes a 20-page annotated bibliography arranged by subject and a list of useful web sites. A definitive account; for public and academic libraries." Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information, Inc.

Saca, Liliana. Through the Eyes of a Dolphin: An Inner Journey Which Can Only Be Approached in the Imagination, Beyond the Mind, Experienced in the Heart and Recognized by the Soul. San Rafael, California: VISIGRAF, 1996. (New Age)

The Saga of the Arctic Whales. 1989.

Sagan, Carl. The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence. New York: Random House, 1977.

Scott: Numerous comparisons between human and dolphin intelligence and biology.

Samansky, Terry S. Starting Your Career as a Marine Mammal Trainer. 2d, rev. ed. Napa, Calif.: DolphinTrainer.com, 2002.

Trisha: To view an extensive file of information I've compiled on careers working with cetaceans, click here. Cetaceans should not be held captive, and I therefore encourage anyone wanting to study or work with them to pursue field work with wild cetaceans.

Sammons, V. O. Dolphins (a bibliography). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Science and Technology Division, Reference Section, 1972.

Samuels, Amy, and Lars Bejder. Chronic interaction between humans and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins near Panama City Beach, Florida, USA. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 2004, 6(1): 9-77. Author email: lbejdjer@dal.ca.

Abstract: Swim-with activities, in which humans enter the water to interact with free-ranging cetaceans, are a popular form of nature tourism; however, there is considerable disagreement as to whether these encounters constitute a threat to the animals. At the request of the US Marine Mammal Commission, a systematic study was designed to quantify effects of swim-with activities on the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins in waters near Panama City Beach, Florida. Certain dolphin behaviours were identified as indicative of chronic interaction with humans, and based on presence of these behaviours, at least seven dolphins were identified that permitted people to swim nearby. Because these dolphins accepted food handouts from people, they were considered to be conditioned to human interaction through food reinforcement. Specific human-dolphin interactions that posed a risk for dolphins or humans were identified, and it was calculated that human interaction put a specific juvenile dolphin at risk once every 12 min, including being fed by humans once every 39-59 min. Humans interacting with that dolphin were estimated to be at risk once every 29 min. Although the study was of limited duration, the observations were so clear-cut and the nature of interactions so potentially hazardous it was concluded that food provisioning was the probable basis for swimming with free-ranging dolphins near Panama City Beach, Florida, and therefore, human interaction at this location was likely to be harmful to the dolphins and in clear violation of the US Marine Mammal Protection Act.

Of equal importance to the findings of this study is the methodology. A systematic behavioural methodology was designed that can be adapted to study potential impacts of nature tourism on coastal communities of cetaceans in which individuals are readily distinguished. The focus was on the behaviour of individual animals in order to describe and quantify in-water interactions between dolphins and humans, to make behavioural comparisons for the same individual dolphins in the presence and absence of swimmers, and to make behavioural comparisons for individual dolphins in the same region that do and do not interact with swimmers. Coupled with standard photo-identification techniques, these methods can be used to identify the class of animals, or proportion of a local community, that is more likely to interact with, be detrimentally affected by, and/or avoid human interaction. Sequential observations of the same individuals taken over time can be used to document habituation or sensitisation to human interaction.

___________, Lars Bejder, R. Constantine, and Sonja Heinrich. A review of swimming with wild cetaceans with a specific focus on the Southern Hemisphere. In N. Gales, M. Hindell, and R. Kirkwood, eds. Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues. CSIRO Publishing, 2003, pp. 277-303.

___________, Lars Bejder, and Sonja Heinrich. A review of the literature pertaining to swimming with wild dolphins. Bethesda, Maryland: Marine Mammal Commission, April 2000. Contract No. T74463123. Available from Marine Mammal Commission, 4340 East-West Highway, Room 905, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Category 1: Lone, Sociable [Dolphins]

Conclusion: Although lone, sociable dolphins typically make first contact with humans, habituation to humans and in-water encounters is usually a gradual process achieved through considerable effort on the part of humans. Unfortunately for the dolphins, habituation to humans puts the dolphins at risk of injury or death. Strict management programs may reduce this risk.

Recommendation: Lone, sociable dolphins of any species are particularly vulnerable to impacts of human activity, and all interactions with humans should be strictly prohibited and enforced in each situation.

Category 2: Food-Provisioned [Dolphins]

Conclusion: Uncontrolled food provisioning is the primary basis for in-water encounters with dolphins at several locations worldwide. Research findings and anecdotal evidence are unequivocal that uncontrolled food provisioning is harmful to wild cetaceans. Whether there are detrimental effects of strictly controlled food provisioning has not yet been determined.

Recommendation: Enforcement of the no-feeding ban is urgently needed for food-provisioned bottlenose dolphins in the Florida Panhandle and Gulf coast areas.

Category 3: Habituated [Dolphins]

Conclusion: There are a few locations where swim-with operations regularly interact with habituated dolphins. In some cases, the dolphins' "freedom of choice" to interact or not with humans is achieved through considerable effort on the part of humans to habituate the animals. There is virtually no research that specifically addresses short- or long-term impacts of regular swim-with operations on the behavior and well-being of habituated individuals or affected cetacean communities.

Recommendations: For habituated bottlenose dolphins in the Florida Keys, more information is needed to assess the extent of human activities, the number and identity of affected animals, the proportion of targeted animals that are habituated, the methods used for habituation, etc.

In the absence of the above information, and given the accessibility of these dolphins to large numbers of tourists, a precautionary approach is appropriate. The National Watchable Wildlife Program provides a set of explicit recommendations designed to minimize disruption to wildlife. These include viewing wild animals from a distance using binoculars, not attempting to interact with wild animals, avoiding areas critical for foraging, resting, parental care, etc. (Duda 1995).

Category 4: Unhabituated [Dolphins]

Conclusion: There are several locations worldwide where tour operators provide opportunities for swimmers to interact with unhabituated dolphins and whales. In some cases, lack of habituation is likely to be related to the infrequency of encounters. In other cases, cetaceans remain unhabituated despite regular and long-term exposure to human activity. Several recent studies focus on responses of unhabituated cetacean groups to vessel approaches and swimmers. These studies provide a first step in assessing the impacts of this type of activity on the animals. Reports from Hawaii and overseas provide quantitative data and anecdotal information to indicate that swim-with operations are associated with disruption the behavioral patterns of targeted cetaceans, at least for some approaches and for some subset of approached animals. Results of longitudinal studies are only starting to emerge, but available findings point towards detrimental effects of tourist activity on targeted dolphins (Constantine 1999, Forest 1999). For unhabituated cetaceans, studies have yet to be conducted that document details of human/cetacean in-water interactions or the short- and long-term impacts of swim-with activities on individual animals and affected cetacean communities. However, even in the absence of more specific information, a conservative interpretation of available data indicates that swim-with activities clearly constitute "harassment" as defined in the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act. Recent data show that even strict sets of regulations as in New Zealand may not be sufficient to safeguard the animals.

Recommendations: For unhabituated spinner dolphins in Hawaii, research results are preliminary but sufficient to indicate that these animals are disturbed by tourist activity in areas that are critical for their well-being. This clearly constitutes "harassment" as defined in the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Ideally, more research would be useful to determine what proportion and which individuals or age/sex classes are or are not affected by human activity. However, preliminary findings of detrimental effects, and the ready accessibility of these animals to human incursion, dictate a precautionary approach, even without further research. Watchable Wildlife guidelines would recommend that these animals not be approached at all in protected bays that are critical for rest.

Constantine, R. Increased avoidance of swimmers by bottlenose dolphins in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. Maui, Hawaii: Absracts of the 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, 1999.

Duda, M. D. Watching Wildlife. Helena, Montana: Falcon Press, 1994.

Forest, A. M. The Hawaiian spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris: Effects of tourism. In K. M. Dudzinski, T. G. Frohoff, and T. R. Spradlin, eds., Wild Dolphin Swim Program Workshop. Maui, Hawaii: 1999.

___________, and Trevor R. Spradlin. "Quantitative Behavioral Study of Bottlenose Dolphins in Swim-with-the-Dolphin Programs in the United States." Marine Mammal Science, 11(4) (October 1995): 520-544. Final report to National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 25 April 1994. Available from National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, (301) 713-2322.

Conclusions based on 107 hours of observing swims at swim-with-the-dolphins facilities.

Sananjaleen. The Dolphin Ones. Rectortown, Virginia: Sananda, 1991. (New Age)

"Channeled" material from "The Dolphin Ones."

Sandoz, Bobbie. Listening to Wild Dolphins: Learning Their Secrets for Living with Joy. Hillsboro, Oregon: Beyond Words Publishing, 1999. (New Age)

From the back cover: "If you could listen to dolphins, what would you hear? Might their message be intelligent, spiritual, or wise? And what could you learn from these mesmerizing beings?"

Sanford, William R., and Carl R. Green. The Bottlenose Dolphin. Mankato, Minnesota: Crestwood House, 1987.

Sathasivam, Kumaran. Marine Mammals of India. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press, 2004. Copies are available from Kurinji Sathasivam: ksathasi@yahoo.com.

From the publisher: "[This] book is aimed at a wide range of readers including serious students and wildlife enthusiasts. A significant part of the book is devoted to the more than 30 species accounts. Glimpses of the lifestyles of marine mammals are given through several essays dealing, for example, with the phenomenon of mass strandings of whales or the reputed ferocity of the killer whale. Color illustrations and photographs and character matrices are provided for identification of animals in the field and 'specimens in the hand.' An extensive bibliography and accounts of whaling and threats faced by marine mammals are provided."

Savage, Steven. Dolphins and Whales: A Survey of Species Under Threat and the Struggle for Their Conservation. Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, 1990/London: New Burlington Books, 1991.

Scammon, Charles M. The Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast of North America Together with an Account of the American Whale-Fishery. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1968. Reprint of original published in 1874 by John H. Carmany and Company, San Francisco, and G. P. Putnams Sons, New York.

"In Scammon's words, 'The chief object is to give as correct figures of the different species of marine mammals, as could be obtained from a study of them from life, and numerous measurements after death.' . . . The text is divided into three parts. The first is a species-by-species account of whales and dolphins, with physical descriptions, including precise measurements, a discussion of their habits; and their economic value. The second section is a similar description of other sea mammals: sea elephant, sea lion, seals, sea otter, and the walrus. The third part is a thorough discussion of the history of whaling . . . Appended to the work is the original catalog of Cetacea of the North Pacific Ocean by W. H. Dall of the Smithsonian Institution."

According to the book The Whale, this is a brilliant work which "describes the whale fisher, but also gives a splendid account of the natural history of whales that was a standard work for many years."

Scanlan, Phillip M. The Dolphins Are Back. Productivity Press, 1998.

From Booknews: "The vice president for quality at AT&T shares his experiences with improving both the quality of the product at his company and the water on the New Jersey shore. He shares his philosophy of how to achieve a 'culture of continuous improvement' that can be useful in a variety of contexts. The book also covers many specifics of the pollution problems on the New Jersey coastline and some solutions that were effective, culminating in the return of dolphins and other marine species that had been driven away by the poor water quality."

Scarpaci, Carol, Dayanthi Nugegoda, and Peter J. Corkeron. No detectable improvement in compliance to regulations by "swim-with-dolphin" operators in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Tourism in Marine Environments, 2004, 1(1):41-48. Author email: carol.scarpaci@vu.edu.au.

Abstract: This article reports on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The objective of this study was to compare if the level of compliance to three conditions (approach type, swim time, and time in proximity to dolphins) in the tour operators' permits changed after state government conducted a review on the existing operators. An additional fourth condition (number of swimmers participating in a dolphin-swim) was also studied. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips from September 1998-April 1999 and September 1999-April 2000 (prereview) and 16 commercial dolphin-swim trips from February-March 2002 and January 2003 (postreview) were studied. Data were collected using 1-minute scan samples and continuous observations from all three operating human-dolphin-swim tourist vessels. There was no detectable change in the level of compliance for rules regarding the way boats approached dolphins, their time in the proximity of dolphins, and the length of time people swam with dolphins. Operators always complied with regulations regarding the number of people participating in a dolphin-swim. Investigations of the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans have tended to ignore whether tourist vessels obey existing regulations. This study demonstrates that compliance cannot be assumed, and that operators appear to comply better with conditions that are easily quantified. Further, studies are needed to determine the statistical power required to detect changes in tour operator behavior to conditions in their permits. This will inform agencies whether the changes they have implemented to improve compliance levels are actually working.

Scheer, M., B. Hofmann, and I. P. Behr. Ethogram of selected behaviors initiated by short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and directed towards human swimmers during open water encounters. Anthrozoos, 2004, 17:244-258.

Abstract: In order to establish an ethogram of interactive behaviors initiated by free-ranging short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and directed to human swimmers, we initiated encounters with non-habituated pilot whale groups during open water encounters southwest of Tenerife, Canary Islands, over two field seasons (1996 and 2001). Human swimmers followed a precautionary set of rules during approaches. Encounter durations ranged from 3-44 min (mean 14.14 = SD 7.62 min; n = 35). We describe 11 interactive behaviors and compare them with previously described interactive behaviors reported in the scientific literature on the same and other toothed whale species. In contrast to other researchers focusing on reports of aggressive behaviors initiated by free-ranging as well as captive short-finned pilot whales, we observed with one exception ("headshake") apparently affiliative and non-aggressive behaviors during this study. Several interactive behaviors were found to match descriptions from other researchers observing the same as well as other toothed whale species. During this study swimmers behaved carefully and swimmer number was low. We strongly recommend to follow the code of conduct based upon the methodology described in the paper, e.g., low numbers of swimmers and no contact initiations by swimmers during human-pilot whale interactions, in order to reduce the likelihood of potentially dangerous aggressive interactions.

Scheffer, Victor. The Natural History of Marine Mammals. New York: Charles Scribner's & Sons, 1976.

From a review by John Dillon in the March-April 1977 issue or Oceans magazine: "Victor Scheffer has that rare and precious ability to excel in the two worlds of top-drawer science and top-notch literature . . . [His] newest work is a popular introduction to . . . the natural history of the six mammalian groups which have taken to a fully ocean dependent existence: the sea otter, the walking seals, the crawling seals, sirenians, toothed cetaceans, and baleen cetaceans. Peter Parnall's illustrations add the appeal that has made him one of the leading wildlife illustrators in the country. He does, however, succumb to the common 'blimp-body' misconception of the great whales which has plagued scientists and artists alike for so many years.

"For anyone wanting to better understand the life histories of marine mammals and avoid the random search through overly technical journals or romanticized paperbacks, this is the best place, so far, to begin . . . "

___________. Der Wal, das frohlicke Ungeheuer. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1973. In German.

___________, and John W. Slipp. The Whales and Dolphins of Washington State with a Key to the Cetaceans of the West Coast of North America. Notre Dame, Indiana: University Press, 1948. (A reprint from the March 1948 issue of The American Midland Naturalist.)

Contents: Introduction, History of Whaling in Washington, Species Accounts, Cetaceans of Uncertain Identity, Synoptic Key to the Cetaceans of the West Coast of North America, Tables, References

Schevill, W. E., ed. The Whale Problem: A Status Report. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Biology, "management," and conservation of whales, including field methods. Provides whale census for South Africa, North Atlantic, North Pacific, Chile, Antarctica, and Australia.

Schmidly, David J. Marine Mammals of the Southeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Biological Services Program FWS/OBS-80/41, 1981. Contains maps, tables, records of occurrence, literature records, text, and references.

"The purpose of this paper is to synthesize all available data and literature about cetaceans and pinnipeds in the region of study. The study area includes the coast and adjacent continental shelf of the U.S. from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to the Florida Keys; and from the Florida Keys to the U.S. Mexico boundary near Port Isabel/Brownsville, Texas. Data sources are scattered reports in the literature, papers that have synthesized other reports, records from the Smithsonian's Scientific Event Alert Network, museum records, miscellaneous sources, and reports of aerial sightings."

Species accounts include descriptions and identification, distribution, seasonal movements, status and abundance, life history, and records of occurrence. Species covered include: whales--right, blue, sei, fin, Bryde's, minke, humpback, sperm, pygmy sperm, dwarf sperm, Blainville's beaked, Antillean beaked, True's beaked, goosebeak, pygmy killer, false killer, killer, Atlantic pilot, and short-finned pilot; dolphins--rough-toothed, saddleback, Atlantic bottlenose, grampus, bridled, Atlantic spotted, striped, spinner, and short-snouted spinner; harbor porpoise; California sea lion; and seals--harbor, hooded, and West Indian.

Schmitt, Frederick P. The Whale's Tale as Told with Postage Stamps. Chippenham, Wilts, England: Picton Publishing, 1975.

This black-and-white survey of cetacean postage stamps include chapters on: "In the beginning", Jonah and the Whale, Types of Whales and What They Eat, Some Baleen Whales, Some Toothed Whales, Dolphin Legends, Dolphin Art, Whaling.

Schultz, Elizabeth A. Unpainted to the Last: Moby Dick & Twentieth-Century American Art. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Schusterman, Ronald J., Jeanette A. Thomas, and Forrest G. Wood, eds. Dolphin Cognition and Behavior: A Comparative Approach. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986.

An extensive collection of papers on the following topics: Evolutionary Morphology of the Dolphin Brain; Physiological Observations on Dolphin Brains; Middle- and Long-Latency Auditory Event-Related Potentials in Dolphins; Vision, Audition, and Chemoreception in Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals; Dolphin Audition and Echolocation Capacities; The Perceptual Worlds of Dolphins; How Can You Tell If an Animal is Intelligent?; Describing Intelligence; Suggestions for Research on Ethological and Comparative Cognition; Cognition and Language Competencies of Bottlenosed Dolphins; Reinforcement Training as Interspecies Communication; Dolphin Behavior and Cognition: Evolutionary and Ecological Aspects; Dolphin Vocal Mimicry and Vocal Object Learning; Acquisition of Anomalous Communicatory Systems: Implications for Studies on Interspecies Communication; Awareness; Intentionality; and Acquired Communicative Behaviors: Dimensions of Intelligence; Signaling Behavior: Contributions of Different Repertoires; Delphinid Social Organization and Social Behavior; Delphinid Foraging Strategies; and Social Complexity and Cooperative Behavior in Delphinids. Also includes an author index and a subject index.

Scoresby, William. Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale-fishery, including Researches and Discoveries in the Eastern Coast of West Greenland, Made in the Summer of 1822, in the Ship Baffin of Liverpool. Edinburgh, Scotland: Archibald Constable and Co., 1823.

___________. An Account of the Arctic Regions, with a History and Description of the Northern Whale-fishery. 2 vol. Edinburgh, Scotland: Archibald Constable and Co., 1820.

According to the book The Whale, this work includes "excellent scientific observations on whales" and "laid the foundation of cetology."

Scott, Andrew. "Killing Them Softly: Have We Become a Threat to the Orcas?" Waters Spring/Summer 1998: 10-14.

On the potential harmfulness of the scores of whale-watching boats off Washington and British Columbia.

Scott, Susan. Oceanwatcher: An Above-Water Guide to Hawaii's Marine Animals. Honolulu, Hawaii: Green Turtle Press, 1988.

Trisha: A very accessible and simply written book by a marine biologist that provides some basic details and interesting extras on Hawaii's marine invertebrates, reptiles, sharks and rays, fish, birds, and mammals, plus sections on discovering Hawaii's marine life and legends and lore about it.

The section on whales and dolphins includes a brief overview; information on humpback whales, false killer whales, short-finned pilot whales, Pacific bottlenose dolphins, rough-toothed dolphins, spotted dolphins, and Hawaiian spinner dolphins; a few words on the future of whales and dolphins along with some guidelines for dolphin and whale watchers; and a brief look at the surprisingly small role of whales and dolphins in Hawaiian mythology.

Sea of the Whale. In Japanese. c. 1990.

Sears, Richard, Frederick Wenzel, and J. Michael Williamson. The Blue Whale: A Catalogue of Individuals from the Western North Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence). Longue-Pointe-de-Mingan and St. Lambert, Quebec: Mingan Island Cetacean Study (MICS Inc.), 1987.

Sebeok, T. A., ed. Animal Communication. Bloomington, Illinois: Indiana University Press, 1968.

See chapter "Marine Mammals," pp. 405-465.

Sebeok, Thomas A., and Robert Rosenthal, eds. The Clever Hans Phenomenon: Communication with Horses, Whales, Apes, and People. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, volume 364. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1981.

Papers from a conference on the above subject matter held by the New York Academy of Sciences, May 6-7, 1980.

Seed, Alice, ed. Baleen Whales in Eastern North Pacific and Arctic Waters. Seattle, Washington: Pacific Search, 1972.

Chapters include: Introduction, History of Bowhead Whaling, Greenland or Bowhead Whale, Gray Whale, Indian Whaling, Balaenopterine or Finner Whales, Blue Whale, Humpback Whale. Also contains a bibliography.

___________, ed. Toothed Whales in Eastern North Pacific and Arctic Waters. Seattle, Washington: Pacific Seed, 1971.

Selke, Ilona. Journey to the Center of Creation: Entering the World of Dolphins and the Dimensions of Dreamtime. Stanwood, Washington: Living from Vision, 1997. Available from Living from Vision, P.O. Box 1530, Stanwood, Washington 98292, USA, (360) 387-5713. Also available in German as Weisheit der Delphine: Begegnung mit dem kosmischen Bewußtsein (Munich: Heyne, 1999). (See also the audiotape of the same name in the Cetacean Audiography and Dolphins in the Wild with Ilona Selke in the Cetacean Videography, available free of charge with the purchase of Journey to the Center of Creation from Living from Vision.) (New Age)

Recounts the author's encounters and "inter-dimensional" connection with dolphins and whales.

Sergeant, D. E. The Biology of the Pilot or Pothead Whale Globicephala melaena (Traill) in Newfoundland Waters. Fish. Res. Board. Can. Bull. 132, 1962.

___________. Sea Mammals and Man: A Look at the Future. Unpublished manuscript, 1970. Available from the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans,Institut Maurice Lamontagne Library, C.P. 1000, Mont-Joli, Quebec, Canada G5H 3Z4.

___________. Whales and Dolphins of the Canadian East Coast. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Fisheries Research Board, Arctic Unit Circular 7, 1961.

Sergejev, Boris. Zivyje Lokatory Okeana (The Living Radars in the Ocean). USSR: MIR, 1980. Translated by Vilho Jokela into Finnish, Valtamerien Elävät Tutkat.

See sections on cetaceans.

Severin, Tim. In Search of Moby Dick: The Quest for the White Whale. Basic Books, 2000.

"In In Search of Moby Dick Severin sets about determining the likelihood of the existence of one of our most iconic modern myths -- the Great White Whale. To do so he travels to Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas Archipelago where the twenty-one-year-old Melville deserted his whaling ship in 1842 and began to cobble together the legends, tall tales, sea lore, and firsthand accounts garnered from the whalers he encountered, filtering all this material through his own fertile imagination to create his monumental novel. It is here that Severin begins to perceive the lush weave of fact and fiction, actual experience and extravagant yarn, that is Moby Dick, and the complex richness of Melville's tapestry becomes even clearer as Severin sails on throughout the South Pacific."

Seymour, F. All Hearts on Deck: A Personal Account of the 1981-2 Campaigns of the Marine Mammal Conservation Ship Sea Shepherd. Australia, 1993.

The author's personal account of sailing on the Sea Shepherd on its hunt for the Russian whaling ship Zvesdney in the Bering Sea and in the subsequent campaign against the killing of dolphins by the Japanese fishermen of Iki Island.

Shallenberger, Edward D. The Status of Hawaiian Cetaceans. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1981.

Shane, Susan H. The Bottlenose Dolphin in the Wild. Felton, California: Susan H. Shane, 1988/Hatcher Trade Press, 1988.

Chapters: Introduction, Meet the Dolphins, Techniques of Study, A Day in the Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin, Feeding Behavior, Social Behavior, Dolphin Ecology, Dolphins in Texas and Florida: A Comparison, Controversy: Intelligence, Language and Captivity, Frequently-Asked Questions and Answers.

___________. The Behavioral Ecology of the Bottlenose Dolphin. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1987.

Sheffer, V. B. A Natural History of Marine Mammals. New York: Scribner's, 1976.

Shetland Sea Mammal Group. The Shetland Sea Mammal Report. Shetland, U.K.: Shetland Sea Mammal Group, 1998 (published annually). To order, contact Edward G. Brown, e.brown@zetnet.co.uk, or Shetland Sea Mammal Group, 9 Twageos Rd., Lerwick, Shetland ZE1 0BB, United Kingdom.

The 1998 report contains articles on the following:
* Systematic list of cetacean sightings around Shetland
* Details of cetacean strandings in Shetland
* An article on unidentified dolphins at UyeaSound, Shetland
* Killer whales in Shetland waters
* Sightings of beaked whales in the Faroe-Shetland channel

The 1998 report also includes color plates of sperm and humpback whales, mystery dolphins, and a stranded common dolphin.

Shore, William H., ed. The Nature of Nature: New Essays from America's Finest Writers on Nature. New York/London: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994.

See Victor Perera's essay, Of Whales and Men, and Robert Finch's essay, Saving the Whales. See also above Perera's in-progress book Of Whales and Men.

Shrestha, Tej Kumar. The Ganges River Dolphin. DOPHONE, P.O. Box 6133, Kathmandu, Nepal.

A review of the biology, conservation, and possible future of this threatened species.

Sidenbladh, Eric. Waterbabies: A Book about Igor Tjarkovsky and his Method for Delivering and Training Children in Water. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982.

Scott: Includes a section on children swimming with and being trained by dolphins. Fantastic photos.

Sielfeld, W. Mamiferos Marinos de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Universidad de Chile, [1986]. In Spanish.

Sifaoui, Brigitte. Le Livre des Dauphins et des Baleines. C.L.E.S. - Albin Michel, 1996.

Plus de 1000 contacts et idées pour les recontrer les protéger et communiquer avec eux.

Silber, Gregory K., et al. "Cetaceans of the Northern Gulf of California: Distribution, Occurrence, and Relative Abundance." Marine Mammal Science 10(3) (July 1994): 283-288.

Simmonds, Mark P., and Judith D. Hutchinson, eds. The Conservation of Whales and Dolphins: Science and Practice. Chichester, England/New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

From the publisher: "Experts from both the scientific and conservation communities provide contributions that, firstly, review the threats that cetaceans face in a modern world, some of which are now understand and, secondly, critically assess responses which have been made to these threats. The chapters reflect the diversity of opinion that exists in this field. Topics covered include pollution issues, habitat degradation, boise, global change, disease and the special case of the river dolphins. Apposite authors also consider the international agreements that affect cetaceans (including the International Whaling Commission) and the role of sanctuaries and action plans.

Chapters include: An Introduction to the Whales and Dolphins; International Law and the Status of Cetaceans; The Ethics and Politics of Whaling; Directed Kills of Small Cetaceans Worldwide; Incidental Catches of Small Cetaceans; Fisheries Interactions: The Harbour Porpoise--a Review; Ecological Interactions Between Cetaceans and Fisheries; Organohalogen and Heavy Metal Contamination in Cetaceans: Observed Effects, Potential Impact and Future Prospects; Cetaceans and Environmental Pollution: The Global Concerns; Habitat Loss and Degradation; Underwater Noise Pollution and its Significance for Whales and Dolphins; Whales and Climate Change; Infectious Diseases of Cetacean Populations; The River Dolphins: The Road to Extinction; Science and Precaution in Cetacean Conservation; Defining Future Research Needs for Cetacean Conservation; The New Zealand Experience--One Country's Response to Cetacean Conservation; Conservation in Practice: Agreements, Regulations, Sanctuaries and Action Plans.

Simmonds, Mark., Anna Moscrop, and Rachel Irish. The Dolphin Agenda. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1997. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

Examines the threats to cetaceans that visit, or live in, U.K. waters. Presents a series of recommendations that together form an outline strategy aimed at ensuring their future conservation.

Simms, Eric. Wildlife Sounds and Their Recording. London: Paul Elek, 1979.

The author explains the techniques he uses to record wildlife in their natural settings, including whales.

Simon, S. Whales. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1989.

Simon, Seymour. Killer Whales. J. B. Lippincott Co., 1978.

Skaptason, Ann. The Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus L.): A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Departement of the Interior, Office of Library Services, 1971.

Slater, Candace. Dance of the Dolphin: Transformation and Disenchantment in the Amazonian Imagination. Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Scholarly study by a professor of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of California at Berkeley of the dolphin folktalkes told throughout much of the Brazilian Amazon. In these tales dolphins take on human form, attend raucous dances and festivals, seduce men and women, and carry them away to a city beneath the river. They are encantados, or Enchanted Beings, capable of provoking death or madness, but also called upon to help shamanic healers. Male dolphins reportedly father numerous children. The females are said to lure away solitary fishermen. Both sinister and charming, these characters resist definition and thus domination. Greedy and lascivious outsiders, they are increasingly symbolic of a distinctly Amazonian culture politically, socially, economically, and environmentally under siege.

Slater discusses the tales from the viewpoints of genre, performance, and gender, but centers on them as responses to the great changes sweeping the Amazon today. This book crosses the boundaries of folklore, literature, anthropology, and Latin American studies, and is one of the very few studies to offer an overview of the changes taking place in Amazonia through the eyes of ordinary people.

Sleptsov, M. M. Cetaceans of Far East Seas. Wladyvostock, 1955.

Sliggers, B. C., and A. A. Wertheim, eds. Op het strand gesmeten: Vijf eeuwen potvisstrandingen aan de Nederlandse kust. Walburg Pers, 1992. In Dutch.

Jaap: Historical overview of sperm whale strandings on the Dutch coast in the last five centuries. [Trisha: Also includes whales in art.]

Slijper, Everhard J. Walvissen. Amsterdam, 1958.

___________. Whales. Translated by A. J. Pomerans. 2d ed. (with a new foreword, concluding chapter and bibliography by Richard J. Harrison). London: Hutchinson/Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1979; New York/Basic Books, 1962.

From the dust jacket: " . . . Unique in its thoroughness and broad coverage, [Whales] blends scientific observations, museum studies, and laboratory experiments with history, art, and anecdote.

" . . . a classic work first published in Dutch in 1958 and translated into English in 1962, [it] was written by an internationally recognized authority on Cetacea who combined an . . . interest in the history of whaling [Slijper was pro-whaling, 'Let us hope there will be whales in the sea, and whale-meat in our larders, as long as man continues on earth.'] . . . with a varied background in comparative and veterinary anatomy . . . [See contents below.]

"Professor Harrison's new material includes a brief description of Slijper's work and ideas, and an account of the principal areas in which research on whales has been carried out since the book was first published. His last chapter, finished after the summer 1978 meeting of the International Whaling Commission, gives the latest information on whales and whaling, including current international agreements and estimates of population . . . "

Contents: Historical Introduction (minimally about ancient history, primarily about whaling and also the slaughter of smaller cetaceans); Evolution and External Appearances; Locomotion and Locomotory Organs; Respiration; Heart, Circulation, and Blood; Behaviour; Hearing; The Production of Sounds; Senses and the Central Nervous System; Feeding; Metabolism; Distribution and Migration; Reproduction; Whales and Whaling; Classification of Cetacea; Names of Cetacea in Different Languages; a bibliography and a brief index.

___________. Whales and Dolphins. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1976. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

___________. Pseudorca crassidens (Owen): Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Cetaceen. Leiden, 1939. In German.

___________. Die Cetaceen: Vergleichend-anatomisch und systematisch. Capita Zoologica Bd. VI and VII (1936). The Hague: Martinus Nijhof, 1936. Reprinted in 1973 by Asher & Co., Amsterdam. In German.

Slooten, Elizabeth, and Steve Dawson. Down Under Dolphin. Canterbury University Press, 1996.

A complete resource on the Hector's dolphin of New Zealand by two scientists who helped to create a sanctuary to protect this species.

From a review by William Rossiter in the October 1996 issue of Whales Alive!: "Yes, this book can tell the general reader almost everything about this dolphin and its cousins, but more, it will show how superb science can be when done by experts who really care."

Small, George L. The Blue Whale. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971.

Contents: Introduction to Tragedy, The Blue Whale, Decimation, Antarctic Pelagic Whaling, Industrial Economics and Extermination, National Whaling Policies, International Whaling Control, Epilogue or Epitaph?

Smith, Captain Scott. Dolphin Tales: True Stories of the Atlantic Spotted Dolphins. Lake Park, Florida: Wayne "Scott" Smith, 2000. Website: www.dolphindreamteam.com.

From the author: " In Dolphin Tales, Captain Scott Smith shares . . . many true and fascinating stories from his 20 years studying the Atlantic spotted dolphins. The book also contains [lots] of factual information plus many of Scott's magnificent photos gathered throughout the years among his dolphin friends. The book is a wonderful journey into the unique relationship Scott has forged with the dolphins. These are wild dolphins, they are not trained or fed; they come out of curiosity and playfulness, but stay out of friendship and trust."

Smith, Shirleen. Bibliography of Bowhead Whales, Whaling, and Alaskan Inupiat and Yupik Whaling Communities. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Boreal Institute for Northern Studies, University of Albert, 1986.

Smith, Roland, and William Munoz. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises in the Zoo (The New Zoo). Millbrook Press, 1994.

Smith, Thomas G., and Michael O. Hammill. A Bibliography of the White Whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Arctic Biological Station, 1990. Canadian manuscript report of fisheries and aquatic sciences; ISSN: 0706-6473; 2060.

Smith, Thomas G., D. J. St. Aubin, and J. R. Geracci, eds. Advances in Research on the Beluga Whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 224. Ottawa: Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 1990. ISSN: 0706-6503. Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1990 Cat. No. Fs 97-4/2060E.

Smithsonian, The. Masters of the Ocean Realm: Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises Exhibition. Octobe 12, 2001 - January 2, 2002. Smithsonian online: http://www.mnh.si.edu.

From a press release: "It's the story of science and legends and the interaction of whales and humans through time,' said Dennis O'Connor, Smithsonian under secretary for science.

"Visitors will probably appreciate the change in people's attitude toward whales between the times of the Yankee whalers hunting on the seas and today's efforts to protect and conserve these animals, added Charley Potter, collection manager for marine mammals at the museum.

"William Hogarth of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said the show will help people understand the science involved in the study of marine mammals . . .

"NOAA scientists were active in helping create the exhibition, which traces whales from their ancient land-bound ancestor, the wolf-like mesonychid, through a long evolution to the massive creatures we know today.

"One exhibit offers a full-size model of a dolphin, showing smooth skin and smile-like mouth. Walking around to the other side, the viewer can see inside the mammal and study its skeleton, including a long tooth-filled jaw . . .

"Dolphins, whales and porpoises have horizontal tails, in contrast to the vertical tales of fish and sharks. Visitors can see how the two types of tail work in the water and what the different swimming motions are.

"A section on narwhals provides a close look at the long, twisted tusk that in Medieval times gave birth to the legend of the unicorn . . .

"Baleen whales are also featured, the ones with mouths full of long flexible structures that they use to filter food out of the water.

"In centuries past, baleen were used as stiffeners in women's corsets. For those who can't remember the corset, one is on display.

"The exhibit concludes with whales and dolphins in art, featuring replicas of ancient Greek mosaics and coins, Tlingit carvings, the beautiful scrimshaw carvings done by sailors on whalebone and even images of whales in advertising."

Smolker, Rachel. To Touch a Wild Dolphin: The Lives and Minds of the Dolphins of Monkey Mia. New York: Doubleday, 2001.

From the publisher: "The first intimate account of dolphin life in the wild, this revolutionary portrait of a much-beloved animal and its behavior in its natural surroundings will take a place alongside Jane Goodall's classic investigation into the world of chimpanzees, In the Shadow of Man. Rachel Smolker cofounded the Monkey Mia dolphin project in 1982 and has participated in the study of dolphins in Hawai'i and the Bahamas, as well as studying whales in British Columbia and New Zealand."

From the dust jacket: " In 1982, frustrated by the limitations of observing dolphins in captivity, Smolker moved to Monkey Mia, a remote beach on the west coast of Australia where 'tame' wild dolphins regularly interact with humans. Gradually, Smolker and a team of fellow scientists extended the human-dolphin community to encompass dolphins that did not come toward shore. By 1990, they could recognize and chart the behavior of more than 250 individuals. Smolker's . . . chronicle of her experiences in Monkey Mia, To Touch a Wild Dolphin, unravels many of the mysteries about these appealing animals. It offers an up-close look at their society and the diversity of characters that inhabit it. From the intriguing differences between the sexes to the nature of mother-infant relationships, to the wide repertoire of sounds used for social communications, the author reveals the inner workings of dolphin life. In delightful portraits of individual dolphins, she profiles personalities ranging from the playful to the moody to the incredibly silly."

The Society for Marine Mammalogy. Strategies for Pursuring a Career in Marine Mammal Science. Supplement to Marine Mammal Science, Vol. 10, No. 2, April 1994. Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press, 1994. Updated 1996. (800-627-0629). ( Or click here to download from the Web.)

This booklet answers questions commonly asked by young people seeking a career in marine mammal science in the United States. It tells about kinds of jobs available, salaries, and ways to get practical experience. Also provided are an excellent list of resources and suggestions on how to plan education.

Trisha: To view an extensive file of information I've compiled on careers working with cetaceans, click here.

Sokolov, V. E. Amazonian Dolphin. International Scholars Publications, 1998.

From the publisher: A collection of fourteen papers on the ecology, biology, and physiology of the Amazonian dolphin, the data representing the results of research during a Soviet-Peruvian joint expedition.

Sokolov, V. E., and E. V. Romanenko, eds. Chernomorskaia Afalina: Tursiops truncatus ponticus: Morfologiia, Fiziologiia, Akustika, Gidrodinamika. (The Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ponticus): Morphology, Physiology, Acoustics, Hydrodynamics). [In Russian. Table of contents and summary in English. Published in English by International Scholars Publications, 1998.] Available from : NHBS Mailorder Bookstore.

From the publisher: A monograph treating the Black Sea bottlenose dolphin in the framework of the "Man and the Biosphere" project of UNESCO.

Contents: The Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphin, The Numbers and Distribution, Integuments Morphology of the Black Sea, Ultrastructural Organization of the Epidermis, The Skin Glands, The Structure of the Mouth Cavity, Stomach and Duodenum, The Morphology of the Reproductive System, The Reproduction, The Respiration System, The Blood System, The Cardiovascular System, The Hydroadaptive Mechanisms of the Gas-Exchange Function, The Excretory System: The Specific Features of Water-Salt Exchange, The Water Balance, The Periphery Nervous System, The Structure of Sleep, Histochemical Structure of the Muscle, Structure and Adaptive Peculiarities of the Postcranial Skeleton, Some Anatomical Peculiarities of the Musculature, Structure-Functional Organization of the Peripheral Acoustic System in Pre- and Postnatal Development, The Ethological-Acoustic Correlates, The Echo-location Analyzer, The Acoustic Parameters of melon, The Characteristics of the Hearing System, Some Results of Acoustic Studies, The Hydrodynamics, The Conditions of Rest and Activity

Southern, Henry Neville, ed. The Handbook of British Mammals, edited for the Mammal Society of the British Isles. "Cetacea" by Eric Thorn. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1965.

Southwell, Thomas. The Seals and Whales of the British Seas. London: Jarrold, 1881.

Spalding, David A. E. Whales of the West Coast. Harbour Publishing Co., 1999.

Spalding, M. J. "Workshop on Legal Aspects of Whale Watching, Punta Arenas, Chile." The Journal of Environment and Development (1998) 7: 184.

Spender, Stephen. Dolphins. New York: St. Martin Press, 1994.

Stacey, P. J., and S. Leatherwood. The Irrawaddy Dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris: A Summary of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Conservative Action. Draft. 1996.

St. Aubin, D. J., J. R. Geraci, and V. J. Lounsbury. Rescue, Rehabilitation, and Release of Marine Mammls: An Analysis of Current Views and Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Des Plaines, Illinois, 3-5 December 1991.. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1996. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-8.

Report of a workshop conducted by the Marine Mammal Commission and the National Marine Fisheries Service on the issues involved in releasing rehabilitated marine mammals back to the wild. This report applies to stranded animals only and does not apply to the release of long-term captive marine mammals. The report also does not contain the release guidelines that are in development, but served as a departure point for developing those guidelines.

Contents include: Introduction; Summary of Current Practices; Ethics, Responsibilities, and Issues (Why Intervene?); Responsible Intervention (Standards of Care, Medical Treatment, Need for Quarantine, Public Health, Euthanasia); Release (Preparation, Monitoring, Associated Risks); The Regulatory Process; Critical Needs and Recommendations; Changing Views of Animals: The Ethical Framework of Rehabilitation Programs; Rehabilitating Stranded Cetaceans and Pinnipeds: Management Issues and Data Summary; Disease and Reintroductions: An Overview; Models for Disease Containment in Captive Terrestrial Mammals Destined for Reintroduction; Behavioral Issues in Returning Marine Mammals to Their Habitat; The Release of Seals from Captive Breeding and Rehabilitation Programs: A Useful Conservation Management Tool? (conclusion: " . . . captive-bred and rehabilitated seals can be sucessfully reintroduced into their natural environment . . . After several weeks in the wild, seals show normal activity patterns and disperse as expected within their habitats. Rehabilitated seals appear to adapt most readily, followed by captive-born animals released as juveniles; seals born in captivity and released as adults appear not to fare as well.)

Stebbins, Eunice B. The Dolphin in the Literature and Art of Greece and Rome. Menasha, Wisconsin: George Banta, 1929.

This Ph.D. dissertation contains the following chapters: The Nature of the Dolphin; Types of the Dolphin in Art/Conventions in the Representation of the Dolphin in Art; The Dolphin in Minoan Art; Helladic and Cycladic Art/The Art of Cyprus; Geometric Art; The Dolphin in Legend and Literature; and The Dolphin in Art and in Archaelogical Remains of the Historical Periods of Greece and Rome.

In her conclusion, Stebbins states: "As we look back over the examples of the dolphin in both Greek and Roman art, it is evident that its value as an accessory decorative motif has quite as much to do with the frequency with which it is used, as does its symbolic meaning. In fact, the feeling of symbolism definitely retreats behind the decorative element in the art of the later periods. This may possibly account for the increasingly fantastic modifications of the animal, especially in Roman art . . .

"The dolphin in literature does not, perforce, fare so badly as the dolphin in art. Its treatment readily falls into two great groups, the stories, and the allusions in figures of speech. The former are simple, pretty for the most part, and childish. The latter range from the grandiose follies of Nonnus to the pretty foolishness of Martianus Capella. The greater artists use the figure sparingly, seeming to feel, as did Evaenetus, the restraints imposed by a sense of proportion. Homer barely touches upon it, and Aristophanes makes fun of Euripides for using it too fancifully. To two Romans falls the honor of employing the dolphin most effectively in literature. Nowhere is the swiftness of the animal more beautifully expressed than in Pliny's words, ocior volucre, acrior telo, while the music of Vergil's line is a note to be remembered always: Orpheus in silvis, inter delphinas Arion."

Steele, Philip. The Blue Whale. New York/London: Kingfisher, 1994.

Steering Group on Dolphinaria. Dolphinaria. London; Department of the Environment, 1988. (See also A Review of Dolphinaria under the authors Margaret Klinowska and [first name unknown] Brown.)

Steiner, Todd, David Phillis, and Mark J. Palmer. The Tragedy Continues: The Killing of Dolphins by the Tuna Industry. San Francisco, California: Earth Island Institute/Oakland, California: Whale Center, 1988. Available from Earth Island Institute, 300 Broadway, Suite 28, San Francisco, California 94133, USA, (800) 3-DOLFIN, (415) 788-3666.

Comprehensive report offering a complete analysis of the background and practices of the international tuna industry and the tuna-dolphin controversy.

Sten, Christopher. Sounding the Whale: Moby-Dick as Epic Novel. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1996.

Addresses not only Moby-Dick, but also whales in literature in general.

Stenuit, Robert. The Dolphin, Cousin to Man. New York: Bantam, 1972. French edition: Dauphin, mon cousin, translated by Catherine Osborne, London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1969.

"Filled with fascinating news about our not-so-distant relatives from the sea."

Chapter titles include: Graceful, Living Torpedoes; Friends of Gods, Children and Men; From the Sea to the Land, From the Land to the Sea; Two Eyes Plus Two Ears Make Four Eyes; Will Men Talk with Dolphins?; The Challenge to Hydrodynamics; Decompression? What For?; The Intellectual of the Sea; The Aquanaut's Companion; Dolphin, Who Are You?. Also includes an index.

Stephen, D. Dolphins, Seals and Other Sea Mammals. New York: Putnam's/Glasgow: Collins, 1973.

Sterba, O., Milan Klima, and B. Schildger. Embryology of Dolphins: Staging and Ageing of Embryos and Fetuses of Some Cetaceans. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology, Vol. 157. Springer Verlag, 2001.

From the publisher: "The study of intrauterine development and growth while consistently respecting the time factor enabled the authors to determine the time course of organogenesis of all organ systems. The resulting comparison with other mammals detected the time lag in ossification, retardation of odontogeny, the time of the origin and development of the fluke, dorsal fin and flipper, etc. The authors believe the Staging and Ageing Method serves for much more efficient evaluation of existing embryological collections which very often contain embryos of unknown age."

Stewardson, Carolyn L. Mammals of the Ice: An Introductory Guide to the Seals, Whales and Dolphins in the Australian Subantarctic and Antarctica, Based on Records from ANARE Voyages, 1977-90. Braddon, Australia: Sedona Publishing, 1998. Available via Web site or from Sedona Publishing, Unit 8, 14 Lonsdale Street, Braddon ACT 2612, Australia, voice: +61-2-6257 4155, fax: +61-2-6247 2394.

From the preface: Mammals of the Ice is an illustrated guide for the identification of seals, whales, and dolphins in the Australian sector of the Southern Indian Ocean, from 45 degrees-160 degrees east and 40 degrees-69 degrees south, featuring artwork by Canberra artist Peter Child.

This field guide presents unpublished records of marine mammals (3,515 marine mammals: 773 seals and 2,742 cetaceans: 20 species) observed from Australian national Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) and resupply vessels during 1977-90. The guide includes key diagnostic characteristics; monthly sighting tables; information on group size; and general notes concerning biology, behavior, and conservation satus. An anatomical key, species directory, and checklist of important points to look for when recording mammals at sea (e.g., size and shape of blow, color patterns or markings) assist readers in the identification of individual species . . . Nomenclature follows Bannister, Kemper and Warneke (1996) . . . Much of the information presented in this guide is also applicable to a wider sector of the Southern Ocean (e.g., south of New Zealand, Africa, and South America).

Contents include: Introduction (ANARE ships, Marine mammal sightings recorded during ANARE cruises); Recording Sightings of Mammals at Sea; Anatomical Characteristics for Distinguishing Seals, Whales and Dolphins; Characteristics for Identifying the Species of Seals, Whales and Dolphins; Seals; Baleen Whales (rorquals, blue whale, fin whale, sei whale, minke whale, humpback whale, right and bowhead whales, southern right whale); Toothed Whales and Dolphins (sperm whale, beaked whales, southern bottlenose whale, Arnoux's beaked whale, Cuvier's beaked whale, Shepherd's beaked whale, Blainville's beaked whale, Gray's beaked whale, Hector's beaked whale, True's beaked whale, Andrews' beaked whale, strap-toothed whale, ocean dolphins and small whales, killer whale, long-finned pilot whale, hourglass dolphin, southern right whale dolphin, Commerson's dolphin); Appendixes (including dive profiles); Glossary and Acronyms; Bibliography; Index.

Stewart, Frank, ed. The Presence of Whales: Contemporary Writings on the Whale. Seattle, Washington: Alaska Northwest Books, 1995.

Contributors include Diane Ackerman, K. C. Balcomb III, Kenneth Brower, Christopher W. Clark, John K. B. Ford, Gerard Gormley, Barry Lopez, Faith McNulty, W. S. Merwin, Farley Mowat, Kenneth S. Norris, Bruce Obee, Katherine B. Payne, Roger Payne, Joel W. Rogers, Frank Stewart, David Rains Wallace, Linda S. Weilgart, Jonathan White, and Hal Whitehead.

Stewart, Hilary. Looking at Indian Art of the Northwest Coast. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1979.

Trisha: Numerous examples of North American Northwest Coast Indian killer whale art, with explanations of structure and meaning.

Stoutenburg, Adrien. Tigers, Trainers, and Dancing Whales: Wild Animals of the Circus, Zoo, and Screen. MacRae Smith Co., 1968.

St. John, Patricia. Beyond Words: Unlocking the Secret to Communicating. Walpole: Stillpoint Publishing International, 1994.

Trisha: This seems to be either a reprinting or a slightly revised edition of The Secret Language of Dolphins.

___________. The Secret Language of Dolphins. (Also titled Speaking with Dolphins: One Woman's Quest to Uncover the Secrets of Dolphin Communication.) New York: Summit Books, 1991.

Chronicles St. John's personal process after she began interacting with captive dolphins and also her work with captive dolphins and autistic children.

Stonehouse, Bernard. Sea Mammals of the World. Harmondsworth, England/New York: Penguin Books, 1985.

From the Foreword: "[This book] is partly a field guide, but mainly an identification book--one that gives identity to the animals in it. Few of its readers may ever meet Fraser's Dolphins, Leopard Seals or West African Manatees, or need to put names to them. If they do, this book is enough of a field guide to help, though that is not its main purpose. But many readers hear of whales and other sea mammals, see films and pictures of them, and learn all too often of one species or another in danger from pollution, over-exploitation or mismanagement. This book should help to give identity--to show what the species look like, to give a little information on their background, numbers and ways of life, and to summarize what is interesting about them."

Includes sections on Whales, Porpoises and Dolphins; Dugongs and Manatees; Seals, Sea Lions and Walruses; and Bears and Otters, plus a worldwide distribution map.

___________. A Visual Introduction to Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises. Animal Watch series. Checkmark Books, 1998.

Profiles humpback, bowhead, right, grey, beluga, killer, sperm, bottlenose, and pilot whales, narwhals, dolphins, and porpoises.

Stoops, Erik D., Jeffrey L. Martin, and Debbie Lynne Stone. Whales. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1995.

Structured in a question-and-answer format, the chapters include: How Whales Live, The Whale's Body, The Whale's Senses, Eating Habits, Whale Reproduction, Self-Defense, Whales and People, and Great Whales. Indexed.

Struthers, Sir John. Memoir on the Anatomy of the Humpback Whale, Megaptera longimana. Edinburgh: Maclachlan and Stewart, 1889.

Sugarman, Peter. Field Guide to the Orca Whales of Greater Puget Sound and Southern British Columbia. Friday Harbor, Washington: The Whale Museum, 1984.

Supin, A. Ya., V. V. Popov, and A. M. Mass. The Sensory Physiology of Aquatic Mammals. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Available from the publishers at: http://www.wkap.nl. Author Supin's email: A.Supin@g23.relcom.ru.

INTRODUCTION: 1.1. General, 1.2. Aquatic Mammals as Subjects of Experimental Studies, 1.3. The Physical Properties of Water as a Sensory Medium, 1.3.1. Acoustics, 1.3.2. Optics, 1.4. Psychophysical Measurement Procedures, 1.4.1. The Operant Conditioning Method, 1.4.2. Conditioned Reflex, 1.4.3. The Statistical Basis for Threshold Evaluation, 1.4.4. Data-Collection Procedures; HEARING IN CETACEANS: 2.1. Ear Morphology, 2.1.1. Outer Ear and Middle Ear, 2.1.2. Inner Ear and Peripheral Neurons, 2.2. Auditory Evoked Potentials in Cetaceans, 2.2.1. Intracranial Evoked Potentials, 2.2.2. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR), 2.2.3. Noninvasively Recorded Cortical Evoked Responses, 2.2.4. Rhythmic Evoked Potentials, 2.2.5. Contribution of Various Frequency Bands to ABR, 2.3. Evoked-Potential Procedures in Hearing Measurements, 2.3.1. ABR Threshold Measurements, 2.3.2. EFR and RFR Threshold Measurements, 2.4. Hearing Sensitivity and Frequency Range, 2.4.1. Psychophysical Data, 2.4.2. Evoked-Potential Data, 2.5. Temporal Resolution, 2.5.1. Psychophysical Studies, 2.5.2. Dependence of ABR on Stimulus Duration, 2.5.3. ABR Recovery at Double-Click Stimulation, 2.5.4. Gap-in-Noise Detection Measurements, 2.5.5. Derivation of the Temporal Transfer Function of the Auditory System, 2.5.6. Rhythmic Amplitude-Modulation Test and Modulation Transfer Function, 2.5.7. Rhythmic Click Test, 2.6. Frequency Tuning, 2.6.1. Critical Ratios and Critical Bands, 2.6.2. Tuning Curves, 2.6.3. Notch-Noise Masking, 2.6.4. Frequency-Discrimination Limens, 2.6.5. Frequency Resolving Power, 2.7. Sound-Intensity Discrimination, 2.8. Directional Sensitivity, Spatial, and Binaural Hearing, 2.8.1. Psychophysical Studies, 2.8.2. Directional Sensitivity: Evoked-Potential Studies, 2.8.3. Binaural Hearing: Evoked-Potential Studies, 2.9. Frequency-Temporal and Frequency-Spatial Interactions, 2.9.1. Temporal Interaction of Frequency-Colored Sound Pulses, 2.9.2. Paradoxical Lateral Suppression, 2.9.3. Interaction of Directional and Frequency Sensitivity, 2.10. Sound-Conduction Pathways, 2.11. Central Representation of the Auditory System, 2.12. Implements to Echolocation, 2.12.1. Hearing Frequency Range, 2.12.2. Frequency Tuning and Temporal Resolution, 2.12.3. Recovery Functions as a Basis of Invariant Perception of Echo Signals, 2.12.4. Rippled Spectrum Resolution and Echolocation, 2.12.5. Frequency-Temporal Interactions, 2.12.6. Spatial Resolution, 2.13. Summary; HEARING IN PINNIPEDS AND SIRENIANS (Chapter 3); VISION IN AQUATIC MAMMALS: 4.1. Vision in Cetaceans, 4.1.1. Eye Morphology, 4.1.2. Visual Abilities of Cetaceans: Psychophysical Studies, 4.1.3. Topographic Distribution of Retinal Ganglion Cells, 4.1.4. Visual Projections to the Cerebral Cortex, 4.2. Vision in Pinnipeds, 4.3. Vision in Sirenians, 4.4. Summary; SOMATIC SENSE IN AQUATIC MAMMAL: 5.1. Somatic Sense in Cetaceans, 5.2. Somatic Sense in Pinnipeds, 5.2.1. Morphological and Psychophysical Data, 5.2.2. Somatosensory Projections to the Cerebral Cortex, 5.2.2. Tactile Sensitivity of Vibrissae, 5.3. Summary

Swartz, S. L. Demography, Migration, and Behavior of Gray Whales Eschrictius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861) in San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico and in Their Winter Range. Ph.D. thesis. Santa Cruz, California: University of California Santa Cruz, 1986.

Sweeney, J. A Pictorial History of Sea Monsters. New York: Crown Publishing, 1972.

Sylvestre, Jean-Pierre. Guide des mammifères marins du Canada. L'Acadie, Quebec, Canada: Broquet, 1998.

Fact sheets on 48 marine mammals, including classification, characteristics, biology, and distribution range. This book also provides information on sites in Canada where these marine mammals may be observed as well as a list of contacts.

___________. Dolphins and Porpoises: A Worldwide Guide. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1995. Originally published as Guides des dauphins et marsouins, Lausanne, Switzerland: Delachaux & Niestlé, 1990.

Guide to 40 species. Includes information on taxonomy, common and scientific names, physical characteristics, reproduction cycles, population, diet, field identification, methods of communication, disribution, how humans have interacted with dolphins and porpoises throughout history, and theories of stranding. Abundantly illustrated in color photos and black-and-white drawings.

___________. Baleines et cachalots. Lausanne, Switzerland: Delachaux et Niestlé, 1989.

Talbot, [first name unknown]. Out of the Blue: Whales and Dolphins. Beyond Words Publishing, 1992.

Talbot, Bob. Oceans of Light. Bob Talbot Photography, P.O. Box 3126, Rancho Palos Verdes, California 90274, USA, 1994.

Talbot, Jennifer. Whales. Collingwood, Victoria: Greenhouse Publishing, 1981.

Chapters include: Myths and Legends, Biology, A Brief History of Whaling, The International Whaling Commission, Project Jonah

Tan, Jose Ma. Lorenzo. A Field Guide to Whales and Dolphins in the Philippines. Philippines: J. M. L. Tan and Bookmark, 1995.

Well-illustrated book, which includes an identification guide, advice on whale- and dolphin-watching equipment, and comments on the future prospects of dolphins and whales in the Philippines.

Tavolga, W. N., ed. Marine Bio-Acoustics. Vol. I and II. Pergamon Press, 1964.

Taylor, David. The Wandering Whale and Other Adventures from a Zoovet's Casebook. Bath: Chivers, 1985, 1986.

___________. Is There a Doctor in the Zoo? Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott Company, 1977.

Scott: The story of Taylor and his decision to focus on wild and zoo animals in his veterinary practice. Numerous tales, many humorous. He spent time with Dr. Sam Ridgway at Pt. Mugu naval lab studying dolphins and in Florida assisting in their capture.

Taylor, Scott. Souls in the Sea: Dolphins, Whales, and Human Destiny. Berkeley, Calif.: Frog, Ltd., 2003. (New Age)

From the author: "Souls in the Sea is a work of history, philosophy, nature, science, and mythology. It gathers many streams of information about our ancient relationship with the Cetaceans and brings to the surface the esoteric nature of that relationship."

From the publisher: "Author Scott Taylor argues . . . that these highly evolved creatures are intelligent, compassionate, and self-aware, and possess an advanced ‘soul.’ According to Taylor's definition, a soul enables a creature to be ‘aware of its life through the entire spectrum of its biosystems, coordinating those systems for uses other than survival.’"

Tenzin-Dolma, Lisa. The Dolphin Experience. London/New York: W. Foulsham & Co., 1992. Reissued, slightly revised, as Swimming with Dolphins: A Healing Experience. London/New York: W. Foulsham & Co., 1997. (New Age)

The first half of the book provides a brief introduction to the natural history of dolphins, their interactions with humans, and dolphin mythology. The second half contains thirteen personal accounts of interaction with primarily the lone wild dolphin Fungie (the "Dingle Dolphin"), and concludes with a consideration of ecology and conservation issues and the steps we need to take.

Section and chapter titles include: The Natural History of Dolphins--Origins and History, Common Dolphins, Bottlenose Dolphins, Swimming Feats, Breathing, Feeding, Sleep, Reproduction, Care of the Young, Mortality, Dolphin Intelligence, Social Behaviour, Auditory Sense and Communication, Captivity; Interaction with Human Beings--The Dolpin Mind, 'Speaking' Dolphins, Dolphins and the Military; Dolphin Mythology--Are Dolphins Here to Help Us?, 'Dolphin Energy'; Dolphin Experiences; The Present Situation--Dolphin Slaughter by the Fishing Industry, Pollution of the Seas; What We Can Do--Awareness and Regeneration.

Trisha: This book, Whale Tales (Fromm), Encounters with Whales and Dolphins (Doak), Swimming with Dolphins (Doak), and Horace Dobbs's books are the primary resources I am aware of that contain numerous personal accounts of cetacean-human interaction. In the second edition of Tenzin-Dolma's book, one of the personal accounts from the first edition has been replaced by a new one. Otherwise, the changes are minimal.

Thewissen, J. G. The Emergence of Whales: Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea. Advances in Vertebrate Paleobiology series, vol. 1. New York: Plenum Publishing, 1999.

Thomas, Jeanette A., and Ronald A. Kastelein, eds. Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. NATO ASI Series A, Life Science, Vol. 196. New York: Plenum Press in cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division, 1990.

Proceedings of a NATO advanced research workshop andsymposium of the Fifth International Theriological Congress on Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans, held August 22-29, 1989, in Rome, Italy.


SENSORY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY: Forehead Anatomy of Phocoena phocoena and Cephalorhynchus comersonii: 3-Dimensional Computer Reconstructions with Emphasis on the Nasal Diverticula; Structure and Thalamocortical Relations of the Cetacean Sensory Cortex: Histological, Tracer and Immunocytochemical Studies; A Potential Neural Substrate for Geomagnetic Sensibility in Cetaceans; Immunocytomchemistry of Neurotransmitters in Visual Neocortex of Several Toothed Whales: Light and Electron Microscopy Study; Evolution of the Nasal Anatomy of Cetaceans; Three-dimensional Reconstructions of the Dolphin Ear; Sensory Neocortex in Dolphin Brain; Evolutionary Morphology and Acoustics in the Dolphin Skull; Tactile Sensitivity, Somatosensory Responses, Skin Vibrations, and the Skin Surface Ridges of the Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; A Potential System of Delay-lines in the Dolphin Auditory Brainstem; Concluding Comments on Sensory Anatomy and Physiology

ACOUSTIC SENSES: A. ECHOLOCATION/SOUND PRODUCTION: Target Detection in Noise by Echolocating Dolphins; Preliminary Notes on Behaviour of a Blindfolded Free-swimming Dolphin Performing a Target Echolocation Task in a Pool; On the Two Auditory Subsystems in Dolphins; A Proposed Echolocation Receptor for the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Modelling the Receive Directivity from Tooth and Lower Jaw Geometry; Studies on Echolocation of Porpoises Taken in Salmon Gillnet Fisheries; Very High-frequency Acoustic Emissions from the White-beaked Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris); High Intensity Narwhal Clicks; Investigations on the Control of Echolocation Pulses in the Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Purposeful Changes in the Structure of Echolocation; Echolocation Characteristics and Range Detection Threshold of a False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens)

ACOUSTIC SENSES: B. HEARING: Preliminary Hearing Study on Gray Whales (Eschrictus robustus); Inferences about Perception in Large Cetaceans, Especially Humpback Whales, from Incidental Catches in Fixed Fishing Gear, Enhancement of Nets by "Alarm" Devices, and the Acoustics of Fishing Gear; Formation of an Adaptive Structure of the Peripheral Part of the Auditory Analyzer in Aquatic, Echo-locating Mammals during Ontogenesis; Frequency-selectivity of the Auditory System in the Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; Masked Hearing Abilities in a False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens); Electrophysiological Studies on Hearing in Some Cetaceans and a Manatee; Localization of the Acoustic Window at the Dolphin's Head; Concluding Comments on Cetacean Hearing and Echolocation

CHEMICAL/TACTILE/VISUAL SENSES: Preliminary Results from Psychophysical Studies on the Tactile Sensitivity in Marine Mammals; Taste Reception in the Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gilli) and the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus); Cognitive Performance of Dolphins in Visually-guided Tasks; Anatomical and Histological Characteristics of the Eyes of a Month-old and an Adult Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena); Chemical Sense of Dolphins: Quasi-olfaction; Best Vision Zones in the Retinae of Some Cetaceans; Visual Ecology and Cognition in Cetaceans; Non-acoustic Communication in Small Cetaceans: Glance, Touch, Position, Gesture, and Bubbles; Visual Displays for Communication in Cetaceans; Concluding Comments on Vision, Tactition, and Chemoreception

COMMUNICATION: Acoustic Behavior of Mysticete Whales; Acoustic Behavior in a Local Population of Bottlenose Dolphins; Organization of Communication System in Tursiops truncatus Montagu; Signalization of the Bottlenose Dolphin during the Adaptation to Different Stressors; Concluding Comments on Acoustic Communication

OTHER SENSES: Geomagnetic Sensitivity in Cetaceans: An Update with Live Stranding Records in the United States; Geomagnetic Orientation in Cetaceans: Behavioural Evidence; Attention and Decision-making in Echolocation Matching-to-Sample by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): The Microstructure of Decision-making; Stimulus Equivalence and Cross-modal Perception: A Testable Model for Demonstrating Symbolic Representations in Bottlenose Dolphins; The Ability of Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, to Report Arbitrary Information; Concluding Comments on Other Sensory Abilities

Trisha: As someone who has made my living for the past dozen years both indexing (primarily technical works) and teaching technical indexing, I am a fair judge of indexes to technical/scientific material, and the 8-page index in the present volume is, to be polite :-), completely inadequate.

Primer on indexes to technical material (for those who wish to provide a useful instrument for the users of such volumes): The length of an index to technical material should typically fall somewhere in the range of 5-10% of the length of the text. Since the present volume contains 701 pages of text, a high-quality, user-helpful index would fall somewhere between 35-70 pages in length, probably somewhere toward the lower end of the range for this particular volume.

Thomas, Jeanette A., Ronald A. Kastelein, and A. Y. Supin. Marine Mammal Sensory Systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1991.

Forty-eight papers from a symposium held in Moscow in 1991.

Subjects include: hearing, echolocation, sound production, communication, sensory systems, sensory anatomy and morphology, neurology, and behavior.

Thomas, Jeanette A., and Cynthia Moss, eds. Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

From the publisher: "Although bats and dolphins live in very different environments, are vastly different in size, and hunt different kinds of prey, both groups have evolved similar sonar systems, known as echolocation, to locate food and navigate the skies and seas. While much research has been conducted over the past thirty years on echolocation in bats and dolphins, this volume is the first to compare what is known about echolocation in each group, to point out what information is missing, and to identify future areas of research.

"Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins consists of six sections: mechanisms of echolocation signal production; the anatomy and physiology of signal reception and interpretation; performance and cognition; ecological and evolutionary aspects of echolocation mammals; theoretical and methodological topics; and possible echolocation capabilities in other mammals, including shrews, seals, and baleen whales. Animal behaviorists, ecologists, physiologists, and both scientists and engineers who work in the field of bioacoustics will benefit from this book."

Thompson, Paul, and Ben Wilson. Bottlenose Dolphins. WorldLife Library series. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press/Grantown-on-Spey: Colin Baxter Photography, 1994.

In this beautifully produced book (wonderful photographs-Trisha), "voyage under the sea with researchers Paul Thompson and Ben Wilson who are currently studying dolphins off the coast of Scotland. The authors explain the bottlenose dolphin's oceanic habitat and range, and delve into their complex social relationships. The authors also share their concerns for the future of these belove seafarers and suggest steps to protect them." In addition, they explore relationships with humans and whales, dolphins, and porpoises."

Chapters include: Introduction, Mammals in the Sea, The Search for Food, Life and Death in a Dolphin Society, Getting Involved, and Bottlenose Dolphin Facts.

Tiede, Tom, with Jack Findleton. The Great Whale Rescue: An American Folk Epic. New York: Pharos Books, 1986.

Synopsis: A chronicle of the people and politics and techniques used to steer Humphrey, the humpback whale who ventured up the Sacramento River in 1985, back out to sea.

From the dust jacket: "It started in mid-October 1985 when two windsurfers on the Sacramento River saw a long, black, bulging bump shining in the autumnal sun, and--swimming. It was a whale, a huge humpback whale.

"What in tarnation was going on? Whales live in the oceans and seas. They do not go into estuaries with the trout.

"This is the story of that whale, often called Humphrey, and how more than 500 people united to work to get him safely back into the ocean where he belonged.

"Humphrey, it's safe to say, shan't soon be forgotten. He was the rarest of creatures, an inspiration. He was celebrated by the big candles and small, and he stopped the clock of an otherwise unhappy earth. Presidents and governors paused for his arrival, generals and admirals secured the way.

"The whale in the river was the most thrilling arrival from another place in 1985. A good many lives were touched for the better.

"One was that of Jack Findleton. Thirty-seven at the time. Fishing guide, Vietnam veteran, married and with two children; boisterous, ambitious, daring and sometimes profane. He had never seen a whale in person before October of that year. He was nonetheless to become the best friend the beast had in the human world. He led a waterborne rescue that science and common sense say saved the large animal's life."

Tillman, M. F., and G. P. Donovan, eds. Special Issue on Historical Whaling Records. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 5. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1983.

Presents the biological information residing in the thousands of whaling logbooks and journals and other historical documents dating back as far as the 16th century.

Tilt, W. C. "Whales and Whalewatching in North America with Special Emphasis on Whale Harassment." (If anyone knows the source of this article, I would be grateful to receive this information--Trisha)

Time-Life Television Editors. Whales and Other Sea Mammals. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life, 1977.

Tinker, Spencer Wilkie. Whales of the World. New York: E. J. Brill Publishing Company/Honolulu, Hawaii: Bess Press, 1988.

From the Preface: "I wrote Whales of the World to gather in one volume enough information on the anatomy and classification of whales so this book could serve as a handbook, a simple reference book, and even a textbook for readers wishing to learn about this fascinating, largely unknown group of aquatic mammals. I hope this book wil lalso be of use to people who, sometime and somewhere, may find a whale stranded on a beach and want to identify and review the anatomical features of the specimen.

"Whales of the World emphasizes anatomy and classification because knowledge of these fields will most assist the reader who wants to learn the identity and characteristics of the various species. The book, therefore, contains very little physiology, information on the life habits of whales, or information on whaling. In describing the various anatomical sytems of the whales, I usually refer to these systems as they occur in typical mammals and in man. This affords readers a wider point of view, offers a basis for comparing the whales with other mammals and with [humans], and reminds us of our membership in the great group of the mammals. In addition, I have supplied ample illustrations to give readers visual images of the anatomical structures of the species described."

Chapters include: The Dim, Uncertain Past, The Early Fossils, The Families of the Archaeoceti, The Whales in Ancient Times, The Life Span of the Families of Whales, The Fossil and Recent Families of Whales, A Comparison of the Toothed Whales and the Whalebone Whales, Introduction (to anatomy), The Skeletal System, The Integumentary System, The Muscular System, The Digestive System, The Respiratory System, The Circulatory System, The Endocrine System and the Endocrine Glands, The Nervous System and the Sense Organs, The Excretory System, The Male Reproductive System, The Female Reproductive System, The Position of the Whales in the Animal Kingdom, The Classification of the Whales, several chapters on The Toothed Whales and The Whalebone Whales, a bibliography, an index, and an appendix containing a Cetacean Data Record for recording data on stranded cetaceans.

Tobayama, Teruo. Iruka no ai: Oyko-ai, yujo, soshite ren'ai. Tokyo: Kobunsha, 1994. (Dolphins.)

Todd, B. Whales and Dolphins of Kaikoura, New Zealand. Nelson, New Zealand: Nature Downunder and Craig Potton Publishing, 1991.

Tomilin, Avenir G. V mire kitov i del'finov (In the World of Whales and Dolphins). Moscow: Znanie, 1980.

___________. Del'finy sluzhat cheloveku (Dolphins Serve Man). Moscow: Nauka, 1969.

___________. Mammals of the U.S.S.R. and Adjacent Countries. Vol. 9: Cetacea (Kitoobraznye). V. G. Heptner, series ed. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademi Nauk USSR, 1957/Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1967. Russian edition available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217. English edition available from U.S. Department of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Virginia 22151.

___________. Istoriia slepogo kashalota (The History of the Blind Cachalot). Moscow: Nauka, 1965.

___________. Cetaceans of the Fauna of the U.S.S.R. Seas. Moscow: Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., 1962. In Russian. Available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

___________. On the Behavior and Sonic Signalling of Whales. Translated by A. De Vreeze and De. E. Sergeant. Fish. Res. Board Canada, 1955.

Tougaard, Svend, and Carl Chr. Kinze (CCKinze@zmuc.ku.dk), eds. Proceedings from the Worskshop Sperm Whale Strandings in the North Sea - The Event - The Action - The Aftermath, Romo, Denmark 26-27 May 1998. Biological Papers series no. 1. Esbjerg, Denmark: Fisheries and Maritime Museum, 1999. Available from Fisheries and Maritine Museum, Tarphagevej 2, DK 6710 Esbjerg V, DENMARK.

Proceedings of a workshop held on Romo, the island where two mass strandings of sperm whales took place in March 1996 and December 1997 respectively. The venue brought together participants from the U.K., Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark in order to discuss various aspects of sperm whale strandings.
Contents include: Recommendations of the workshop, A historical review of strandings in the North Sea, Details of the 1996 and 1997 mass strandings in Denmark, Answers to questions like "Can we prevent strandings?" and "Is euthansia possible?", A short review of recent scientific findings (e.g., ecotoxicology, age detemination, and diet analyses), An overview of management procedures and related public education activities in each country, and an appendix by T. Jauniaux, M.G. Hartmann, and F. Coignoul: Postmortem examination and tissue sampling of sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus.

Towery, Twyman. Wisdom of Dolphins. Brentwood: Lead Dog Publishing/Wessex House Publishing, 1996. (business theme)

Traks, Claude. Aà la Recherche du Message des Dauphins ou l'Hypothèse Cétacés. Bruxelles, Belgique: Éditions CommuniCare, 1999. (New Age) [In French]

True, Frederick W. The Whalebone Whales of the Western North Atlantic Compared with Those Occurring in European Waters with Some Observations on the Species of the North Pacific. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge Series, Vol. XXXIII. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1983. Reprint of 1904 edition. NHBS Mailorder Book Store has acquired the last remaining copies.

According to the book The Whale, True "took advantage of the establishment of shore whaling stations on the western Atlantic seaboard to study the whales killed," and wrote this classic.

___________. An Account of the Beaked Whales of the family Ziphidoh in the Collection of the United States National Museum, with Remarks on Some Specimens in Other American Museums. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1910.

___________. Contributions to the Natural History of the Cetaceans, a Review of the Family Delphinidae. U.S. National Museum, Bulletin 36, 1889.

Townsend, Charles Haskins. The Porpoise in Captivity. New York Aquarium Nature Series. New York: New York Zoological Society, 1914. Reprinted from Zoologica, 1(16).

Describes capture of bottlenosed dolphins for the New York Aquarium at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, November 12, 1913, and their ife in captivity prior to death from pneumonia a few months later.

From the book: "One of the five porpoises, put into the pool apparently uninjured, soon became deformed in the hinder portion of the body and cannot participate in the rough gambols indulged in by the others, keeping mainly to the outer circle of the pool. Its injuries are probably due to rough handling at the time of capture, as some of the porpoises were dragged away from the net with a rope tied around the tail. Its present appearance suggests two dislocations of the vertebrae back of the dorsal fin. This porpoise always swims slowly and is without doubt permanently crippled . . ."

Truitt, Deborah, ed. Dolphins and Porpoises: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography of the Smaller Cetacea. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1974.

Tryckare, Tre, ed. The Whale. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1968.

Trisha: This book's focus is whaling, but I have included it because it contains sections on cetacean mythology and folklore.

Tucker, Mark. Whales and Whale Watching in Australia. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wilflife Service, 1989.

Turner, James Ernest. The Dolphin's Skin: Six Studies in Eccentricity. London: Cassell & Co., 1956.

Turner, Sir William. The Marine Mammals of the Anatomical Museum of the University of Edinburgh. London: 1912.

Twiss, John R., and Randall R. Reeves, eds.. Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999.

"This volume provides insight into a complex mix of scientific, social, economic, and political considerations relative to the diverse issues surrounding the conservation of marine mammals. Contributors to this volume review the history of marine mammal conservation, nationally and internationally, and discuss future implications based on specific efforts directed at single species. A case is made for heavy reliance on sound science and a fundamental understanding of ecological relationships as well as the cooperative involvement of leaders from many disciplines, non-governmental organizations, and affected nations."

Tyack, P., R. Connor, J. Mann, and H. Whitehead. Dolphins and Whales: Field Studies of Behavior. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, in press.

Underwater Drilling--Measurements of Sound Levels and Their Effects on Belukha Whales. American Petroleum Institute, 1986.

U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic nd Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources. Final Environmental Impact Statement on the Use of Marine Mammals in Swim-with-the-Dolphin Programs. Silver Spring, MD: The Office, 1990.

Utrecht, W. L. van. On the Growth of the Baleen Plates of the Fin and Blue Whale. Amsterdam, 1965.

Valencic, Joe and Robin. The Complete Whale Watcher's Guide Rev. ed. Hawaii: Joe Valencic, 1978. (1st ed.: Dana Point, California: Joe Valencic, 1975.)

Includes chaptes on the California Gray Whale, Whales--Early Conception to Present Scientific Classification, Features Common to All Whales, Whales Particular to California, Whaling Today, and Whale Identification Key.

Van der Post, Laurens. The Hunter and the Whale. London: Hogarth Press, 1967.

Van Eersel, Patrice. The Fifth Dream. In French.

In this book, Van Eersel raises questions about "the origin of mankind and the evolution of species. He follows a cherokee legend which says that the dolphins are 'dreaming mankind.'"

Viallele, Serge. Dolphins and Whales from the Azores. Portugal, 1997.

A guide to the twenty-one species of cetaceans found in the waters around the archipelago.

"Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild: Emerging Issues, Research and Management Needs" workshop. 15th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, December 14, 2003.

Visser, Ingrid, and Rob Williams, eds. The Antarctic Killer Whale ID Catalogue. Data collection began June 2001. Images and sightings information can be mailed or e-mailed to either Ingrid Visser, The Orca Project, P.O. Box 1233, Whangarei, New Zealand, COURIER: "Aorangi," Matapouri Road, RD 3, Whangarei, New Zealand, or Rob Williams, Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Lab, University of St. Andrews, St Andrews KY16 8LB Scotland, rmcw@smru.st-and.ac.uk, voice: 011.44.1334.462.630, fax: 011.44.1334.462.632.

The editors' preference is for "sharp images that clearly show dorsal fin, saddle patch, and/or eye patch, however sightings records alone will be accepted gratefully as well. Photographers will retain copyright [for] their work, and . . . contact addresses will not be supplied to third parties. The Antarctic Killer Whale ID Catalogue will not sell images, but will forward requests for use on to the respective photographers. Once a reasonable number of photos have been submitted, [the editors] will post the images and sightings database on a web page to allow contributors access."

Vladykov, Vadim Dmitrij. Chasse, biologie et valeur economique du marsouin blanc ou beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) du fleuve et du golfe Saint-Laurent. Quebec: Department des Pecheries, 1944.

Wade, Paul R., and Robyn P. Angliss. Guidelines for Assessing Marine Mammal Stocks: Report of the GAMMS Workshop April 3-5, 1996, Seattle, Washington. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Naitonla Marine Fisheries Service, 1997. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-12.

Walker, Doris. The Whales of Capistrano Bay: Habits and History of California Gray Whales. Dana Point, California: To-the-Point Press, 1981.

Walker, Terry J. How to Swim with Dolphins: A Guide to Being. Pahoa, Hawaii: DolphinHeart Press, 1998. Available from DolphinHeart Press, P.O. Box 1077, Pahoa, Hawaii 96778, USA, e-mail: terry@dolphinheart.com, URL: www.dolphinheart.com. (descriptive, with New Age themes)

From the back cover: "A delightful, yet practical guide to swimming with dolphins. It includes information about: Hawaiian spinner dolphins, the human/dolphin connection, [and] the future of human/dolphin interactions. It also includes tips and techniques for: swim preparation, interspecies communication, dolphin etiquette, and dolphin warning behaviors . . . "

Trisha: Terry is more at home in the water and has spent more time swimming with wild Hawaiian spinner dolphins than almost anyone I know. The guidelines in her book are based on thousands of hours of experience, and she provides detailed observations on wild dolphin behaviors, how to approach and interact with them respectfully (as well as when not to approach), and how to read their bodily warning signs--signs that unprepared swimmers often mistakenly interpret as cute or friendly behaviors.

The information in the book is presented as a metaphor for personal growth with a New Age orientation, but if this is not your orientation, it can be read for its practical guidelines alone.

___________. Dolphin Healing, Dolphin Heart: Adventures in Consciousness. Pahoa, Hawaii: DolphinHeart Press, 2001. Available from DolphinHeart Press, P.O. Box 1077, Pahoa, Hawaii 96778, USA, e-mail: terry@dolphinheart.com, URL: www.dolphinheart.com. (New Age)

From the back cover: ". . . a tale that weaves together the author's search for a life of meaning and joy, her friendships with wild spinner dolphins, and [the] . . . discovery that she truly creates her world . . ."

___________. The Dolphin Swimmer. Pahoa, Hawaii: DolphinHeart Press, 2001. Available from DolphinHeart Press, P.O. Box 1077, Pahoa, Hawaii 96778, USA, e-mail: terry@dolphinheart.com, URL: www.dolphinheart.com. (New Age)

From the back cover: "The story of a woman swimming through the ocean of her own consciousness with wild dolphins."

Told in short 1-2 page vignettes.

Walker, Theodore J. Whale Primer, with Special Attention to the California Gray Whale. Washington, D.C.: Cabrillo Historical Association, 1962, 1979.

Chapters include: Two General Migration Routes, Whale Waters--Summer and Winter, Feeding--Filter Whales, Evolution of Whales, Whale Types, Significance of Blubber, Sexual Maturity, Life Span, Whale Intelligence, Whale Senses, [Social] Habits, Enemies, Whale Abnormalities, Inadequate Knowledge of Whales, California Gray Whale, Whaling, Gray Whale Protected, Value of Gray Whale, Natural Population Controls, and Current Scientific Inquiry. Also includes an appendix on classification and a bibliography.

Wallace, Robert K. Frank Stella's Moby-Dick Series: Of Whales and Waves in Paint, on Metal, in Space. The University of Michigan Press, 2000.

From the publisher: "One of the world's leading painters and printmakers, the artist Frank Stella spent over a decade creating a huge series of works linked with Herman Melville's classic novel Moby-Dick. The completed series consists of more than 135 pieces: large metal reliefs, prints, a major sculpture, a large mural, and other items. Each work relates to one chapter of Moby-Dick, and the entire series is a highly ambitious, subtle, and liberating response to the novel. Frank Stella's Moby-Dick series is an extraordinary venture on a massive scale, by a major artist.

"Robert K. Wallace, an expert on Melville, has written a clear and comprehensive interpretation of Stella's artistic evolution during the creation of this series. Frank Stella's Moby-Dick Series describes the development of the series, traces its distribution and reception around the world, analyzes its rich and complex relation to the novel, and addresses the joint value of Stella's series and Melville's novel in expanding the consciousness of a shrinking world in the late twentieth century.

"Items from the Moby-Dick series have been exhibited in the United States, Europe, and Japan, but never before has there been a way to view them as a whole. Frank Stella's Moby-Dick Series provides the definitive documentation of this artistic achievement. Accompanied by more than 200 illustrations, Robert Wallace's text includes a chronology and a catalog raisonné of the artwork, as well as a list of exhibitions.

Waller, Geoffrey. The Great Whales. Pica Press, forthcoming December 1998.

A comprehensive, scientifically based monograph on thirty-four of the largest cetacean species. Highlights many of the scientific research results of the last decade, including much previously unpublished information. Field identification and behavior at sea are treated in detail, and color plates meticulously illustrate the morphological characteristics of each of the species.

Waller, L. L., S. M. Peterson, S. Muloin, and R. E. I. Otis. "The Impact of Boat Traffic on the Satisfaction Levels of Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Watchers Both on Shore and on Boats in the Waters around San Juan Island, WA." Poster at the American Cetacean Society Conference, San Pedro, California, USA, November 8-9, 1996. Abstract in Whalewatcher (1996) 30(1):29.

Waples, Kelly A., and Clifford S. Stagoll. "Ethical Issues in the Release of Animals from Captivity." Bioscience, February 1997, 47(2): 115-121.

Trisha: Good overview article, with an extensive reference section, which focuses on how release projects should be conducted, although it also briefly discusses four principal grounds for release of captive animals and provides examples of releases to date. In the section entitled "Responsibilities of Caretakers," three basic animal rights philosophical positions are examined, including Bernard Rollins's interests approach, Peter Singer's utilitarian approach, and Tom Regan's inherent value approach. This discussion is followed by sections entitled "Elements of a Responsible Release Project" and "Selection of Candidates for Release" and the authors' conclusions.

Ward, Nathalie. Stellwagen Bank: A Guide to the Whales, Sea Birds, and Marine Life of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Camden, Maine: Down East Books, 1995.

A vivid, and the only, guide to the whales, sea birds, and marine life of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, with images and text reflecting the diverse animal life of an area encompassing 842 square miles of the Gulf of Maine. Draws together the work of whale researchers, marine biologists, oceanographers, and expert photographers.

Chapters include: The Pageant of Life; The Geology of Stellwagen Bank; Harbors; The Stellwagen Bank Ecosystem; Sea Birds; Fish and Fishermen; Vessel Traffic in Sanctuary Waters; Whales, Porpoises, and Dolphins; Encounters with Whales; Seals; Sea Turtles; and Conservation Issues. Also includes an index.

___________. Whales and Dolphins of the Caribbean. Natural History series. Caribbean Macmillan, forthcoming. Author email: nward@mbl.edu.

Warnek, R. M., ed. Victoria Whale Rescue Plan: A Contingency Plan for the Strandings of Cetaceans (Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises) on the Victoria Coastline. Melbourne, Australia: Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, 1986.

Water Quality for Captive Marine Mammals: USDA Symposium Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 1992. Technical Bulletin No. 1868. Available from Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library, 10301 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA, tel: 301-504-6212, fax: 301-504-7125, email: awic@nal.usda.gov, URL: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic.

Chapters discuss saltwater, ozonation, ultraviolet sterilization, chlorination, copper and other algicides, coliform testing, filtration and sterilization maintenance, sirenians, polar bears, habitat design, life support systems, information resources, and regulatory standards under the Animal Welfare Act.

Waters, John. Marine Animal Collectors. New York: Hastings House, 1969.

Watson, Lyall. The Dreams of Dragons: Riddles of Natural History. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1987.

Scott: Watson is a remarkable writer, spinning elegant phrases together to create lucid tapestries of insight into natural phenomena. Here he explores the wildly improbable theories that have come to the fore in the natural sciences to see whether they might hold truth. He shows that many do. His exposition on the Aquatic Ape Theory is excellent.

___________. Whales of the World. London: Hutchinson and Co. Ltd., 1985. (Previous edition published as Sea Guide to Whales of the World.)

___________. Sea Guide to Whales of the World: A Complete Guide to the World's Living Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1981.

"TheSea Guide to Whales of the World is the result of ten years' intensive observation aboard marine research vessels throughout the world. Lyall Watson . . . provides the reader with a brief description of the science of cetology and its founders, an explanation of the evolution of whales, their recent classification, status and distribution, and a discussion of their natural history. In the natural history section Dr. Watson deals not only with the biology and anatomy of whales, but also with such fascinating questions as their intelligence relative to our own, linguistic potential, social and sexual habits. Each species description includes a summary of all known facts about the whale's appearance, distribution, and habits in the wild; each is illustrated with a full-color portrait, map, skull drawing, and diagrams of distinctive behavior patterns. Much of this information is published here for the first time. The picture that emerges is of creatures with astonishing intelligence, sensitivity, self-awareness, and adaptability."

From a review in Oceans magazine: "In an effort to make his book complete, Watson included every bookwise device short of recorded sounds and scratch and sniff whale breath. Whale enthusiasts need an in-depth and concise book about cetaceans, and to an extent Watson's work approaches this need. But like a new car that fails to run properly despite a profusion of nifty gadgets, the book falters under the weight of too many insidious breaches of fact.

"As a naturalist Watson is not completely at fault. His exhaustive research of the literature adds interesting but obscure facts about the history of scientific investigation into cetaceans. Therein lies the flaw. Much of the information found in the literature is contradicted by recent research. Unfortunately, Watson wrote emphatically about those facts most subject to debate. Since the work was not a scientific treatise, supporting data was [sic] omitted or simply unavailable, leaving the reader with questionable information.

"Despite its shortcomings, Watson's [book] does contain a good amount of interesting facts. The experienced marine mammal naturalist will find useful information presented in a unique form incorporating many charts, graphs, and keys. The most interesting of these are the several wet and dry keys for identifying whales based in form on the 'tree finder' idea. However, the casual reader must be wary to quote from the book for fear of passing on misinformation, which appears too often in this otherwise noble attempt."

___________. Whales. New York: Basic Books, 1962.

Watson, Paul. Ocean Warrior: My Battle to End the Illegal Slaughter on the High Seas. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Key Porter Books, 1994.

Watson, Paul, as told to Warren Rogers. Sea Shepherd: My Fight for Whales and Seals. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1982.

From a review in the September 1983 issue of Oceans magazine: "Paul's story is reasonably well told in Sea Shepherd. The book's chronology is sometimes confusing, and the lists of names at times seemingly endless, but [the reviewer, whose name I unfortunately don't have] strongly recommends reading the book for those interested in sea adventure, animal conservation, and the internal politics of current conservation movements."

Weinrich, Mason T. Observations: The Humpback Whales of Stellwagen Bank. Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1985.

Wells, Randall S. Structural Aspects of Dolphin Societies. Ph. D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1986.

Wells, Randall S., Michael D. Scott, and A. Blair Irvine. "The Social Structure of Free-Ranging Bottlenose Dolphins." Current Mammalogy, v. 1, 1987: 247-305.

The West Edmonton Mall Dolphins: Options for the Future. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Zoocheck Canada, 1996. Available from Zoocheck Canada, Inc., 3266 Yonge Street, Suite 1729, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3P6, Canada, (416) 285-1744, e-mail: zoocheck@idirect.com.

From Zoocheck Web site: "A nontechnical discussion of possible alternatives to captivity for the four bottlenose dolphins held at the West Edmonton Mall in Alberta."

Weyler, Rex. Song of the Whale. Anchor Press, 1986.

Journalist Rex Weyler recounts Paul Spong's true-life adventures with killer whales--adventures that "began as a scientific quest for knowledge and led to a heroic crusade to save these fascinating creatures from extinction."

"Physiological psychologist Paul Spong was something of an academic prodigy when he first started his research on Orcinus orca . . . at the Vancouver Public Aquarium in 1967. That research would change his life forever. Observing Skana, his first whale subject and the first killer whale ever to survive captivity, Spong discovered many startling new facts about the nature of whales' intelligence, their curiosity, impulse to communicate, powers of dexterity, and even sense of humor. As his research led him to a deeper appreciation of Skana's intellect and sensitivity, he fought for her freedom, arguing that keeping her captive in a small pen was inhumane. It was an argument that got him fired. He did, however, convince the University of British Columbia to support his idea for a field station in the northern islands of the province. It was there that Spong observed for the first time the remarkable cooperative social behavior of orcas and their highly evolved communication in the wild. It was there, too, that he became increasingly aware of the dangerous threat of commercial whaling. As his involvement with the killer whales intensified, Spong slowed his research to head up the Greenpeace Foundation's efforts to protect the whale. That endeavor would ultimately lead to a successful ban on whaling and a safe haven [for the orcas]."

The Whale. Communications/Research/Machines, Inc., 1970. In English and Japanese.

Published with an album of whale song to benefit the New York Zoological Society Whale Fund. Roger Payne produced the album, and his work forms the basis of the book.

Contains the following sections and chapters: WHALES: The Nature of Whales, The Humpback Whale; THE SONG OF THE WHALE: The Discovery of the Humpback Whale Songs, The Study of the Songs; THE TRAGEDY OF THE WHALE: How Whales Are Killed, The Business of Killing Whales, Why Whales Are Killed; TURN BACK: What the Whale Song Says, The Whale Campaign.

The Whale. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968.

Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. Sonar. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1989. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

Biting the Hand that Feeds: The Case Against Dolphin Petting Pools booklet. Wiltshire, U.K. and Portland, Ore.: The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society and Washington, D.C.: The Humane Society of the United States, 2003.

From the press release: "Illustrates the unsafe, unsanitary and overcrowded conditions of petting pools in which many captive bottlenose dolphins are forced to live.

___________. International Whale Bulletin No. 8--Pollution Special. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society.

Effect of today's pollutants on cetaceans.

___________. Factsheets. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society.

Information on whales and dolphins, river dolphins, studying cetaceans, whaling, pollution, and the fishing industry.

Whale Intelligence Manual: Submarine or Whale. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: U.S. Navy Fleet Intelligence Center, 1961.

Whale Nation, Heathcote Williams. New York: Harmony Books, 1988.

Contains both a beautiful long prose poem by Williams and a remarkable selection of excerpts from various texts on the nature of whales. (See also Williams's Falling for a Dolphin in the fiction bibliography for an equally beautiful long prose poem on dolphins.)

Scott: An Extraordinary collection of items related to cetaceans, which follows a very beautiful and powerful book-length poem about the history of the whale/human story. Excellent, highest recommendation.

Whales and Dolphin in Action. Santa Monica, California: Intervisual Books, Inc., 1991.

Whales and Dolphins of Western Australia. Author unknown. Bush Books series. Australia: C.A.L.M., 1995.

Introductory guide which identifies 33 species.

Whales, Dolphins and Seals. Lebanon, New Hampshire: Whitman Publishing and Distribution Company, 1997.

The Whale's Story: Passages from the Life of a Leviathan. London, 1868.

The Whalewatching Industry. 1993.

Whitehead, Hal. Voyage to the Whales. Post Mills, Vermont: Chelsea Green, 1990. (Indian Ocean, sperm whales)

From the dust jacket: "Between 1981 and 1984, Hal Whitehead, aboard the yacht Tulip, led a research team studying whales in the Indian Ocean. Voyage to the Whales is the story of the team's expeditions--a time of adventure and scientific discovery.

"Through their journeys the crew would come to know the ocean-going habits of the largest of all whales, the 200-ton great Blue Whale, and its smaller but sportier cousin the Pilot Whale.

"But it was the Sperm Whale that would be the focus of their investigation, bringing Whitehead and his team new insights into the social behaviour, mating rituals, communication skills and migration habits of this fascinating mammal. They would also witness an event few people ever see--the birth at sea of a baby Sperm Whale."

___________. Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Based on an article by Dean Beeby in the Canadian Press, June10, 2003: For three years commencing in 1982 Hal Whitehead and his crew from Cambridge University studied sperm whales in the Indian Ocean, photographing them, listening underwater for their distinctive sounds, and observing their social habits. This and other information gathered over the past two decades are presented in Dr. Whitehead's new book. It is one of only four scientific volumes published about sperm whales and the first to draw upon non-lethal observations.

Some findings: They are very shy and can be easily spooked. They belong to clans, each identified by a series of clicks. They seem to have a culture of some kind, in which the elders (who can live to be 100 years old or older) show family groups where and how to find food. Dr. Whitehead writes that this culture "might encompass abstract concepts, perhaps even religion." When swimming with the sperms, he found them gentle, nurturing, and skittish. He also observed moments of play and of greeting. He and other scientists discovered that sperm whale societies are remarkably similar to elephant societies, in which elders preserve the group's cultural memories and help the group survive. Early whalers, who hunted the elder sperms may thus have damaged the whales' society.

The book concludes with warnings about modern threats to these magnificent whales and the need for conservation on "a grand scale."

___________, L. Rendell, R. W. Osborne, and B. Wursig. Culture and conservation of non-humans with reference to whales and dolphins: Review and new directions. Biological Conservation, 2004, 120(3):431-441. This paper is available at: http://is.dal.ca/~whitelab/hw/Cult_cons.pdf

Abstract: There is increasing evidence that culture is an important determinant of behavior in some non-human species including great apes and cetaceans (whales and dolphins). In some cases, there may be repercussions for population biology and conservation. Rapidly evolving "horizontal" cultures, transmitted largely within generations, may help animals to deal with anthropogenic change and even allow them to exploit it, sometimes with negative consequences for both the animals and humans. In contrast, stable "vertical" or "oblique" cultures, transmitted principally between generations, may impede adaptation to environmental change, and confound range recovery, reintroductions and translocations. Conformist stable cultures can lead to maladaptive behavior, which may be mistaken for the results of anthropogenic threats. They can also structure populations into symaptric sub-populations with distinctive cultural variants. Such structuring is common among cetaceans, among which sympatric sub-populations may face different anthropogenic threats or respond to the same threat in different ways. We suggest that non-human culture should be integrated into conservation biology when considering populations with such attributes, and also more generally by refining definitions of evolutionarily significant units and considering how cultural attributes may change our perspectives of non-humans.

Whitfield, William K., Jr. An Annotated Bibliography of Dolphin and Porpoise Families Delhinidae and Platanistidae. St. Petersburg, Florida: Marine Research Laboratory, Florida Department of Natural Resources, 1971.

Whither the Whales? Entire issue of Oceanus 32, 1 (1989).

Articles include: Introduction: Facts & Fantasy; The Plight of the 'Forgotten' Whales; Watching Habits and Habitats from Earth Satellites; How Brainy Are Cetaceans?; The Marine Mammal Act: A First of Its Kind Anywhere; To Icelanders, Whaling Is a Godsend; Getting to Know You; Why the Japanese Are So Stubborn About Whaling; Eskimos, Yankees, and Bowheads; Harbor Porpoises and the Gillnet Fishery; Dolphins in Different Worlds; Unraveling the Dolphin Soap Opera; Those Dolphins Aren't Just Whistling in the Dark; Watching the Whales; The Lost Whales of Tierra del Fuego; A Rescue That Moved the World; Let's Have Less Public Relations and More Ecology; How Much Is a Whale's Life Worth, Anyway?; and The Whale, A Large Figure in the Collective Unconscious.

Whittell, Giles. The Story of Three Whales. Vancouver, British Columbia: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988.

Whitty, Julia. Return of the Great Whales. 2000.

Wilkes, Tim, ed. Project Interspeak. San Francisco, 1979.

Quoting Wade Doak in his book Dolphin, Dolphin, this "superbly illustrated" book "seems like a prolongation of Joan McIntyre's work [Mind in the Waters."

Wilkinson, D. National Contingency Plan for Response to Unusual Marine Mammal Mortality Events. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1996. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-9.

Contents include: Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Act, Development of a Contingency Plan, Unusual Mortality Events, Baseline Information and Stranding Networks, Objectives of Contingency Plan, Discharges of Oil and Hazardous Chemicals, Resources, Safety and Hygienic Precautions, Aviation Safety, Carcass Disposal, Live Animals, Equipment, Protocols and Training, Compilation of Lists, Early Monitoring Activities, Criteria for Determining an Unusual Mortality Event, Appointment of Onsite Coordinator, Notifications to Accelerate Response, Assessment of Capacities, Capabilities, Aerial Surveys, Environmental Parameters, Data Requirements, Financial Administration, Public Information, Tracking of Animals and Samples, Available Facilities and Requirements, Release Conditions, Protocols and Available Trained Personnel, Sea Otter Provisions, Shipment and Tracking of Samples, Specific Types of Analyses (Blood, Histopathology, Life History, Biotoxins, Heavy Metals/Organic Contaminants, Virology, Bacteriology, Mycology), Conditions on Disclosure of Results, Litigation, Live Captures, Independent Research, Mass Strandings, Report, Follow-up Activities, Tissue Access, Post-Event Monitoring, Stranding Network Members, Federal Beachfront Agencies, State Wildlife Resource Agencies, State Public Health Organizations, Native American Organizations, Facilities for Holding Live Animals, Sources for Gross Necropsies and Tissue Preparation, Veterinary Colleges, References

___________. Program Review of the Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Report to Assistant Administrator for Fisheries. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1991. (See also the Literature on Marine Mammal Strandings bibliography prepared by Wilkinson.)

Wilkinson, Pete, with Julia Schofield. Warrior: One Man's Environmental Crusade. Lutterworth.

The former director of Greenpeace and leading environmental campaigner charts the progress of the Green movement from its infancy in the 1970s up to the present day, from the early days of dressing up as giant plastic bottles and dumping radioactive mud outside the DEP to the drama of the warfare between Greenpeace vessels and Japanese whaling ships.

Williams, Heathcote. Whale Nation. New York: Harmony Books, 1988; London: Jonathan Cape Ltd.

Contains both a beautiful long prose poem by Williams and selected excerpts from various texts on the nature of whales. (See also Williams' Falling for a Dolphin for an equally beautiful long prose poem on dolphins.)

Endorsement by Ted Hughes, Poet Laureate of England: "The poem is overwhelming. I can't tell you how much I admire it. You have a great theme, great subject matter, but the way you deal with it seems to me brilliant, cunning, dramatic, and wonderfully moving.

"I don't know anything like your poem. It's a breakthrough of some sort-- that cosmic scope and arena, and that remorseless deployment of the poetry of fact, and the overall beauty of it . . . . I really treasure it."

Williams, Vanessa. Captive Orcas: Dying to Entertain You. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, last updated 1998. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

Contents include: Introduction, The Showbiz Orca, Life in the Wild (FINgerprinting techniques, community living, social behaviour, intelligence, communication, orca studies in other parts of the world), The World Orca Trade (capture sites and methods, legislation, holding areas [USA/Canada/Iceland/Japan], transport from the wild, transport from tank to tank, "orca laundering", breeding loan, special deals), Life in the Tank (standards and regulations for captive display [USA/ Canada/UK/Japan], conditions in captivity: pool size, pool design and water quality, feeding, acoustics and ambient noise, social composition and companionship, solitary confinement; health of captive orcas: survival rates and longevity, causes of death, stress, aggressive behaviour towards other orcas, aggression toward trainers), Marine Park Myths (education, conservation, captive breeding, research), The Display Industry Makes a Killing (marketing the image, lobbying, dubious bedfellows, drive fisheries, over-capturing), The Times They Are A-Changing (the future of marine parks, changing climate of public opinion, ethics, alternatives to display, whale watching, cetacean-free facilities, future of current captives, release programmes), Conclusions and Recommendations, and References.

Willughby, Francis. Ichthyographia. London: 1685.

An early history of fish and whales.

Wilson, Ben. Dolphins of the World. Worldlife Library series. Grantown-on-Spey: Colin Baxter Photography, 1998/Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 2001.

From the back cover: "In Dolphins of the World Ben Wilson gives an overview of dolphins from the perspective of a biologist whose life has been immersed in theirs. He describes the characteristics common to all dolphins, then divides them into three groups according to the environments that shape them: dolphins as oceanic wanderers, coastal dolphins, and dolphins that have left the sea and now make their home in the world's greatest rivers. The final chapter explores the future of dolphins, including scientific discoveries, opportunities for the public to see and experience dolphins, and our responsibility for the dolphin's fate.

From legend to science, exploitation to conservation, Dolphins of the World introduces readers to the beauty, biology, and mystery of dolphins. . . . This volume describes not only dolphins' differences but the way humans fit into their lives. The latest scientific research, personal experiences, and stunning photographs combine to create an awe-inspiring portrait of these fascinating creatures."

From a review by C. B. Delaney at Amazon.com: "Introductory chapters about the dolphin's evolution, physique, and lifestyle are followed by sections devoted to the three major dolphin classifications: oceanic dolphins like the bottlenose and the clymene; coastal dolphins like the dusky and the Chilean; and river dolphins like the tucuxi and the Irrawaddy. Wilson's writing is learned but not overly dry. He is at his best when he turns to subjects very near his heart, such as dolphin conservation and research. One brief chapter entitled 'Getting to Know a Wild Dolphin' recounts his eight-year study of Kess, a dolphin who lived off the northeastern coast of Scotland. Wilson concludes the book with suggestions for further reading and information on how you can support research and conservation efforts. A full-color diagram of 30 of the dolphin species displays their diversity of shape, size, and color--from the reddish-pink boto to the huge, grey Risso's dolphin. Nearly 70 beautiful photos of many of these species accompany the text and help make this handsome book a treat for dolphin fans."

From a review by William Rossiter, Cetacean Society International, in Whales Alive!, July 2001, p. 12: "I enjoyed the very expressive analogies in this book, such as equating the river dolphins' home to the mazed undergrounds of London and subways of New York, or a pelagic dolphin's dive to a human taking a breath at the top of the Empire State Building, running to the basement, and back to the top for another breath. Wilson's lyrical descriptions of species and their environmental adaptations could fill many school reports. The photographs are incredible and beautiful. Not every image identifies the species, challenging the reader to learn enough to figure it out."

Winchell, J. M. A Field Manual for Small Cetacean Dissection. Bar Harbor, Maine: College of the Atlantic, 1982.

Winn, H. E., and B. L. Olla, eds. Behavior of Marine Animals. Current Perspectives in Research, Vol 3: Cetaceans. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.

Winn, Lois King, and Howard E. Winn. Wings in the Sea: The Humpback Whale. Hanover and London: Published for University of Rhode Island by University Press of New England, 1985.

"This comprehensive [introduction to the humpback whale] brings together current and reliable information on whales, much of it never before published outside the scientific community. Organized around the mammal's annual life cycle, the book includes historical accounts of whales going back to Roman times, legends and folklore, material from the logbooks of whalers, explorers, and naturalists, and vivid personalized accounts of the authors' own research experiences and difficulties in obtaining information." Includes a bibliography and a brief index.

___________. Whales. New York: Basic Books, 1962.

Wong, John. Chinese Resident Dolphins: Chinese White Dolphin with Finless Porpoise & Baiji. Hong Kong: Green Power, 1997.

Wood, Forrest G. Marine Mammals and Man: The Navy's Porpoises and Sea Lions. Washington/New York: Robert B. Luce, Inc., 1973.

From a review by Joseph E. Brown in the January 1974 issue of Oceans magazine: ". . . Forrest G. Wood adds immeasurably to [the] storehouse of dolphin lore and, to a limited extent, to that concerning other marine mammals. As the subtitle implies, the book is limited to the Navy's program of research; since in this country, at least, the Navy has taken the lead in this field, most of the areas of this fascinating science are more than adequately covered . . . Readers may quibble with details; for example, the book lacks an index and its bibliography is limited almost entirely to papers published by colleagues of the author, a senior scientist and consultant at the Naval Undersea Center in San Diego. And Wood devotes an entire 12 pages to a rather unconvincing defense of the Navy against charges that it trained porpoises as self-destructing underwater kamikazes . . . But the balance of the book more than compensates for these questionable faults."

Wood, M. "Development and Operation of Human/Dolphin Swim Program." In Proceedings of the 16th IMATA Conference, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 123-128.

Woodings, Simon. "A Plausible Explanation for Live Cetacean Mass Strandings." Thesis presented as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Bachelor of Science (Honours) degree at The University of Western Australia Physics Department, 1995.

Abstract: "One of the common causes presented in explanation of cetacean (whale and dolphin) mass strandings is that of reduced effectiveness of sonar as a navigational tool. Attenuation of sound and ultrasound by an ocean surface layer of resonant bubbles over a gently sloping beach is proposed as a significant mechanism for disrupting echolocation. A full analysis of reflections and sound attenuation was completed along with preliminary laboratory tests providing basic qualitative support. Prevailing weather, coastal topography and cetacean sonar data pertaining to West Australian strandings [were] combined to evaluate the theory's plausiblity as a physical cause of cetacean mass strandings."

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). "Northern Right Whale: The Most Endangered Great Whale in the World." World Wide Fund for Nature, 2000.

Wray, Phoebe. The Sperm Whale. Ayer, Massachusetts: Center for Action on Endangered Species, 1979.

___________. The Whalebook, A Conservation Manual, Source Book, Teaching Tool. Washington, D.C.: The Whale Protection Fund, The Center for Environmental Education, Inc., 1978/Boston: Endangered Species Productions, 1974.

Scott: Compiled by The Center for Action on Endangered Species, Inc. A handbook for activists divided into the following sections: Action Guide, What You Can Do, Whaling, The Mechanics of Death, Alternatives for Whale Products, etc. Slightly outdated, but still powerful. Has very good bibliography. Black/white drawings by Richard Ellis.

___________, ed. Cetaceans, Brains, and Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Center for Action on Endangered Species.

Proceedings of the 1980 International Whaling Commission, Conference on Cetacean Behavior and Intelligence and the Ethics of Killing Cetaceans.

Würsig, Bernd. "Swim-With-Dolphin Activities in Nature: Weighing the Pros and Cons." Whalewatcher (1996) 30(1):11-15.

___________, Thomas A. Jefferson, and David J. Schmidly. The Marine Mammals of the Gulf of Mexico. Paintings by Larry Foster. College Station, Texas: Texas A & M University, 2000.

___________, et al. "Behaviour of Cetaceans in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Relative to Survey Ships and Aircraft." Aquatic Mammals (1998) 24(1): 41-50.

Wurtz, Maurizio. Baleines et Dauphins de la Mediterranee. Monaco: Musee Oceanographique de Monaco, 1991. (Include 30 leaves of plates and 16 leaves of text in English. Each plate has caption title in French, Italian, and English.)

Wurtz, Maurizio, and Nadia Repetto. Whales and Dolphins: Biological Guide to the Life of Cetaceans. Swan Hill Press, 1998.

Introductory natural history of whales and dolphins covering evolution, feeding habits, biology, and their complex relationship with humans.

Wyland. The Undersea World of Wyland. Foreword by Sylvia Earle. Time Life, 1998.

Includes reproductions of many of Wyland's wall murals and others of his paintings. 110 color photos.

___________. Celebrating 50 Wyland Whaling Walls. Wyland Studios, Inc., 1995.

___________. Whale Tales: Tales from America's Leading Marine Artist. Wyland Studios, Inc., 1995.

Wyllie, Timothy. Dolphins, Telepathy & Underwater Birthing: Further Adventures among Spiritual Intelligences. Santa Fe, N.M.: Bear & Co., 1993. (New Age)

___________. Dolphins, ETs & Angels: Adventures among Spiritual Intelligences. Santa Fe, N.M.: Bear & Co., 1984. Republished as Adventures among Spiritual Intelligences: Angles, Aliens, Dolphins, and Shamans. Rev. ed. Wisdom Publications, 2001. (New Age)

From the cover: " . . . an adventure story full of surprises that will take you around the world, into human and dolphin psyches . . . and beyond . . . [the author] plunges into a . . . journey of the heart that takes him into strange and magical encounters with Australian Aborigines, Maoris from New Zealand, an American walk-in, a Russian midwife, and a Balinese shaman. All these and more join him as he explores the spiritual nature of dolphins, their involvement with underwater birthing, and the nature of dolphin telepathic communication."

Wynne, Kate. Guide to Marine Mammals of Alaska. Illustrated by Pieter Folkens. Marine Advisor Bulletin MAB-44. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, 1992, 2d ed. 1997.

From the publisher: "[This book] is the only book that exclusively covers all 29 marine mammal species of Alaska. Each whale, porpoise, dolphin, seal, sea lion, walrus, sea otter, and polar bear is described and illustrated. Color photos and surface profile drawings show all Alaska marine mammals and compare similar species, and color range maps show distribution. Mammal characteristics and descriptions are presented in a format that allows fast, accurate identification at sea. The 80-page, richly illustrated book is printed on durable water resistant paper, and is spiral bound to give years of service outdoors and in the office, classroom, and home. The second edition has text updates and a few new photos."

Contents include: Family Characteristics of Alaska Cetaceans, Morphology of Cetaceans, Bowhead Whale, Northern Right Whale, Blue Whale, Fin Whale, Sei Whale, Minke Whale, Humpback Whale, Gray Whale, Sperm Whale, Belukha Whale, Baird's Beaked (Bottlenose) Whale, Cuvier's Beaked (Goosebeak) Whale, Stejneger's (Bering Sea) Beaked Whale, Killer Whale (Orca), Pacific White-sided Dolphin, Dall's Porpoise, Harbor Porpoise, other marine mammals, marine mammal names in various languages, and glossary

Trisha: Entries for each species are accompanied by full-color illustrations and photos and provide information about size, body characteristics, color, dorsal fin, blow, behavior, dive pattern, habitat, food habits, life history, status, and human interactions.

Wynne, Kate, and Malia Schwartz. Guide to Marine Mammals and Turtles of the U. S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. University of Rhode Island, Sea Grant Publications Unit, 1999.

Yablokov, Alexey. Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas): Investigation of the Species. 1969.

From a review in the Spring-Summer 1995 issue of AWI Quarterly: This work "is the most comprehensive book on the beluga. The text of Beluga is strictly scientific, but the introduction expresses the powerful aesthetic impact of these magnificent and highly social whales . . ."

___________. "O knige Dzh. Lilli 'Mir del'fina'." ("On J. Lilly's Book 'The World of the Dolphin'" [the latter is the Russian substitution for the actual title of Lilly's book, The Mind of the Dolphin]). Priroda, no. 5, pp. 61-62.

Yablokov, A. V., V. M. Bel'kovich, and V. I. Borisov. Whales and Dolphins (Kity i Del'finy). Moscow: Izd-vo Nauka, 1974. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1974. Arlington, Virginia: Joint Publications Research Service, No. 62150, 1974. Russian edition available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

From Erich Hoyt's annotated bibliography in his book Orca: The Whale Called Killer: "Russian scientists report on many aspects of whale behavior and biology."

Yates, Steve. Orcas, Eagles and Kings: A Popular Natural History of Georgia Strait and Puget Sound. Seattle, Washington/Boca Raton, Florida: Primavera Press, 1992.

___________. Marine Life of Puget Sound, the San Juans, and the Strait of Georgia. Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 1988.

Yoder, Susan, and Major Benton. The Wisdom of Dolphins. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, 2000. (Combination of New Age and fact.)

From the back cover: "The allure of the dolphin - its beauty, grace and intelligence - is strong. People are drawn to their 'humanlike' personalities, and are inspired by their close relationships to one another and to their surroundings. . . . With both respectful wonder and scientific fact, The Wisdom of Dolphins uses the knowledge of [dolphins], such as how to nurture, communicate and cope, to open our hearts and access the wisdom within ourselves."

From the authors: "We were extremely fortunate to have spent over 10 years among dolphins in the Florida Keys, the Bahamas, and along the Virginia and North Carolina coasts. Our book contains numerous stories from our own experiences, and many confirmed stories from others in the marine mammal community we have come to know.

"People learn from personal stories and direct experiences, as well as from scientific research. We know personally and through observation the positive effects that can result from being around dolphins. We've watched members of the general public come away from guided tours of dolphin facilities with a renewed interest in conservation of the marine environment. We've participated in and observed research being done with both wild and captive dolphin populations, and had personal experiences that changed our lives. We've taught programs involving dolphins interacting with people of all ages, and we've seen the results of therapy programs based on dolphin-human interactions that defy sober explanation.

"The "Flipper" movies and TV programs from the 50's and 60's were responsible for introducing millions of people to the fascinating world of dolphins, but there was a negative side as well. Many of us came away thinking of dolphins as cute little humans with flippers. Not! Though we have some characteristics which are comparable, there is more wisdom to be gained by seeking to understand dolphins just as they are - unique creatures with many abilities we cannot begin to duplicate, and are only just beginning to comprehend.

"The goal we set when deciding to write this book was to have readers come away with a better understanding of dolphins and of themselves, as well as a deeper reverence for all life. The book includes ideas and simple meditations which may help you along your own life's path. Dolphins can be a catalyst for people to experience living in the moment, opening of the heart, laughter, healing, and acceptance. The Wisdom of Dolphins provides an intimate sense of what it is like to be in the presence of dolphins, both in the wild and in facilities."

Trisha: Based primarily on observations/interactions with captive dolphins at Dolphin Research Center in Florida, this book is better than most New Age cetacean books in that it presents a somewhat more balanced view than those that hyper-idealize/mythologize dolphins and the larger whales. The latter books tend to portray cetaceans as one-dimensional, saintly beings (often from outer space) rather than as the complex, earthbound beings they are, with the full range of both positive and negative qualities.

Zahn, Karen. Whales. New York: Gallery Books (W. H. Smith Publishers, Inc.), 1988.

"From the often-sighted California grays to the perilously low numbers of Arctic-dwelling bowhead whales, Whales presents a full-color visual celebration of the over 80 species of whales living today."

Contains chapters: Mankind's Eternal Muse, The Creation of the Cetacea, Family Planning, The Intelligent Alien, Mating and Motherhood, Mysteries of the Migrating Minstrels, The Lure of the Shore, Tributes to the Sea Monster, A History of Greed and Shame, and Last Call to Humanity. Also includes a glossary, bibliography, and an index.

Zhou Kaiya, and Zhang Xingduan. Baiji: The Yangtze River Dolphin and Other Endangered Animals of China. Translated by Luo Changyan. Nanjing, China: Yilin Press/Washington, D.C.: Stone Wall Press, 1991.

Trisha: For a file of additional information, references, and world experts on the baiji and pink dolphin, please e-mail me at dolphintlf@aol.com.

Zimmer, Carl, and Carl Buell. At the Water's Edge. New York: Free Press (Simon & Schuster), 1998.

Carl Zimmer: Intended for a popular audience, describes how scientists come to understand major evolutionary transitions, using as its prime examples the origin of tetrapods and the origin of cetaceans.

Chapter contents:

Introduction--Life's Warps: Introduces the puzzle of major evolutionary transitions: how did major groups of organisms arise, how did new body plans emerge, and how did they move into habitats that would have killed their ancestors?

Chapter 1: After a Lost Baloon. The first century of the search for the transition from fish to tetrapods, beginning with the discovery of the lungfish in Brazil in the 1830s to the discovery of Ichthyostega in Greenland in the 1930s.

Chapter 2: Limitless Air, Ho! How the habitat of the first tetrapods turned out not to be arid and harsh but wet and lush, and the discovery in 1986 of the full skeleton of Acanthostega, the best-known early tetrapod.

Chapter 3: How to Make a Hand. The coming together of embryology, genetics, and paleontology, as exemplified by our new understanding of how fins were transformed into limbs with digits.

Chapter 4: Darwin's Saplings. Our present understanding of the rise of early tetrapods, based on the phylogeny of newly described animals such as Acanthostega.

Chapter 5: The Mind at Sea. An overview of cetaceans--their physiology, biomechanics, and behavior--and a difficult question: how did they evolve?

Chapter 6: The Equation of a Whale. The history of the study of ancient whales: from the discovery of the first whale fossils (initially taken to be giant marine reptiles) to the discovery of their closest relatives on land, the mesonychids.

Chapter 7: Along the Tethyan Shores. The work of Philip Gingerich, who discovered Pakicetus, the oldest whale, as well as a Basilosaurus skeleton with hind legs complete with toes.

Chapter 8: Walking to Swimming. The discovery of Ambulocetus, the oldest whale fossil with feet.

Chapter 9: A Voyage Out. A summary of our current understanding of the origin and rise of cetaceans, including a discussion of the conflicts between molecular and morphological phylogenies.

Chapter 10: On the Trails of Macroevolution. Some general principles that emerge from a comparison of the origins of tetrapods and cetaceans, as well as other transitions.

Zitwer, Barbara J. Dolphins. Magic of the Ocean Series. New York: Warner Books, 1995.

Trisha: This palm-sized book is full of misinformation, ranging from a failure to understand that dolphins are small whales, and not "cousins of whales" to "_many scientists_ [emphasis added] believe dolphins to be smarter than apes, perhaps smarter than humans" to "their ability to mimic sounds is an ability that dolphins share only with humans" [what about parrots, for example?] to "how do dolphins make their sounds? One thought is that the sounds emerge through their blowholes . . . how dolphins can make sounds through their foreheads remains a mystery!" to "their psychic, telepathic, and sonar abilities are only just being discovered." This is just a sampling, and then the book concludes with a section on "rules for swimming with dolphins," which advises swimmers to "keep your arms behind your back," and yet the illustration for this section stereotypically shows a swimmer holding on to a dolphin's dorsal fin and being taken for a ride.

___________. Whales. Magic of the Ocean Series. New York: Warner Books, 1995.


Aquatic Mammals

Aquatic Mammals is the peer-reviewed journal of the European Association for Aquatic Mammals. Three issues are produced within each annual volume. The journal has subscribers in 29 countries, and more than 60 libraries subscribe.

Sample contents (volume 23, issue 3): a book review by Sam Ridgway, sonar observations of killer whales feeding on herring schools by Tiu Simila, descriptions of the behavior of wild humpback dolphins in South Africa by Karczmarski et al, a survey of captive odontocetes in Japan by Nakahara and Takemura, a description of the variations in external appearance of Fraser's dolphins by Jefferson et al, association indices of reproductively active female Atlantic spotted dolphins by Herzing and Brunnick, and habitat use by bottlenose dolphins by Grigg and Markowitz.

To subscribe, click on Aquatic Mammals above, or contact: Jeanette Thomas, Editor, Western Illinois University, 3561 60th St., Moline, Illinois 61265, USA, voice: 309-762-9481, fax: 309-762-6989, e-mail: Jeanette_Thomas@ccmail.wiu.edu.

Caribbean Journal of Science. Archival CD-ROM containing the complete text of every article from the first issue of 1961 to the last issue of 1997, for PC or Mac. Caribbean Journal of Science, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00680. Jose A. Mari Mutt, editor, e-mail: J_Mari@rumac.upr.clu.edu.

Dr. Antonio Mignucci-Giannoni of the Caribbean Stranding Network writes: "Researchers conducting studies on Tropical Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean marine mammals know how difficult it is at times to obtain literature from the area, in addition to find[ing] a suitable place to later publish information and studies of a regional nature . . . we have published a number of articles with the Journal and they have characterized themselves as rapid and efficient (an normal article is reviewed in a couple of months, and accepted articles may be printed . . . between 6 months and 10 months).

Cetacea Informa

Journal of the Fondazione Cetacean (in Italian, summaries in English). For subscription information contact: Fondazione Cetacea, Viale Milano, 63, 47036 Riccione (RN), Italia, voice: 39 (0)541 691557, fax: 39 (0)541 606590, e-mail: cetacea@iper.net.

Cetology (defunct; back issues only)

Investigations on Cetacea. G. Pilleri, ed. Berne, Switzerland, 1969 on (defunct; back issues only)

Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. A publication of the International Whaling Commission (IWC).

This peer-reviewed journal has been established to publish papers on those matters of most importance to the conservation and management of whales, dolphins, and porpoises, and in particular papers that are relevant to the tasks of the IWC Scientific Committee. These will include papers on: population assessment and trends, population dynamics, population biology, taxonomy, risk averse management strategies, direct and indirect exploitation, environmental changes and threats in the context of cetaceans, and scientific aspects of whale watching and sanctuaries.

Marine Mammal Science

Journal of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. For subscription information contact: Marine Mammal Science, P.O. Box 368, Lawrence, Kansas 66044, USA, 800-627-0629, fax: 785-843-1274, email: sfmm@allenpress.com.

Volumes 1-13 are available on CD.

Click here for a downloadable bibliography of the contents of Marine Mammal Science and the Society's special publications.

The downloadable bibliography is formatted for importation into a commercially available literature citation program and in a generic format that can be imported into a variety of database programs.

The bibliography is also available via the Papyrus Bibliography System (DOS/Windows and Macintosh). Click here for further details and to download the files.

MMPA Bulletin. To subscribe (free of charge) send your mailing address to Nicole.LeBoeuf@noaa.gov, or write to National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Marine Mammal Division--MMPA Bulletin, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910.

As part of the National Marine Fisheries Service's implementation of the Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994, the Office of Protected Resources publishes a quarterly newsletter called the MMPA Bulltin. The Bulletin provides information to the public about NMFS actions and policies under the MMPA.

Ocean Realm: International Magazine of the Sea

For subscription information contact: Ocean Realm, 4067 Broadway, San Antonio, Texas 78209, USA, voice: (210) 824-8099, fax: (210) 820-3522.


Right Whale News. Edited by Hans Neuhauser. To subscribe, send your mailing address to gepi@ix.netcom.com.

Right Whale News is a quarterly newsletter that seeks to improve recovery efforts for the North Atlantic and North Pacific right whales. Thanks to the Massachusetts Environmental Trust, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Grays Reef National Marine Sanctuary, the Northeast Implementation Team and the Savannah Presbytery, subscriptions to Right Whale News are free. Articles and news are always welcome.

Sea Frontiers

Society for Marine Mammalogy Newsletter.


Journal of the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. For subscription information contact: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James Street West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 44 (0)1225 334511, fax: 44 (0)1225 480097.
Tourism in Marine Environments. Submit articles to: Michael Luck, Dept. of Recreation & Leisure Studies, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Ave., St. Catharines, ON, Canada, L2S 3A1.


Newsletter of the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Bath, England

Whale and Dolphin Magazine. Rachel Saward, Publishing Editor, rachel@wdmag.co.uk. URL: www.wdmag.co.uk

Launched the first week of May 2004 in the U.K., this magazine is "essentially U.K. and Europe focused, but will include international news, research updates and overseas travel articles in every issue." Cetacean researchers are invited to keep the editor posted with news items and feature article ideas suitable for the general reader.


Journal of the American Cetacean Society. For subscription information contact: The American Cetacean Society, P.O. Box 1391, San Pedro, California 90733, USA, voice: (310) 548-6279, fax: (310) 548-6950.

Whale World

Produced by the non-profit, UK-based Nature Alert, which was formed in September 1995 and is active in animal rescue projects in various locations around the world. Nature Alert also has "provided modest support for whale and dolphin conservation projecs in Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Great Britain and South Africa."

"Whale World's objective is to disseminate news, views and information, to as wide an audience as possible, on issues facing whales, dolphins and porpoises around the globe. Broadly speaking, its content will be a blend of feature articles and a summary of news from the previous few months."

Contents of first two issues: July 1998: The Killers of Alaska; New Law for the Galapagos?; Mekong River Dolphins on Brink of Extinction; Conservation of Dolphins in Senegal: An Indigenous Experience; Dolphin-Watching in the Philippines; Cetaceans off the Scottish Islands; Kaikoura: Home of the Sperm Whale; For Grey Whales, Salt in the Wounds; Turning the World Upside-Down (about human-gray whale interaction in Baja California); Grey Whales: One Population Down--One More to Follow?; Mass Stranding of Beaked Whales in South Africa; Protecting Humpback Whales in Brazil; Book Reviews; January 1999: Dolphin Encounters; Hong Kong's Pink Dolphins; Bottlenose Dolphins of the Moray Firth, Scotland; A Place Called Frederick Sound; Gairloch, South-West Scotland . . . 1998 Update; Shetland--Whales and Dolphins; Mass Stranding of Goosebeak Whales in Puerto Rico; South Africa's Whale Haven; Maldives; Tropical Cetacean Paradise; Whales in Antarctic Waters: Historical and Scientific Issues

To subscribe to this biannual publication, contact Nature Alert, P.O. Box 1060, Bath BA1 3YB, England, e-mail: naturalert@aol.com, tel/fax: +44 1225 444929.

Trisha: This nicely produced, full-color/black-and-white combination, glossy, small newspaper-size, eight-page magazine combines articles on the behaviors and status of, and threats to, various species of cetaceans with ecotourism articles on various whale- and dolphin-watching destinations around the world, and the problems and legislation associated with increasing numbers of watchers and swimmers.


Allen, K. Radway. Conservation and Management of Whales. Seattle, Washington: Univeristy of Washington Press, 1980.

Jaap: Covers history of whaling, population estimates and populations dynamics, population models, and management procedures. Provides a good overview of population modeling techniques and the associated mathematics.

Animal Welfare Institute. Whales vs. Whalers 1971-1995: A Continuing Commentary. Rev. ed. Washington, DC, USA: Animal Welfare Institute, 1995.

From the introduction by Christine Stevens, AWI president: "Since 1971, a major focus of the work of the Animal Welfare Institute has been the campaign to save the great whales.

"This compilation of articles from the AWI Quarterly (formerly Information Report) is presented in the order in which they appeared. None of the articles have been edited with hindsight but, rather, carry the flavor of the campaign at the time they were written."

Trisha: This broad collection contains over 250 articles.

Baker, C. S., and P. J. Clapham. "Modeling the Past and Future of Whales and Whaling." Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2004, 19:365-371. Abstract: Historical reconstruction of the population dynamics of whales before, during and after exploitation is crucial to marine ecological restoration and for the consideration of future commercial whaling. Population dynamic models used by the International Whaling Commission require historical catch records, estimates of intrinsic rates of increase and current abundance, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. Population genetic parameters can be used for independent estimates of historical demography, but also have large uncertainty, particularly for rates of mutation and gene flow. At present, demographic and genetic estimates of pre-exploitation abundance differ by an order of magnitude and consequently, suggest vastly different baselines for judging recovery. Here, we review these two approaches and suggest the need for a synthetic analytical framework to evaluate uncertainty in key parameters. Such a framework could have broad application to modeling both historical and contemporary population dynamics in other exploited species.

Birnie, Patricia. International Regulation of Whaling: From Conservation of Whaling to Conservation of Whales and Regulation of Whale Watching. Dobbs Ferry, New Jersey: Oceana Publications, 1985.

Blichfeldt, Georg, ed. 11 Essays on Whales and Man. 2d ed. Reine i Lofoten, Norway: High North Alliance (a pro-whaling organization).

Jaap: Essays on intelligence, ethics, whaling, and cultural aspects.

Blichfeldt, Georg, and Elisabeth Hallenstvedt, eds. Additional Essays on Whales and Men. Reine i Lofoten, Norway: High North Alliance (a pro-whaling organization).

Jaap: Essays on the IWC management procedure, marine mammal resources, and political issues.

Burns, Williams C. G. 1999. "From Harpoon to the Heat: The International Whaling Commission and Climate Change." Leiden International Law Journal, 1999, 5(3).

Caulfield, Richard A. Greenlanders, Whales, and Whaling: Sustainability and Self-Determination in the Arctic. Arctic Visions series. Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College/University Press of New England, 1997. To order, contact University Press of New England, 23 South Main Street, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA, fax: (603) 643-1540, e-mail: university.press@dartmouth.edu,

From the publisher: "Whaling has been central to the life of Greenland's Inuit peoples for at least 4,000 years, but political, economic, technological, and regulatory changes have altered this ancient practice. Caulfield's research connects traditions of indigenous peoples, the promises and pitfalls of co-management, international whaling policies, the complexities of sustainability, and the power of culturally determined views shaping relationships between humans and their environment. He finds that controversy over whaling often arises from conflicting idea systems, rather than disagreement over biological resource management."

___________, and Alexander Gillespie. The Future of Cetaceans in a Changing World. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational Publishers, 2003.

Contents: The Future of the International Whaling Commission, The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission and the World Council of Whalers, The Threat to Small Cetaceans and Institutional Responses, Anthropogenic Threats to Cetaceans, The Ecosystem Role of Cetaceans

___________, and Geoffrey Wandesforde-Smith. "The International Whaling Commission and the Future of Cetaceans in a Changing World. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 2002, 11(2):199-210.

Abstract: This paper examines the decisions of the parties to the International Whaling Commission at its most two recent meetings. The analysis and assessment of the prospects for breaking the current impasse over lifting the moratorium on commercial whaling and the IWC's capacity to address environmental change issues.

Richard Caulfield is assistant professor of rural development at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Clapham, Phil. "Too Much Is Never Enough: Can the Whaling Industry Be Trusted?" Whalewatcher, 1996, 30(1):4-7.

" . . . while the IWC is today undoubtedly using much better principles of management than before, I for one do not believe that the heart of the industry has been moved to change . . . If commercial whaling is to resume, it must be accompanied by watertight inspection practices - and this means not only at sea but also at every stage on the path to market . . . But should whales be killed at all? I would argue that they should not be . . ."

Clapham, P.J., P. Berggren, S. Childerhouse, N. A. Friday, T. Kasuya, L. Kell, K.-H. Kock, S. Manzanilla, G. di Sciara, W. F. Perrin, A. J. Read, R. R. Reeves, E. Rogan, L. Rojas-Bracho, T. D. Smith, M. Stachowitsch, B. L. Taylor, D. Thiele, P. R. Wade, and R. L.Brownell, Jr. "Whaling as Science." Bioscience, 2003, 53:210-212.

No abstract or summary, but the paper begins: "In an open letter published last year in The New York Times, 21 distinguished scientists (including three Nobel laureates) criticized Japan's program of scientific research whaling, noting its poor design and unjustified reliance upon lethal sampling. In a recent forum article in Bioscience, Aron, Burke, and Freeman (2002) castigate the letter's signers and accuse them of meddling in political issues without sufficient knowledge of the science involved in those issues. As members of the Scientific Committee (SC) of the International Whaling Commission (IWC), we can attest that the signers of the open letter correctly summarized criticisms made by researchers very familiar with Japanese scientific whaling. One such critique (Clapham et al. 2002) was presented and discussed last year at a meeting of the SC. It was authored by SC members representing a broad range of countries, yet mention of this paper and others like it was absent from Aron and his colleagues' commentary, betraying a selectiveness that pervades their article. The authors quote lines from SC reports to support their contention that the IWC regards scientific whaling as valuable, but they fail to acknowledge many other sections that are highly critical of the Japanese program (IWC 1998, 2001, 2003).

Creswell, Joel. "The Exploitative History and Present Status of Marine Mammals in Barbados, W.I.". Macalester Environmental Review, 28 May 2002.

Abstract: Marine mammal exploitation in Barbados was different in nature and intensity than that of the surrounding islands, yet its impact on local whale stocks was similar: severe reduction. Yankee whalers were present in the area as early as 1765, and a shore whaling industry developed in 1867, relying heavily on Yankee influences. The success of the shore whaling industry peaked around the turn of the 20th century with catches as high as 36 whales per year, but the population crashed shortly after that, and the industry shut down in 1920. The end of the Barbadian whale fishery is similar to that of Grenada's, Trinidad's, and Bequia's. Although the whaling industry at each place developed under different influences, used different equipment and methods, and operated in a different time period, each one was shut down due to a lack of whales caused by over-exploitation.

There is no historical or current record of dolphin exploitation, although several different species are present in the area. There is no reliable evidence than manatees were ever present in the area, due mainly to the island's outlying position from the arc of southeast Caribbean islands.

Present exploitation is limited to very rare incidental catches of dolphins in fishing nets. Barbados is under pressure, however, to join the International Whaling Commission in order to promote commercial whaling. The resumption of commercial whaling, the financial feasibility of which is questionable, would seriously threaten the conservation status of Barbados' marine mammals.

Currey, Dave. "The Evolution of the IWC: A Report from Kyoto." The Animal Welfare Institute Quarterly, Spring 1993.

D'Amato, A. and S. K. Chopra. "Whales: Their Emerging Right to Life." In American Journal of International Law 85(1):21-62.

Environmental Investigation Agency. Dying by Degrees: Global Warming and the Environmental Crisis Threatening the World's Whales and Dolphins. London/ Washington, D.C.: Environmental Investigation Agency, date unknown. EIA can be contacted at 15 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R 0BD, voice: (44) 171 490 7040.

Draws on evidence from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, provides an examination of the impact of global warming and environmental degradation on whales and dolphins, and argues for a fifty-year extension of the current ban on commercial whaling.

___________. The Global War Against Small Cetaceans: The IWC and the Politics of Extinction. London/Washington, D.C.: Environmental Investigation Agency, 1990.

This title is also included in the main bibliography above, where contents are detailed.

___________. The Global War Against Small Cetaceans. A second report. London/Washington, D.C.: Environmental Investigation Agency, 1991.

This title is also included in the main bibliography above, where contents are detailed.

___________. The Continuing Global War Against Small Cetaceans. A third report. London/Washington, D.C.: Environmental Investigation Agency, date unknown.

Donovan, G. P. Aboriginal/Subsistence Whaling (with special reference to the Alaska and Greenland Fisheries). Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 4. Cambridge: International Whaling Commission, 1982.

"This volume contains the reports of three panels of experts called in by the IWC to examine various aspects of aboriginal subsistence whaling: Wildlife; Nutrition; and Cultural Anthropology. Although largely called in response to the Alaskan bowhead whale fishery the volume also contains . . . information on the Greenlandic fisheries."

Freeman, M. Recovering Rights: Bowhead Whales and Inuvialuit Subsistence in the Western Canadian Arctic. Circumpolar Institute Occassional Publications 31. Canada: Circumpolar Institute, 1992.

Freeman, Milton M. R., R. A. Bogoslovskaya, R. A. Caulfield, I. Egede, I. I. Krupnik, and M. G. Stevenson. Inuit, Whaling, and Sustainability. AltaMira Press: 1998.

From the publisher: ". . . based on extensive ethnographic, ecological, and policy research sponsored by the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, [this book] presents Inuit perspectives on the integral role whales play in cultural, economic, philosophical, and nutritional aspects of Inuit life . . ."

Contents include: Foreword by Aqqaluk Lynge, President of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference; Introduction: A Book on Inuit Whaling?; The Importance of Inuit Whaling Today; Whaling by Inuit: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow; Human Rights and the International Whaling Commission; A Review of Whaling Management Regimes; Challenges to the Sustainable Use of Whales by Inuit; Securing the Future of Inuit Whaling; Epilogue: Inuit and Whales; Glossary; Index

Freeman, Milton M. R., and Urs P. Kreuter, eds. Elephants and Whales: Resources for Whom? Basel, Switzerland: Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1994.

Friedheim, Robert L., ed. Toward a Sustainable Whaling Regime. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: CCI Press (ccinst@gpu.srv.ualberta.ca) and Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press (uwprod@u.washington.edu), 2001.

"Examines the international management of whales and whaling, centering upon conflict within the current international whaling regime. A preface by former U.S. Commissioner to the IWC, John A. Knauss, is followed by eleven essays: The IWC as a Contested Regime; A New Whaling Agreement and International Law; Whales, the IWC, and the Rule of Law; Science and the IWC; Is Money the Root of the Problem? Cultural Conflict in the IWC; Food Security, Food Hegemony, and Charismatic Animals; Distorting Global Governance: Membership, Voting, and the IWC; Negotiating in the IWC Environment; The Whaling Regime: 'Good' Institutions but 'Bad' Politics?; Summing Up: Whaling and Its Critics; Whaling Sausage: Why the Whaling Regime Does Not Need to Be Fixed; Fixing the Whaling Regime: A Proposal
Goldberg, Kim. "Canada's War on Whales: Will the Bowhead Survive?" British Columbia, Canada: Canadian Marine Environment Protection Society (CMEPS), 2001. Author email: goldberg@freenet.carleton.ca, telephone: 250-741-8577. To receive a copy of the report, call Doug Imbeau 604-313-1597 in Vancouver, British Columbia, or download it by clicking above.
"A report on the Canadian government's mismanagement of whales, suppression of science, and hunting quotas on a highly endangered species."

"Fifty-five years ago Canada was a founding member of the International Whaling Commission. Today the IWC is still the recognized world authority on whale management. Canada, meanwhile, has quit the organization it helped create and is now the only developed nation on earth killing great whales without belonging to the IWC. Canada's Eastern Arctic bowheads are classified as 'highly endangered' by the IWC Scientific Committee. And in the opinion of the world's foremost bowhead scientist, Kerry Finley of Victoria B.C., Canada's quota on Eastern Arctic bowheads is 'scientifically indefensible.'

"Who turned this once law-abiding nation into a pirate whaler using bogus science to kill an endangered species? According to the report, the answer is Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Canada's DFO has become a bureaucratic fortress with a catastrophic and much publicized history of mismanaging Atlantic cod and Pacific salmon, and of subverting scientific inquiry to serve political objectives. In the case of the bowhead whale, DFO bureaucrats have dogmatically ignored or disputed the research of all independent scientists, relying instead on their own dubious population estimates to justify a hunt."

H?gh, Helle. Bowhead whaling in Nunavut: A symbol of self government. In: Jens Dahl, Jack Hicks & Peter Jull, eds. Nunavut: Inuit Regain Control of the Lands and their Lives. Copenhagen: IWGIA Document 102, 2000, pp. 196-204.

Hess, Bill. Gift of the Whale: The Inupiat Bowhead Hunt, a Sacred Tradition. Sasquatch Books, 1999.

Nancy Hess, for Booklist, September 1, 1999: " The yearly hunt for bowhead whales of the Inupiat (Eskimos) living around Barrow, Alaska, is central to their culture and traditions. A new book that is part anthropology [and] part documentary . . . captures the lives of these people. Hess, a photographer and writer who has worked for years among Native Americans, spent a number of years living with the hunters and documenting their hunts for bowhead and beluga whales and smaller prey, such as sews. The Inupiat initiated the author into the hunt the same way they initiate their own teenagers--by putting him to work cooking for the hunters, cleaning the camp, and helping to move the umiak (whale boat) to its launch site by snow machine. The skill of the hunters and their knowledge of the biology of the whales generally allow for a successful hunt, and the blubber, meat, and other whale products not only provide food but are the basis for the entire culture as the sharing of the whale ties the community together. The aboriginal right to hunt bowhead whales (an endangered species) remains controversial, but Hess' book presents a strong case for the cultural and spiritual side of the argument . . ."

Holt, S. "Creating Confidence." Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1995.

___________. "Norway's War on the Little Leviathan of the North Atlantic. " IFAW Technical Briefing 94:3. East Sussex, England: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1994.

___________. " Resignation of the Chairman of the Scientific Committee of the IWC: A Commentary." IFAW/IOI Technical Briefing 93:9. East Sussex, England: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1993.

Hoyt, Erich. Whale Watching 2000: Worldwide Tourism Numbers, Expenditures, and Expanding Socioeconomic Benefits. Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 2000.

From an IFAW press release: "The report notes that whale watching tourism expenditures more than doubled from 1994-1998; expenditures now are more than a billion dollars per year. In the US alone, more than 4.3 million people went whale watching in 1998, accounting for 47% of the global whale watching industry.

"Since the last global survey on whale watching, conducted in 1994, the number of people who took part in a whale watching trip grew 40%. At least 492 communities in 87 countries now have whale watching businesses, while since 1994, 22 countries have started whale watch tours.

"Africa has the fastest growth in whale watching of any continent. Central America and the West Indies are second, and Asia is third in growth. In addition to economic benefits, the whale watching industry makes important educational, environmental, socioeconomic and scientific contributions.

"'This report is very exciting in that it highlights not only the growth of whale watching as an economically successful global industry, but that it signifies a growing global appreciation of whales and marine environments,' said Dr. Carole Carlson, IFAW Senior Marine Biologist and whale watching expert, from Provincetown, MA, once a whaling center and now home to one of the world's most prosperous whale watching industries."

___________. "Commercial Whaling: A Corrupt Industry." IFAW Technical Briefing 94:6. East Sussex, England: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1994.

___________. "Implications of Revelations of Soviet Under-Reporting of Antarctic Whale Catches." IFAW Technical Briefing 94:7. East Sussex, England: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1994.

___________. "How Many Minke Whales in the Northeast Atlantic?" IFAW Technical Briefing 94:8. East Sussex, England: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1994.

___________. "Comment on a Proposal by the Government of Norway to Downlist the Minke Whales from the Northeast Atlantic from CITES Appendix I to Appendix II." IFAW Technical Briefing 94:9. East Sussex, England: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1994.

___________. "The Un-Ethics of Whaling." In Nick Davies, Alison M. Smith, Sean R. Whyte, Vanessa Williams, eds, Why Whales?. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1991. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

Hrynyshyn, James, and Annelise Sorg. Candada's Bowhead Hunt: In the Whales' Best Interest?. Vancouver, B.C., Canada: Canadian Marine Environment Protection Society, 2003.

Abstract: A report on the federal and territorial governments’ case for hunting bowhead whales, its importance to Canadian Inuit health and culture, and the argument that a properly managed hunt will lead to better conservation measures than would a moratorium on the hunt.

Contents: Fourth Sanctioned Bowhead Hunt in Nunavut; CMEPS President’s Message; Executive Summary; 1996 - 2002 Bowhead Hunts in Nunavut; Introduction; History of Canadian Bowhead Hunts; Politics & Science; The Small Cetacean Example; Narwhal Hunts Chart; Health Risks; A Future in Tourism; Things to Do in Nunavut; Conclusion; Nunavut’s Whale Watching Tour Operators; End Notes

International Fund for Animal Welfare. "Whale for Sale." East Sussex, England: International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1998.

Suggests that illegal hunting and smuggling of whale meat and whale products may be common in both Korea and Japan. Researchers for IFAW purchased whale meat samples from markets in both countries and then subjected them to DNA analysis by scientists from Harvard University, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Auckland.

International Network for Whaling Research Digest. For hardcopy, contact the editor at milton.freeman@ualberta.ca. For additional information regarding the Canadian Circumpolar Institute Web site, contact elaine.maloney@ualberta.ca.

International Whaling Commission. Annual and special reports. Address: IWC, The Red House, 135 Station Road, Histon, Cambridge, United Kingdom, voice: +44 (0)1223 233971, fax: +44 (0)1223 232876, e-mail: iwcoffice@compuserve.com.

International Whaling Commission. Resolutions from the 42nd-51st meetings (1990-1999). Full text provided by American Society of International Law - Wildlife Interest Group.

International Whaling Statistics. Annual reports. Committee for Whaling Statistics, Oslo, Norway, 1930 on. Available from International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, England.

Iwasaki-Goodman, Masami, Masahiro Nomoto and Norihito Fujishima. Ainu Minzoku no Kujira Riyou Bunka [Whale Culture of the Ainu]. Geiken Tsushin, 2000, 46:10-18.

Jamieson, Dale, and Tom Regan. "Whales Are Not Cetacean Resources." In Michael W. Fox and Linda D. Mickley, eds., Advances in Animal Welfare Sciences. Boston: Martinus Nijhof, 1985.

Jenkins, Leesteffy, and Cara Romanzo. "Makah Whaling: Aboriginal Subsistence or a Stepping Stone to Undermining the Commercial Whaling Moratorium?" Colorado J. Int. Environ. Law Policy (1998) 9(1): 71-114.

Jonaitis, Aldona, with Richard Inlis. The Yuquot Whalers' Shrine. Seattle & London: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Jones, Mary Lou, Steven L. Schwartz, and Stephen Leatherwood, eds. The Gray Whale: Eschrichtius robustus. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, 1984. (800) 321-5068. Also available from Donald Hahn Natural History Books, (520) 634-5016, fax: (520) 634-1217.

See the following chapters: History of Gray Whales in Japan; Aboriginal Whaling from the Aleutian Islands to Washington State; Gray Whales and the Aborigines of the Pacific Northwest: The History of Aboriginal Whaling; Shore Whaling for Gray Whales along the Coast of the Californias; Nineteenth Century Gray Whaling: Grounds, Catches and Kills, Practices and Depletion of the Whale Population; Modern Commercial Pelagic Whaling for Gray Whales; Assessing Gray Whale Abundance: A Review; A Review of Russian Research on the Biology and Commercial Whaling of the Gray Whale; Investigations of Gray Whales Taken in the Chukchi Coastal Waters, U.S.S.R.

The Journal of Sustainable Use, Vol. 2. (Pro-marine mammal slaughter.)

Papers in this issue pertaining to whaling: Marine mammals: a class case of the triumph of emotion over science, Traditional humpback whale hunting in St. Vincent & the Grenadines, The government of Japan's whale downlisting proposals for CITES, CITES and IWC, Aspects of regional management: Science, sustainable use and conservation of marine mammals in the North Atlantic, Utilization or preservation? The battle over management of whales, CITES, IUCN and the precautionary principle, as they relate to classifying marine species as "endangered," Sustainable use and the law, Challenges to Inuit sustainable resource use in Canada, Inuit cultural dependency on hunting -- and protectionists and global ethics

Kalland, A., and B. Moeran. Japanese Whaling: End of an Era?. Curzon Press, 1992.

An anthropological account of whaling culture and the history of whaling in Japan.

Kemf, Elizabeth and Cassandra Phillips. Whales in the Wild: 1998 WWF Species Status Report. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund for Nature, 1995.

A report on the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature to keep whales at the forefront of conservation issues.

___________. Whales in the Wild: 1995 WWF Species Status Report. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund for Nature, 1995.

A report on the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature to keep whales at the forefront of conservation issues.

Kulasinghe, Chandima. Investigation into Local Whaling Communities in Japan. Undergraduate dissertation, University of Sheffield, School of East Asian Studies, 1997.

Larsen, Helge Eyvin, and Froelich Gladstone Rainey. Ipituak and the Arctic Whale Hunting Culture. New York: Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 42, 1948.

Mackintosh, N. A. The Stocks of Whales. Buckland Foundation series. London: Fishing News Books Ltd, 1965. (Included for historical purposes.)

From the dust jacket: "[This volume] is concerned largely with the biological facts relating to the populations {or 'stocks'}, but it gives an account also of the development of modern whaling, the system of international regulation, the effects of exploitation of the stocks, and the problems of their conservation. The analysis of the biological and statistical evidence is clear and convincing . . ."

McCartney, Allen P. Hunting the Largest Animals: Native Whaling in the Western Arctic and Subarctic. Circumpolar Institute Occasional Publications 36. Canada: Circumpolar Institute, 1995.

Mitchell, Edward D. Bibliography of Whale Killing Techniques. [publisher unknown].

Motluk, Alison. "From Harpoon to Plate: A DNA Database Could Prevent the Illegal Export of Whalemeat. But Who Will Control It?" New Science (1998) 158 (2136): 14.

Mulvaney, Kieran. The Whaling Season: An Inside Account of the Struggle to Stop Commercial Whalin. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2003.

"From the publisher: Despite a decades-long international moratorium on commercial whaling, one fleet has continued to hunt and kill whales in the waters surrounding Antarctica. Refusing to let this defiance go unchallenged, the environmental organization Greenpeace began dispatching expeditions to the region in an effort to intercept the whalers and use nonviolent means to stop their lethal practice.

"Over the past decade, Kieran Mulvaney led four such expeditions as a campaigner and coordinator. In The Whaling Season, he recounts those voyages in all their drama, disappointments, strain, and elation, giving readers a behind-the-scenes look at the hazards and triumphs of life as an environmental activist on the high seas. The author also explores the larger struggles underlying the expeditions, drawing on the history of commercial whaling and Antarctic exploration, the development of Greenpeace, and broader scientific and political efforts to conserve marine life. He presents a rich portrait of the current struggles and makes an impassioned plea for protection of some of the world’s most spectacular creatures."

Nagasaki, Dr. F. "On the Whaling Controversy." In Whaling Issues and Japan's Whale Research. Tokyo: Institute of Cetacean Research, 1993.

Nihon Kujirarui Kenkyujo, ed. Whaling Issues and Japan's Whale Research. Tokyo: Institute of Cetacean Research, 1993.

Contents: On the Whaling Controversy, Japanese World-view on Whales and Whaling, Japanese Research Whaling.

Osterwoldt, Ralph U. International Law and Politics of Conservation: The Case of the Whales. Master of Philosophy (Politics) thesis (Spine title: Whale Conservation). Oxford: University of Oxford, 1982.

Pacific Center for International Studies. "The International Whaling Commission and the Regulation of Consumptive and Non-Consumptive Uses of Small Cetaceans: A Critical Agenda for the 1990s." PCIS International Environmental Law & Policy Occasional Paper Series, No. 5, February 1995. Madison, Wisconsin: The Pacific Center for International Studies. Available from PCIS, 33 University Square, Ste. 184, Madison, WI 53715, (608) 256-6312, PCIS@ix.netcom.com, for $13.00. Add $2.00 for overseas shipping.

This paper examines one of the most controversial and pressing issues facing the IWC: whether the organization has legal competence to regulate the taking of small cetaceans. The paper examines the dangers faced by the world's small cetacean species and provides extensive legal analysis on the competence issue, utilizing the text of the ICRW, customary international law, and principles of equity.

___________. "The International Whaling Commission in the 1990s: Problems and Prospects." PCIS International Environmental Law & Policy Occasional Paper Series, No. 6, February, 1995. Madison, Wisconsin: The Pacific Center for International Studies. Available from PCIS, 33 University Square, Ste. 184, Madison, WI 53715, (608) 256-6312, PCIS@ix.netcom.com, for $13.00. Add $2.00 for overseas shipping.

This paper examines the IWC from a historical perspective, assesses the judiciousness of the resumption of commercial whaling, including a critique of the Revised Management Procedure, and proffers several suggestions on how to strengthen the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling should the moratorium be lifted.

Palazzo, José Truda, Jr. "Whose Whales? Developing Countries and the Right to Use Whales by Non-Lethal Means." Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy, 1999, 2(1):69-78).

Paul, Dameriolus. Psychological Peculiarities of Whales, Whaling, Whalers and the Dangers from the Sea. Albuquerque, New Mexico: American Institute for Psychological Research, 1992.

Payne, Roger. "Is Whaling Justifiable on Ethical and Moral Grounds?" In Nick Davies, Alison M. Smith, Sean R. Whyte, Vanessa Williams, eds, Why Whales?. Bath, England: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, 1991. Available from Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Alexander House, James St. West, Bath, Avon BA1 2BT, Great Britain, voice: 01225 334511, fax: 01225 480097.

Phillips, C. "The Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary." WWF International Discussion Paper. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund for Nature, 1993.

Reeves, Randall R. History of the White Whale (Delphinapterus leucas): Exploitation in Eastern Hudson Bay and James Bay. Canada: C.C.G., 1987.

Regan, Tom. "Why Whaling Is Wrong." In Tom Regan, All That Dwell Therein: Essays on Animal Rights and Environmental Ethics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982, pp. 102-112.

Roman, J., and S. R. Palumbi. Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science, 2003, 301:508 - 510. See opposing view in Tom Clarke, Whale numbers disputed: Pre-whaling population estimates upset conservationists, Nature, 25 Jul 2003.

The authors' genetic analysis suggests that about 12 times more humpback and fin whales once existed compared with previous estimates.

Sandoe, Peter. "Etikk og hvalfangst." In Nils Chr. Stenseth et al., eds., Vagehvalen Baerekraftig forvaltning av en biologisk felles ressurs. Oslo: Ad Notam/Gyldendal, 1993.

Scarff, James E. "Ethical Issues in Whale and Small Cetacean Management." Environmental Ethics 2, 2 (1980): 241-280.

Includes extensive bibliographical material and is "must" reading for anyone interested in the ethics of whaling.

Trisha: An excellent overview.

___________. "The International Management of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises: An Interdisciplinary Assessment." Ecology Law Quarterly 6 (1977): 323-427.

Sections include: Whales--A Description of the Resource, The History of Whaling and Early Regulation, The International Whaling Commission, The Conservation of Small Cetaceans, Ethics and Management, Biological Assessment, Economic Assessment, Legal Assessment, and Conclusions.

Scheiber, H. N. "Historical Memory, Cultural Claims, and Environmental Ethics in Jurisprudence of Whaling Regulation." Ocean and Coastal Management 38(1) (1998): 5-40.

The Scientific Evaluation of Proposals to Cull Marine Mammals. A Report of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the UNEP Marine Mammal Action Plan submitted to the United Nations Environmental Programme, October 1999.

Singer, Peter. "Why the Whale Should Live." Habitat (Australian Conservation Foundation), June 1978, 6(3): 8-9.

Stevenson, Marc G. Inuit, Whalers, and Cultural Persistence: Structure in Cumberland Sound and Central Inuit Social Organization. New York/Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Stevenson, Marc. G., A. Madsen, and A. L. Maloney. The Anthropology of Community-Based Whaling in Greenland. Circumpolar Institute Occasional Publications 42. Canada: Circumpolar Institute, 1997.

Stoett, Peter J. The International Politics of Whaling. Vancouver, British Columbia: UBC Press, 1997. Reviewed by P. W. Birnie in Arctic (1998) 51(1): 68-69.

___________. Atoms, Whales, and Rivers: Global Environmental Security and International Organization. Nova Science Pub., 1995.

See chapter 5: Whales: The Normative Transition of the International Whaling Commission.

___________. "International Politics and the Protection of Great Whales ". Environmental Politics 2(2) (1993):277-303.

Sullivan, Robert. A Whale Hunt: Two Years on the Olympic Peninsula with the Makah and Their Canoe. New York: Scribner's, 2000.

Tynan, Cynthia T., and Douglas P. DeMaster. "Incorporating Climate Chantge Effects into the Process for Evaluating Management Regimes for Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling." Reports of the International Whaling Commission 47 (1997): 619-624.

Votier, Mark, interview. From the radio program One World: An Environmental Awareness Program for the Pacific, Radio Australia.

Transcription of an interview with Mark Votier, a British freelance filmmaker who was permitted by the Japanese Institute of Cetacean Research to video the Japanese whaling fleet in operation during the 1992/93 Antarctic season. Mark subsequently released his graphic footage of the suffering endured by minke whales speared by electric lance and was sued by the Institute for breach of contract. When asked why he took this action, he said "The moral obligation to release the pictures, so that authorities around the world could see them and judge for themselves, I felt was much greater than any contractual obligation to the Japanese authorities not to release the information. Indeed if I'd been complicit in such an ugly secret, I don't think I could have lived with that decision."

Wray, Phoebe, ed. Cetaceans, Brains, and Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Center for Action on Endangered Species.

Proceedings of the 1980 International Whaling Commission Conference on Cetacean Behavior and Intelligence and the Ethics of Killing Cetaceans.

WWF, IFAW, Greenpeace. "Report of a Workshop to Outline a Programme of Non-Lethal Whale Research in the Southern Ocean Sanctuary." World Wide Fund for Nature, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Greenpeace, 1995.

Young, O. R., M. M. R. Freeman, G. Osherenko, R. R. Anderson, R. A. Caufield, R. L. Friedheim, S. J. Langdon, M. Ris, and P. J. Usher. "Subsistence, Sustainability, and Sea Mammals: Reconstructing the International Whaling Regime." Ocean and Coastal Management 23 (1994):117-127.

Compilation provided by:

Trisha Lamb (Note: I will be in meditation retreat from September 2005 through January 2009 and will be out of communication during that time.)

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